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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted by number of followers
Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4355)
Scientific American     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 447)
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 127)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Science Advances     Free   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Scientometric Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Studies in Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Scienze Regionali : Italian Journal of Regional Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Scientific American Mind     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Royal Society Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
SINET : Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scientific Data     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Tanzania Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nordic Studies in Science Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science & Diplomacy     Free   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Springer Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Східно-Європейський журнал передових технологій : Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nuncius     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
National Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
THEORIA : An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Образование и наука     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
MethodsX     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TECNOSCIENZA: Italian Journal of Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Bulletin     Open Access  
Revista MundoFesc     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Científica de la FAREM     Open Access  
Mutis     Open Access  
Ruhuna Journal of Science     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Revista Logos Ciencia & Tecnología     Open Access  
World Scientific Research     Open Access  
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Jurnal MIPA     Open Access  
Unnes Science Education Journal     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies     Open Access  
Selforganizology     Open Access  
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Revista Catarinense da Ciência Contábil     Open Access  
Reviews in Theoretical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Temas y Debates     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Universitas (León)     Open Access  
Seminário de Iniciação Científica e Seminário Integrado de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão     Open Access  
ScienceRise     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Open Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Revista UNIMAR     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
Revista UniVap     Open Access  
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
Sakarya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Smart Science     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Science World Journal     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Población y Desarrollo - Argonautas y caminantes     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Unsolved Questions     Open Access  
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Metode & Forskningsdesign     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Sciences du jeu     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Scientific World     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
SAINSTIS     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science     Open Access  
QScience Connect     Open Access  
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Trilogía     Open Access  
OmniScience : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
The Scientific World Journal     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Revista Sociedad y Economía     Open Access  
Revista Cientifica Guillermo de Ockham     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Universitas Scientiarum     Open Access  
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, The     Full-text available via subscription  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe     Open Access  
TD : The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Open Access  

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UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1659-441X
Published by Universidad Estatal a Distancia Homepage  [6 journals]
  • First pages 13(2)

    • Authors: UNED Research Journal
      Abstract: First pages 13(2)
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Soft corals (Cnidaria, Alcyonacea) from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary,
           Pacific of Costa Rica: a checklist

    • Authors: José A. Vargas, Odalisca Breedy
      Abstract: Introduction: The Gulf of Nicoya is the most important estuary on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Information on the presence of soft corals is scattered in the literature and in museum collections. Objective: To provide a list of soft corals reported for the estuary. Methods: We compiled the literature (2002-2020) and of the specimens deposited at the Museum of Zoology, University of Costa Rica. Results: Thirty species have been reported for the estuary (Clavulariidae, Gorgoniidae and Plexauridae). Most were collected on the eastern coast of the Nicoya Peninsula, and several species were described based on estuary specimens. Conclusion: The 30 species represent 79 % of those reported for Costa Rica. Despite this relatively high percentage, the sampling effort has been modest and other sites within the estuary should be explored.
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3921
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Commercial Level Chicken Welfare Evaluation with the Welfare Quality®
           Project Protocol

    • Authors: Rebeca Zamora Sanabria, Jorge Camacho Salazar, María del Pilar Castañeda Serrano, Jorge Elizondo Salazar
      Abstract: Introduction: Measuring bird welfare under intensive commercial conditions is something complex. The type of housing, nature of the stimulus, exposure type and time, age, sex, assessment duration, and individual differences affect the results. Objective: Evaluating animal welfare under intensive conditions, in naturally ventilated and environmentally controlled sheds with the Welfare Quality® Project (2009) protocol. Methods: We evaluated 22 different commercial farms, 11 environmentally controlled sheds, and 11 naturally ventilated sheds during 2018 and 2019. The Welfare Quality® Project was implemented, modifying the principle of good health through the transect method. For each criterion, we applied different tests, which we transformed into scores using formulas provided by the spline function Welfare Quality® instrument. Results: 54% of the farms were rated as excellent and 46% of them were rated as good. We obtained the lowest scores in the bedding quality control tests, the lameness percentage, the pododermatitis percentage, and the Qualitative Behavior Assessment (QBA). We found statistically significant differences p≤0,05 between naturally ventilated open sheds and environmentally controlled sheds in bedding quality, lameness percentage, density, and absence of prolonged hunger. Conclusion: We recommend more research on fisheries management, conservation and environmental education; and greater integration of local and international research.
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3682
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Potential water recharge areas in the micro-basins of Cachí district,
           Cartago, Costa Rica

    • Authors: María Álvarez Jiménez, Pablo Ramírez Granados, José Castro Solís, Ligia Solís Torres
      Abstract: Introduction: Precipitation is the most important source in water recharge zones and to ensure its availability and management it is important to evaluate changes in land use. Objective: To determine the potential water recharge areas in six Cartago micro-basins. Methods: We determined hydrogeological units through gauges, and physical and hydraulic properties on the field. We used topographic curves to generate a digital elevation model and longitudinal profiles. Additionally, we produced a land-use change map and determined soil water balance. Results: The area presents good hydrogeological conditions in terms of springs, pinpointing the hydraulic connection of the units, and the soil favors water recharge in the upper parts. Above, where the springs are located, half of the land has forest cover, facilitating infiltration. The rest sustains agricultural activities (39% in the middle and lower parts of the basins). Forest areas present lower potential recharge values (approx. <611.4mm) than areas of crops and pasture (792.32-796.29mm). Conclusion: The site presents good hydrogeological conditions and areas of crops and pasture have higher potential recharge values than forests.
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3683
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Altitudinal distribution of bird richness and diversity in high altitude
           peatlands, Costa Rica

    • Authors: Paola Gastezzi Arias, Daniel Martínez Araya, Gabriela Jones Román
      Abstract: Introduction: Highland peatlands play an important role in the maintenance of biodiversity and in the functionality of highland ecological processes. In Costa Rica, information on the richness and diversity of birds in high altitude peatlands is scarce. Objective: To analyze the altitudinal distribution of bird richness and diversity in high altitude peatlands. Methods: We sampled four different altitudinal sites between 2 400 to 3 100m. Three observation points were established at each site, each separated by 100 m. The sampling included the dry season, transition to rainy, rainy and transition to dry (September 2018 to Sept. 2019). Sampling hours were between 06:00 and 09:00 and we used two methods: point count and area search. Results: We identified 75 species (25 families, 11 orders), in eight peatlands. We found the highest diversity (H'=3,12) and richness of birds (49 species observed and 56 expected) in peatlands at 2 400m altitude, and the smallest bird richness at 2 600 and 2 800m. We found 43% of bird species in all gradients to be endemic, 34% highland residents, and 14% latitudinal migrants. Conclusions: The high diversity of birds in these high altitude peatlands demonstrates that they are necessary ecosystems for the survival and maintenance of highland endemism. We recommend long-term bird monitoring to detect changes in bird communities, particularly with current climate change.
      PubDate: 2021-11-15
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3716
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Echinoderm research perspectives: A Central American bibliometric review

    • Authors: Juan José Alvarado, Sònia Fabregat Malé
      Abstract: Introduction: Central America, a narrow strip of land dividing the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, has a high diversity of marine and terrestrial species. Echinoderms are one of the most diverse marine groups with 420 reported species. Objective: To summarize echinoderm research in Central America. Methods: We compiled the literature from SCOPUS, Web of Science, SciELO, Google Scholar, Biodiversity Heritage Library, the Internet Archive and the Smithsonian Library. Results: We found 324 publications dating from 1840 to 2020; the early studies had a strong taxonomic focus, but after the 1970s, ecology, evolution and reproduction gained prominence. Echinoidea is the most studied class (38% of publications) due to its use in evolutionary studies as well as the importance of the genus Diadema in reef ecology and dynamics. Conclusion: We recommend more research on fisheries management, conservation and environmental education; and greater integration of local and international research.  
      PubDate: 2021-11-15
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3535
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The diversity and activity patterns of medium and large terrestrial
           mammals in the Talamanca Mountain Range, Costa Rica

    • Authors: Roger González Tenorio, Amy A. Eppert, Michael S. Mooring
      Abstract: Introduction: The Talamanca Range in the southeast of Costa Rica is a priority region for conservation, but its ecosystems and species are little known. The study of wild mammals can contribute to our understanding of the trophic structure and conservation needs of tropical forests, which are some of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet. Objective: To evaluate the species richness, relative abundance and activity patterns of medium and large mammals in La Amistad National Park and the Quetzal Tres Colinas Biological Corridor. Methods: Continuous monitoring was carried out from July 12, 2018 to April 18, 2021 using 18 photo-trapping stations, each consisting of a camera trap and a scent station. Results: Based on a sampling effort of 15 335 camera trap days, we obtained 36 667 records in which we detected 27 species of medium and large wild mammals, all of which are in one of the risk categories at the national or international level. The species with the widest distribution and the greatest relative abundance were Sciurus granatensis, Tapirus bairdii, Sylvilagus dicei and Mazama temama. The least abundant species, with the most restricted distribution, were Ateles geoffroyi, Cebus imitator and Microsciurus alfari. Five species were diurnal, six were nocturnal and crepuscular, and 14 species were cathemeral. The greatest species richness was found in the Premontane and Lower Montane zones, while the endemic species were in both of these zones and the Subalpine zone. Eight species had lunarphobia, six lunarphilia and six had no pattern. Conclusion: These areas protect important Premontane to Subalpine populations of medium-size and large terrestrial mammals, many cathemeral or with lunarphobia, and should continue to be monitored.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3621
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Food of animal origin and Foodborne Diseases in Costa Rica: 2015-2020

    • Authors: Andrés Cartín Rojas, Alina Pascual Barrera
      Abstract: Introduction: Foodborne Diseases (commonly known by the acronym of ETAs), significantly impact the health systems of countries. Objective: Perform a thematic search that identifies the main biological hazards that cause ETAs described in Costa Rica and relate the main foods of animal origin with which they are linked. Methodology: A search for scientific information was carried out under the modality of literary review of narrative and descriptive cohort, from June 2015 to December 2020. Only articles with description of one or more pathogenic organisms that were linked to food matrices of animal origin in Costa Rican territory were selected for this bibliographic review. Results: We identified 27 types of biological organisms associated with ETAs, isolated from different matrices of animal origin in Costa Rica. Conclusion: There is a plurality of organisms frequently associated with infections, toxoinfections and infestations in humans. With a growing panorama of increasing consumption of animal products to cope with population growth by 2050, these challenges are increasing in parallel. For this, it is imperative to implement the OneHealth concept in the productive schemes of the countries
      PubDate: 2021-10-29
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3587
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Chemical composition and biological properties in Mentha spicata under
           conventional and organic fertilization

    • Authors: Diego Ariel Meloni, José Aliçandro Bezerra da Silva, Anahí Bordón, Julia Andrea Lescano, Rosa Elizabeth Beltrán
      Abstract: Introduction: Spearmint (Mentha spicata) is widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industries, thanks to chemical properties largely influenced by genetic and environmental factors, especially soil conditions. Objective: To determine the effect of conventional and organic fertilization on the chemical and biological properties of M. spicata. Methods: We conducted field trials in a randomized block experimental design, with four replications, using unfertilized crops and crops fertilized with urea (0,15 t ha-1) or vermicompost (5 and 10 t ha-1). Results: All fertilization treatments increased essential oil yield, carvone content, and total polyphenol concentration with respect to the control. They also increased the antioxidant capacity and the inhibitory activity of the acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, α-amylase, and α-glycosidase enzymes. The effect was more marked in the crop fertilized with 5 t ha-1 vermicompost. Conclusions: Both conventional and organic fertilization increase the yield and quality of M. spicata essential oils. However, organic fertilization with 5 t ha-1 vermicompost yields rich total polyphenols and carvone. This improves antioxidant and medicinal properties, acting on enzymes related to Alzheimer's disease and diabetes.
      PubDate: 2021-10-29
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3692
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Potential ecological effects of the free-roaming horses Equus caballus
           (Perissodactyla: Equidae) on wild mammals: a review of current knowledge

    • Authors: Brayan Morera Chacón, Víctor Montalvo Guadamuz, Ronald Sánchez Porras, Eduardo Carrillo Jiménez
      Abstract:  Introduction: The horse (Equus caballus) is an adaptable large herbivore distributed in a wide range of terrestrial biomes that negatively affects ecosystems around the world.  Most research on horse–ecosystems interactions have been focused on plants and soils, whereas horse effects on vertebrate species are poorly understanded. Objective: We aimed to synthesize, at a global scale, the effects of free-roaming horses on wild mammals. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review that included these words; "feral horses + competition ", "feral horses + interactions", "feral horses + impacts", "feral horses + effects", based on the “Web of Science” internet search engine. Results: We located 366 articles in our search, but only 14 peer-reviewed documents described the effects of horses on local wild mammals. Most studies were published in the last decade (64%), and were located in United States (64%).  Additional information showed most studies used correlational approaches while experimental approaches were used less. The effect of horses on mammal taxonomic groups varied significantly, suggesting changes on habitat structure mostly affects vertebrate species such as small rodents. Nevertheless, large ungulates exhibited interference competition derived from presence of free-roaming horses. Conclusion: This review identified patterns and gaps in our current knowledge about the effect of horse presence on wild mammals, and can help to readdress further research. Therefore, we recommend careful monitoring of horses and their potential effects on wildlife by using species proxies such as ungulates and rodents to determine if the presence of horses in protected areas affects conservation objectives
      PubDate: 2021-08-19
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3488
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Bat functional diversity in two livestock production farms in Guanacaste,
           Costa Rica

    • Authors: Fabian Mora Escobar, Maria Alejandra Maglianesi
      Abstract: Introduction: Livestock activities are one of the main causes of the loss and degradation of tropical forests. Consequently, groups of organisms such as bats are affected, impacting the ecosystem services they provide. The analysis of the functional structure of bat assemblages allows to effectively know the characteristics and responses of the species in an ecosystem, thus contributing to the assessment of conservation status of the environments. Objectives: To describe the functional structure of fruit bat assemblages in two livestock farms in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Methods: Two functional traits related to body size (body mass and forearm length) were measured in fruit bats captured with mist nets in two localities (Nambí and Hojancha). From these traits, the functional diversity of the assemblages was quantified by using the functional richness index, evenness, and functional dispersion, and the weighted mean of these assemblages was calculated. To identify the functional groups of bats, a hierarchical clustering method based on principal component analysis was used, followed by the calculation of Euclidean distances. Results: A total of 191 individuals (14 bat species and two families) were captured. Of the species captured, nine correspond to fruit-eating bats of the subfamilies Stenodermatinae and Carollinae. The bat assemblage of Nambí presented greater functional richness than Hojancha, while the indexes of evenness and functional dispersion were similar in both sites. Conclusion: A higher functional richness of the bat assemblage at Nambí with respect to Hojancha indicates a greater amount of resources exploited by fruit-eating bats. Consequently, bats in this community could be providing greater environmental services compared to Hojancha, which evidences the importance of their conservation for the maintenance of ecological communities in anthropic ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2021-08-12
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3465
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Predation of a giant toad (Rhinella horribilis) (Anura: Bufonidae) by the
           greater grison (Galictis vittata) (Carnivora: Mustelidae)

    • Authors: Raquel Bone Guzmán, Javier Carazo Salazar
      Abstract: Introduction: There is little ecological information on the grison, Galictis vittata, including its geographic distribution, diet and habitat. Objective: To report the first record of this grison eating a giant toad. Methods: We examined camera trap images from January 2019 to May 2020. Results: We obtained a photo of a grison with a giant toad in its mouth, from an oil palm plantation next to a regenerating forest in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, and assumed a successful act of predation. Conclusions: This record represents the first predation event of R. horribilis by G. vittata, as well as the first record of a grison in an oil palm plantation in Costa Rica.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3524
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The impact of the Covid-19 lockdown on access to organic food in San
           José, Costa Rica

    • Authors: Olivia Sylvester
      Abstract: Introduction: The Covid-19 pandemic has led to increased awareness of food security in urban areas and to the role of farmers’ markets in providing essential services to consumers. Objective: To better understand how Covid-19 affected consumer access to organic food at two major organic farmers’ markets in the Costa Rican metropolitan area. Methods: In April 2020 after the strict Costa Rica lockdown, 52 organic market consumers completed online questionnaires regarding their purchasing and consumption patterns. Results: The majority of participants reported decreasing or stopping visits to organic markets (81%). The most frequent source of food during the pandemic was large supermarkets (52%) followed by online or direct delivery from farmers (15%). The majority of participants reported less access to organic products since the onset of the pandemic (71%). Conclusion: Covid-19 has impacted access to organic food at farmer’s markets; recommendations include greater support for direct and online delivery of organic products to increase access to health food.
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3478
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Nutritional recommendations for dog and cat commercial food in Costa Rica

    • Authors: Mario Torres Vargas, Rodolfo WingChing Jones
      Abstract: Introduction: The nutritional analysis of commercial food helps optimize its use and the pets’ nutrition, and there are no recent analyses of this type for Costa Rica. Objective: To recommend pet foods according to the physiological state, level of activity and weight of cats and dogs in Costa Rica. Methods: Products registered at the government’s Directorate for Animal Food were analyzed for nutritional information (2017) and animal requirements using three equations for cats and nine for dogs. Results: Of the average package recommendations, 71% would provide insufficient nutrition for dogs, and 63% insufficient nutrition for cats. Conclusions: Most commercial food products available in Costa Rica recommend amounts that are insufficient to meet the needs of many cats and dogs.
      PubDate: 2021-07-08
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3385
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Invasive potential of the Eurasian cricket Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera:
           Gryllidae) in Costa Rica.

    • Authors: Andrés Kobe Solares, Luis Ricardo Murillo Hiller
      Abstract: Introduction: The high nutritional value of insects, together with the facilities in the means and resources for their reproduction, has led to the consideration of the massive production of these organisms to complement the production of animal protein, and perhaps in the future replace it. However, this potential may be limited by various factors in each country's import considerations. In Costa Rica, the importation of fauna has several elements to consider, of which, the current impossibility of introducing shipments of insect species such as the domestic cricket (Acheta domesticus) stands out. Primarily, this impossibility stems from the need to present a technical-scientific study on the invasive potential of the species to be imported, in accordance with article 115 of the Wildlife Conservation Law. When the regulation was established, it indicated the publication of the protocol for the technical-scientific study as derogatory and transitory, but to date it has not been published. Objective: For this reason, a technical-scientific study protocol on the invasive potential of the domestic cricket A. domesticus was reviewed and proposed, using the national species Anurogryllus muticus as a study model. Methods: Of the 12 sensu Holdridge life zones in the country, only 3 could be considered viable for A. domesticus, so the technical-scientific study model was established with simulation of these life zones. Results: According to the environmental and climatological conditions of the country, it is considered that it is unlikely that A. domesticus will survive and prevail in the event of its introduction, based on the model applied to 
      PubDate: 2021-07-08
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3529
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Productive parameters, morphology and microbiology of eggs produced by
           Hy-Line Brown, Novogen, Rhode Island Red and Sex Link hens

    • Authors: Sianny Chavarría Zamora, Alejandro Chacón Villalobos, Rodolfo WingChing Jones, Rebeca Zamora Sanabria
      Abstract: Introduction:  Understanding how production conditions, housing systems, animal welfare, bird age, and genetics affect egg quality is important for future decision-making when producing eggs in Costa Rica. Objective: To describe the productive yields, the morphology and microbiology of the egg of birds with different genetics (HLB, NG, RIR and SL). Methods: An independent analysis of the records of each genetics was carried to estimate the productive yields. Egg, yolk, albumen, and shell weights were recorded; as well as the morphological index, the yolk index, shell thickness, Haugh Units, and the shell and yolk color, this for each age range according to genetics. According to accommodation, the analysis of Salmonella spp, Escherichia coli, total coliforms and total aerobic count was carried out. Results: The productive yields varied for each one of the genetics. The weight of the egg, the shell and its thickness increased with age. The cage system and free range showed an acceptable microbiology. It was not possible to separate the effects of the genetic components, the type of breeding and management of the birds. Conclusions: This work showed the existence of productive and morphological differences of the egg between the types of housing, age of the bird and genetics.
      PubDate: 2021-07-08
      DOI: 10.22458/urj.v13i2.3459
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 2 (2021)
       
 
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