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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted by number of followers
Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4907)
Scientific American     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 493)
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 163)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 82)
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Science Advances     Free   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Scientometric Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Studies in Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Scienze Regionali : Italian Journal of Regional Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Scientific American Mind     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Royal Society Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Scientific Data     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
SINET : Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tanzania Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Східно-Європейський журнал передових технологій : Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nordic Studies in Science Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science & Diplomacy     Free   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nuncius     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TECNOSCIENZA: Italian Journal of Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Springer Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
OmniScience : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
National Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fontanus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Образование и наука     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
THEORIA : An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Heliyon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MundoFesc     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Científica de la FAREM     Open Access  
Mutis     Open Access  
Ruhuna Journal of Science     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Revista Logos Ciencia & Tecnología     Open Access  
World Scientific Research     Open Access  
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Jurnal MIPA     Open Access  
Unnes Science Education Journal     Open Access  
Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies     Open Access  
Selforganizology     Open Access  
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Revista Catarinense da Ciência Contábil     Open Access  
Reviews in Theoretical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Temas y Debates     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Universitas (León)     Open Access  
Seminário de Iniciação Científica e Seminário Integrado de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão     Open Access  
ScienceRise     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
Open Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Revista UNIMAR     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
Revista UniVap     Open Access  
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
Sakarya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Smart Science     Open Access  
Science World Journal     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Población y Desarrollo - Argonautas y caminantes     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
MethodsX     Open Access  
Journal of Unsolved Questions     Open Access  
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Metode & Forskningsdesign     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Sciences du jeu     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Scientific World     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
SAINSTIS     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science     Open Access  
QScience Connect     Open Access  
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Trilogía     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
The Scientific World Journal     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Revista Sociedad y Economía     Open Access  
Revista Cientifica Guillermo de Ockham     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Universitas Scientiarum     Open Access  
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, The     Full-text available via subscription  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe     Open Access  
TD : The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Open Access  

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UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1659-441X
Published by Universidad Estatal a Distancia Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Comparison of indicator microorganisms in conventional or hydroponic
           tomato production systems

    • Authors: Viviana Wittmann Vega, Gabriela Davidovich-Young, Eric Wong-González, Manuel Montero Barrantes
      Pages: e4831 - e4831
      Abstract: Introduction: Consumption of fresh tomatoes has increased over the years and production systems (conventional or hydroponic), harvest and post-harvest practices, irrigation water and harvest containers, can affect the microbiological quality of the final product. Objective: To compare the microbiological quality of the cultivated or harvested fruit, the irrigation water, and the harvest containers in two tomato production farms (conventional and hydroponic). Methods: We carried out three sampling visits in each farm (repetitions), taking, in each repetition, 3 tomatoes of each type (composite sample), 50 ml of irrigation water and swabbing 50cm2 of the surface of three harvest containers (composite sample). We determined indicator microorganisms such as total aerobic mesophilic count, mold and yeast count, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms and E. coli. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes was also analyzed in fruits. We applied student's t-tests at a significance level of 5%. Results: Total aerobic mesophilic and mold and yeast counts of hydroponic tomato were significantly lower than in conventional tomato, while no difference in total coliform counts and E. coli was detected. L. monocytogenes was absent in all samples. The total aerobic mesophilic count was higher in the harvest containers of the conventional farm. In both farms, irrigation water was not considered a source of contamination since it had very low levels of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli. Finally, an adequate control during harvesting was presumed, having found no difference in the microbiological indicators between the cultivated and harvested tomato. Conclusion: Hydroponic tomatoes are more likely to have a better microbiological profile and longer shelf life compared to conventionally grown tomatoes, evidencing the importance of environmental control and cleaning and disinfection of all elements used in the farming, harvesting and postharvest processes.
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4831
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • First record for Costa Rica of the bat Artibeus inopinatus (Chiroptera:

    • Authors: Eduardo José Artavia Durán, Oscar Mario Cubero Vázquez, Evelyn Solano Brenes, Marilyn Rodríguez Árias
      Pages: e4787 - e4787
      Abstract: Introduction: The range of the the Honduran fruit bat, Artibeus inopinatus, extends in the south to Nicaragua and there were no previous records of its presence in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, which is the southern limit of the tropical dry forest in Central America. Objective: To record the presence of A. inopinatus in Costa Rica. Methods: In May 2023, we did a mist netting session in Playa Naranjo, Santa Rosa. Results: We captured a pregnant female. Conclusion: Our finding extends the southern distribution of A. inopinatus into northwest Costa Rica.
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4787
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • First pages 15(2)

    • Authors: UNED Research Journal
      Pages: e5036 - e5036
      Abstract: First pages 15(2)
      PubDate: 2023-10-24
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.5036
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Ichthyological diversity and fishing in a Kichwa community of the upper
           Ecuadorian Amazon

    • Authors: Iván Jácome-Negrete, Adelmo Mamallacta, Daryl Andrade, Fidel Rodriguez
      Pages: e4780 - e4780
      Abstract: Introduction: The diversity of fish species in the Amazonian foothills of Ecuador includes moderate-sized species adapted to living in fast flowing, well-oxygenated, stony-bed rivers. These species are still important for subsistence fishing. However, current studies of the ethnoichthyology of indigenous communities settled in the upper watersheds of the main Amazonian tributaries of Ecuador are still incipient. Objective: To characterize the ichthyological richness and the family fishing system of the Kichwa CEPLOA community, in the upper Ecuadorian Amazon. Methods: In 2020 we did a fish an inventory of in the Oglán river, mainly with cast net, and interviewed 18 community members about the family fishing system. Results: We recorded seventeen fish species, with a predominance of Characidae, Loricariidae and Cichlidae, all of them characteristic of well-conserved Amazonian foothill rivers. Local fishermen practice subsistence fishing with cast nets and hooks (mean 1,5kg of fish per catch). The anglers perceive a reduction in the diversity and abundance of fish fauna as well as in their sizes compared to the last decade, possible from the increase in fishing operations and the use of unsustainable catching techniques. Conclusion: The local 17 fish species are typical of well-preserved Amazonian foothill rivers. Local subsistence fishermen reported reduced diversity, abundance, and size of fish, attributed to increased fishing activities and unsustainable catching methods. Internal regulation may reduce the problem.
      PubDate: 2023-10-22
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4780
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Initial Limnology of Laguna Pozo Verde, Costa Rica: Bathymetry, Water,
           Sediments, and Diatoms

    • Authors: Sally P. Horn, Erik N. Johanson, Mauricio Murillo Herrera, Kurt A. Haberyan, Taber Friedel, Chad S. Lane
      Pages: e4835 - e4835
      Abstract: Introducción : Costa Rica tiene cientos de lagos, muchos de los cuales nunca han sido estudiados científicamente. Objetivo: Conocer limnológia de la Laguna Pozo Verde en el Parque Nacional Juan Castro Blanco, Costa Rica (~1935 m de elevación), para proporcionar datos de referencia para estudiar cambios futuros. Métodos: Medimos la profundidad y temperatura del agua y la profundidad de Secchi; sedimentos superficiales analizados; y examinó mapas e imágenes de satélite. Resultados: Aunque algunos la describen como formada por procesos volcánicos, la Laguna Pozo Verde probablemente se formó en un deslizamiento de tierra, que ocurre con frecuencia en esta zona lluviosa en la empinada ladera sur del inactivo volcán Porvenir. Nuestros sondeos mostraron una profundidad máxima de 9,25 m cerca del centro del lago. El agua era moderadamente transparente (profundidad de Secchi 2,6 m), con pH circunneutro y temperaturas de 15,9 a 18,1 °C, con estratificación débil a 0,5 m. Los sedimentos superficiales contenían 27% de materia orgánica y tenían relaciones C/N y valores de isótopos de carbono estables consistentes con algas lacustres y plantas C 3 ; Surirella angusta compuso más del 90% de las diatomeas. Conclusión: La laguna es significativamente más omera de lo informado y los sedimentos superficiales albergar una combinación de diatomeas única entre los 88 lagos examinados en Costa Rica.
      PubDate: 2023-10-21
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4835
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Influence of a tabletop scanner, used for digitization, on the
           determination of dose by radiochromic film

    • Authors: Walter Vargas-Segura, Anthony Cordero Ramírez, Alexander Mora-Fallas
      Pages: e4709 - e4709
      Abstract: Introduction: The precision in determination of the dose using radiochromic films as a dosimeter is influenced by three main aspects: the dose delivery capacity of the radiation unit, the response of the film when exposed to radiation, and the capacity of the scanner to digitize the films and transform them into intensity values. This work focuses on the last aspect. Objective: To establish a methodology for the evaluation of the variability of the dose due to the repeatability of scans and the position of the film in the scanning area, under calibration conditions of radiochromic films for three different resolutions. Methods: Pieces of EBT3 radiochromic films were irradiated at 11 different dose values, which were scanned at 3 different resolutions, creating a calibration curve for each resolution. These curves are used to determine dose variations due to film position in the scan area and scan repeatability; for this purpose, we measured 5 dose values per film, for each of 9 images by resolution, with a total of 27 images. Results: In the three resolutions studied, uncertainties below 1% were found due to variation in the position of the film in the scanning area and uncertainty below 2% in the case of scan repeatability. Conclusions: The values obtained from the sources of uncertainty studied were not negligible; therefore, they must be included in the total uncertainty budget of the radiochromic film dose measurement process. Working with dose values eliminates the dependence on the resolution.
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4709
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Bacterial multi-resistance to antibiotics in water from plant cavities
           (phytotelms) in a deep tropical forest from Costa Rica

    • Authors: Stephanny Sánchez-Vargas, Paula Vargas-Jiménez, Luis Vega-Corrales, Junior Pastor Pérez-Molina
      Pages: e4675 - e4675
      Abstract: Introduction: The spread of antimicrobial resistance in natural environments continues to be reported throughout the world; nevertheless, there is no study about phytotelms (water in the natural cavities of plants) in the deep understory of tropical cloud forests from Costa Rica. Objective: To detect phytotelm antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains in a Costa Rican forest and nearby town. Methods: We used the disk diffusion method to analyze the antimicrobial resistance of 10 gram-negative bacterial strains from phytotelm water collected from 10 bromeliads and 10 heliconias in both sites. Results: Three strains were multidrug resistant to more than three antibiotics in each site, and only one strain was susceptible to all antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance was similar in both environments. Conclusions: Phytotelm can be a rapid, cost-effective, and simple source for detecting antimicrobial resistance in unexplored environments.
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4675
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Nanocellulose production from pineapple leaves and palm oil rachis

    • Authors: Jairo Vargas Mesén, Karina Rodríguez Mora, Eddy Jirón García, Cesar Bernal Samaniego
      Pages: e4593 - e4593
      Abstract: Introduction: Nanocellulose, the nanometer form of cellulose, can be produced through various methods, including chemical treatments, physical rupture, or their combination. Agro-industrial waste, like palm oil rachis and pineapple leaves, is commonly used as fuel or composting in plantations. However, it is not typically used for value-added products. Objective: To produce cellulose nanofibers starting with low-energy and low-input systems. Methods: We chemically characterized pineapple leaves and African palm oil rachis and subjected them to chemical degradation and mechanical treatments, to obtain cellulose nanofibers. The fibers were subsequently degraded with acetic acid (HOAc) and characterized using visible microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Results: Pineapple leaves and African palm oil rachis had cellulose contents of 35,8 ± 0,5% and 17,9 ± 0,1%, respectively. We obtained nanofibers with thicknesses of 40nm and 10,8nm. Conclusion: The hybrid method of chemical treatment and mechanical rupture proved successful in obtaining fibrillar nanocellulose with low-concentration reagents.
      PubDate: 2023-09-18
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4593
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physicochemical and microbiological quality of coastal water in Nicoya,
           Costa Rica: comparison of three beaches with different tourism impact and

    • Authors: José R. Montiel-Mora, Eddy Gómez-Ramirez
      Pages: e4763 - e4763
      Abstract: Introduction: Socioeconomic growth has caused pressure on marine ecosystems, and there is little information that can be used for the management of beaches in Nicoya, Costa Rica. Objective: To determine the physicochemical and microbiological quality of marine-coastal water in Nicoya, Costa Rica. Methods: In October 2021, and May and June 2022, we used standard methods to assess physicochemical and microbiological water conditions, in three beaches with different administrations and number of tourists. Results: Water temperature ranged between 26,1°C to 31,2°C, salinity between 22 to 31ups, dissolved oxygen from 3,6 to 7,3mg/L, and total suspended hydrocarbon values were below the detection limit. Higher fecal contamination was found in the rainy season, with maximum values of 3,5x103 NMP/100mL fecal coliforms, 1,1x103 NMP/100mL Escherichia coli and 2,4x103 NMP/100mL Enteroccocus faecalis. Conclusion: While fecal contamination was high during the rainy season, physicochemical parameters were acceptable in the three beaches.
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4763
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Morphological characterization of native beans’ seeds from
           Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    • Authors: Patricia Oreamuno-Fonseca, José Eladio Monge-Pérez, Michelle Loría-Coto
      Pages: e4690 - e4690
      Abstract: Introduction: The rescue of common bean landraces is of importance to preserve biodiversity, and to make use of this genetic base in plant breeding programs. There are few studies about this subject in Costa Rica. Objective: To characterize seeds of some common native beans in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Methods: From April to August 2013, we collected seed samples of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) landraces (also called creole common beans) in Nicoya and Hojancha, through visits to local growers. We worked with Mantequilla, Nica, Revuelto, Sesenteno, Turrialba, and Vaina Blanca. Results: We found differences among varieties for quantitative variables, and a range of variation for weight of 100 seeds (17,16-26,52g), and for seed length (9,78-10,97mm), width (5,69-6,25mm), thickness (3,96-4,81mm), length/width ratio (1,69-1,84), length/thickness ratio (2,29-2,76), and width/thickness ratio (1,25-1,55). Conclusion: In Nicoya and Hojancha, there are significant variations among and within native bean seed landraces.
      PubDate: 2023-08-04
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4690
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Molecular characterization and Plasmodium falciparum transmission risks of
           Anopheles mosquitoes in Malete, Nigeria

    • Authors: Abiodun Obembe
      Pages: e4689 - e4689
      Abstract: Introduction: Studies on malaria vector surveillance are useful for evidence-based control in specific communities. Such studies are lacking in Malete, a rapidly growing peri-urban community in Nigeria. Objective: To assess sibling species identity, human blood indices, and Plasmodium falciparum transmission risks by Anopheles mosquitoes, in Malete. Methods: I collected endophilic mosquitoes quarterly from inhabited houses using the pyrethrum spray catch technique. I identified the mosquitoes, and probed for the presence of human blood and P. falciparum, using standard PCR and ELISA methods, respectively. Results: Anopheles mosquitoes (90%) were the most abundant compared to Culex (10%) and Mansonia (0,5%). Specifically, A. gambiae (85%) were predominant over A. coluzzii (11%) and A. arabiensis (3%). The Anopheles sibling species had generally high human blood indices (≥0,82). However, A. gambiae man-biting rates (0,92-3,64) were higher than A. coluzzii (0-0,84) and A. arabiensis (0-0,27). Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection (3%) was found only in A. gambiae. Conclusion: While P. falciparum infection was 3%, long-lasting insecticidal nets should be deployed for control in Malete, particularly of A. gambiae.
      PubDate: 2023-07-31
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4689
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Bovine meat and milk production in the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    • Authors: Juan Diego Cordero-Castro, Rodolfo WingChing-Jones
      Pages: e4578 - e4578
      Abstract: Introduction: The cattle industry in Osa Peninsula dates back to 1948, and is a significant part of local development. By understanding its current state, improvement opportunities can be identified for cattle breeding farms. Objective: To characterize bovine production in Bahia Drake and Puerto Jimenez, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Methodology: We visited production systems from August 2017 to April 2018, and made interviews on producers, land, herd and other aspects. Results: We evaluated 43 production systems in P. Jimenez and 27 in Drake. In P. Jimenez, 81% of the people in charge of the farm were men and 95% landowners (mean: 35 years of experience). Mean farm size was 88ha, with 63% of the area dedicated to pasture. Mean herd size was 77 animals, with an animal load of 1,61AU/ha. Corresponding values for Bahía Drake were 89% men, 95% landowners, 25 year experience; 79ha, with 39% pasture; 44 animals, and 1,21UA/ha. Conclusion: At both sites, most of the people in charge are male owners, and there are no marked differences in farms or herds between sites.
      PubDate: 2023-07-21
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4578
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Quality, during storage, of chicken eggs (Gallus gallus domesticus) coated
           with oil

    • Authors: Henry Castro-Alvarado, Gabriela Davidovich-Young, Eric Wong-González
      Pages: e4685 - e4685
      Abstract: Introduction: Eggs are one of the main foods providing nutrients to the world population, however, they rapidly loose quality. For the egg industry it would be beneficial to have technological alternatives to increase the shelf life, such as coatings that are applied to prevent quality loss. Objective: To evaluate the effect of the application of oil coatings on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory quality of hen eggs during storage. Methods: We applied, by immersion, coatings of deodorized medicinal grade mineral oil or palm and soybean olein with TBHQ 0,02% to category A Isa Brown hen eggs from a local producer, without prior cleaning, washing or disinfection. After a 6-hour drainage, we stored eggs at 21°C and 43% RH. We measured selected quality parameter every 7 days for a total of 42 days and statically compared trends over time for coated and uncoated eggs. Sensory analysis was also carried out using paired comparisons tests for fresh and coated eggs stored for a certain time. We used a hedonic scale for general acceptance of coated and uncoated eggs after 35 days of storage. Results: The evaluated coatings did not affect the normal behavior of the color and pH of the yolk, the Haugh units, the resistance to rupture and the total aerobic and yeast and mold counts during storage, while retarding the deterioration related to the yolk index, pH of the white and overall mass loss. In addition, the application of the coatings helped keep flavor perception of stored eggs when compared with fresh eggs; resulted in eggs with the same smell and adhesiveness as the uncoated egg; gave shine, and did not negatively influence external sensory acceptance. Conclusion: The shelf life of eggs during storage can be extended with the application of mineral or palm oil coatings.
      PubDate: 2023-07-20
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4685
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Effect of age, sex and academic level in the practice of physical exercise

    • Authors: Lourdes Arce Espinoza, Karla Rojas Sáurez
      Pages: e4660 - e4660
      Abstract: ABSTRACT. “Effect of age, sex and academic level in the practice of physical exercise”. Introduction: Physical exercise is related to various motivational factors, including: health, physical appearance, enjoyment and socialization. These motivational factors are different between men and women. Costa Rica ranks second in Central America for overweight and obesity, and has higher than average values for sedentary lifestyle. Objective: To identify the variables associated with the motivation to do physical exercise in the staff of a state university in Costa Rica. Methods: We applied an online survey to all university staff (N=3,998); it was online from October 1, 2021 to March 1, 2022. Of the 1779 answered, 71% reported some form of exercise. Results: The motivations for exercising were reported as health, physical appearance and enjoyment (stronger in younger people). Men more often reported health, while women cited enjoyment. Overall, health was the most relevant in all age groups, with values increasing over the years. Conclusion: Health and enjoyment were reported as key motivators for exercise, with health increasing in importance as people age.
      PubDate: 2023-07-19
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4660
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics of groundwater in
           Los Chiles, Costa Rica, and its association with land use

    • Authors: Paola Fuentes-Schweizer, Eric Morales Mora, Vargas Muñoz Vargas Muñoz, Kenia Barrantes Jiménez, Luz Chacón Jiménez
      Pages: e4656 - e4656
      Abstract: “Physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics of groundwater in Los Chiles, Costa Rica, and its association with land use”. Introduction: Los Chiles has one of the lowest Social Progress Indexes in Costa Rica. The inhabitants drink untreated groundwater from an aquifer across the Nicaragua-Costa Rica border. Objective: To characterize water quality and possible associations with land use. Methods: We collected six water samples from wells during the dry and rainy seasons in 2019 and applied standard tests. Results: Grasslands and bare ground cover larger areas than other land uses. The water is calcic-bicarbonate type, and its physical-chemical values are acceptable, we did not detect Escherichia coli in any sample, while we only detected fecal coliforms in La Trocha. Conclusion: If treated to eliminate coliforms and protected from other effects of human activity, this water will be optimal for human consumption.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4656
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Birds and land use in the Achiote Interurban Biological Corridor, Costa

    • Authors: Andrew Lindwedel Cruz, Alejandro Durán Apuy
      Pages: e4636 - e4636
      Abstract: Introduction: There are no previous studies about the Achiote Interurban Biological Corridor, Costa Rica. Objective: To characterize birds and land use to improve the corridor’s functional connectivity. Methods: We selected ten sampling sites (sugar cane and coffee cultivation areas, urban areas, secondary forest, and riparian forest) and used the point count technique for six months (100 sampling hours and 120 samples). We determined bird richness and abundance associated with each type of cover. Results: We identified 194 bird species. Secondary forest, riparian areas, and coffee plantations had the highest diversity. Trophic guilds and habitat use were not related to cover, and insectivores and frugivores were generally dominant. Conclusion: Birds with generalist habits predominated in open areas and forest patches within the biological corridor.
      PubDate: 2023-06-29
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v15i2.4636
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
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