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ISSN (Online) 2603-3925
Published by Pensoft Homepage  [58 journals]
  • A dual perspective of organizational resilience (OR) and information
           technology systems resilience (ITSR): an analysis of interdependencies and

    • Abstract: ARPHA Conference s 6: e107704
      DOI : 10.3897/aca.6.e107704
      Authors : Joanne Gardner LeGars, Jacques Simonin, Roger Waldeck, John Puentes : Contemporary organizations face a rising incidence of disasters, extreme events and crises (Boin and Lodge 2021). In parallel, the socioeconomic landscape is increasingly complex which intensifies inter-organizational dependencies and the risk of cascading failures (Ansell et al. 2021). To survive and perhaps thrive, organizations must cultivate organizational resilience (OR). However, their capacity to do so is currently curtailed. Although it is widely recognized that the performance of organizational processes, functions and capabilities is closely aligned to the effectiveness of associated information technology systems (ITS) (Schultze and Orlikowski 2004); models of OR have yet to elucidate mechanisms by which ITS contribute to resilience capabilities (Annarelli and Nonino 2016). In this conceptual paper, which is a work in progress, we reflect upon the nature of interdependencies and tensions between ITS resilience (ITSR) and OR. We adopt a deductive, qualitative approach to systematically compare OR & ITSR. Our comparative analysis is informed by OR models described by Duchek (2020), Sheffi and Rice Jr (2005) and Weick and Sutcliffe (2011), while for ITSR, we employ the Reactive Manifesto as interpreted by Bonér et al. (2014) and Debski et al. (2017).Figs 1, 2 illustrate our interpretation of each resilience construct.As may be seen on Fig. 1 we interpret OR as a three-phase process including preemptive, proactive & recovery phases each possessing associated resilience capabilities. The process may occasion three operational outcomes (or levels of resilience maturity). 1st , 2nd and 3rd order resilience denote organizations that when a disruption occurs,merely maintain key operations,rapidly achieve a return to normal operations orthat capitalize on a disruption to achieve an improved post-shock trajectory respectively.ITSR is interpreted via the notion, reactive scalability which describes an organizational system that is both responsive and scalable (Debski et al. 2017) i.e., which is able to rapidly achieve (responsive) appropriately dimensioned (scalable) adaptations to intra and extra-organizational changes.Our analysis employs a multi-level approach. The preliminary results of the analysis are presented in Table 1.Upon completion of the analysis, we will elaborate theoretical propositions pertaining to the relationship between the OR and ITSR constructs to guide subsequent empirical research to bridge the theoretical divide between these in reality, indissociable resilience constructs. This comprises the main anticipated contribution. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2023 10:00:00 +030
  • Exploring Cybersecurity Awareness and Resilience of SMEs amid the Sudden
           Shift to Remote Work during the Coronavirus Pandemic: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: ARPHA Conference s 6: e107358
      DOI : 10.3897/aca.6.e107358
      Authors : George Kassar : The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a rapid shift to remote working, creating new challenges to cyber security, especially for SMEs, which are exposed to various cyber security risks such as phishing attacks, malware, and ransomware. To enhance SMEs' resilience to cyber-attacks, cyber security awareness is essential.Resilience refers to the capacity to adapt and recover from significant disruptions or adversities, both for individuals and organizations (Masten 2018, Norris et al. 2007). It enables organizations to cope effectively with unexpected events, bounce back from crises, and foster future success (Duchek 2020, Lengnick-Hall et al. 2011). Resilience includes an adaptation aspect that allows firms to come out of a crisis stronger than before, which distinguishes it from robustness (Madni and Jackson 2009). Looking back at the peaks of the health crisis, it can be argued that the pandemic can be perceived as a "stress test" of unprecedented dimensions, challenging the resilience of business models, interconnected systems, societal institutions, and even entire economies (Tressel and Ding 2021). In the context of SMEs during the latter, resilience was perceived as their ability to face these challenges, such as supply chain disruptions, changes in consumer behavior, and government-imposed restrictions, etc. (Klein and Todesco 2021).Cybersecurity is a broadly used term, whose definitions are variable, often subjective and uninformative. One of the most comprehensive definitions refers to cybersecurity as “the organization and collection of resources, processes, and structures used to protect cyberspace and cyberspace-enabled systems from occurrences that misalign de jure from de facto property rights” (Craigen et al. 2014). Cybersecurity Awareness refers to the understanding and knowledge of these risks and the measures to mitigate them, which is considered as a crucial factor in protecting against cyber-attacks. Studies confirm that cyber awareness training can improve knowledge and skills of employees, thereby reducing the risk of cyber-attacks and leading to more informed decisions (Hijji and Alam 2022)Several models have explored the relationship between resilience and cybersecurity awareness, providing insight and useful lenses into the ways in which resilience may influence cybersecurity awareness and behaviors; two of these models are the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the Dynamic Capabilities Theory (DCT). The PMT was initially developed by Rogers (1975), to describe how individuals are motivated to react in a self-protective way towards a perceived health threat. Adapted to cybersecurity, this theory proposes that individuals with higher levels of resilience are more likely to engage in protective behaviors in response to perceived cyber threats, due to increased threat appraisal and coping skills. (Li et al. 2022). On the other hand, the definition of dynamic capabilities as originally defined by Teece et al. (1997) is the ability of the firm to combine, develop and reconfigure external and internal expertise to respond to speedily changing environment. The DCT can be applied to the field of cybersecurity risk management to enhance organizational capabilities and improve response to emerging threats. (Barreto 2010, Naseer et al. 2018)It is within this context that the present working paper scope aims at exploring the resilience of SMEs and the impact of their cybersecurity awareness amid the abrupt shift towards mass remote work during the pandemic and the subsequent increased cybersecurity risks and exposures. Accordingly, the outcomes of the observations and deductions from the literatures suggest the following proposition / belief statement:P1: In time of crisis and abrupt challenges; the most practical model would be a combination of both Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and Dynamic Capabilities Theory (DCT);as such, the relationship between cybersecurity awareness and resilience is critical, as promoting awareness can enhance the resilience of SMEs.A pilot study was conducted to test the feasibility and effectiveness of the research design and data collection methods. The pilot was based on a qualitative research design drawing on data collection through an in-depth interview with conversational style approach as described by Schober and Conrad (1997), and data analysis based on the Braun and Clarke (2006) thematic qualitative analysis. A purposive sampling was used to interview three SMEs managing owners from Beirut - Lebanon, between Dec’ 22 and Jan’ 23.The preliminary results of the pilot study provide initial insights of a practical model for SMEs based on a combination of the PMT and DCT which can help them develop a proactive approach to cybersecurity that incorporates both motivation and capability-building. Hence, four main themes emerged for developing the said approach. The 1st theme is conducting a thorough “risk assessment” of cybersecurity posture by identifying and assessing the level of potential threats and vulnerabilities using the PMT model. The 2nd theme is using DCT model to develop the “dynamic capabilities” necessary to respond to those risks, which includes investing in new technologies, training employees, and establishing a culture of awareness. The 3rd theme is “building motivation” among employees to take cybersecurity seriously, which can be achieved through the PMT model by highlighting potential impacts and rewarding good practices. Finally, the 4th theme is “continuous improvement”, which involves ongoing monitoring, risk assessment, capability-building, and motivation-building using a combination of PMT and DCT models.This work is a preliminary stage that requires further elaborations and generalizations. Yet, the findings from the pilot show...
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2023 10:00:00 +030
  • Resilience among laid-off employees in banking sector: evidence from

    • Abstract: ARPHA Conference s 6: e107233
      DOI : 10.3897/aca.6.e107233
      Authors : Patricia Nakhle : In light of extensive research examining job termination and its effects on the economy, organizations, and individuals (Anger et al. 2017, Deb et al. 2011, Hanisch 1999, Leana and Feldman 1988), this study aims to specifically explore the impact of fear and resilience on reemployment among laid-off employees from the Lebanese banking sector.Given the significant challenges faced by the Lebanese banking sector recently, resulting in a substantial number of employee layoffs, it is essential to investigate the extent to which these emotions influence the reemployment outcomes of affected individuals.To note that this paper is a conceptual paper intended to lay the groundwork for future analysis in the areas of fear and resilience, specifically in the time after job termination in the Lebanese banking sector.This paper will adopt a mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews to gather comprehensive data. The sample will consist of former employees who were laid off from various Lebanese banks during one of the most severe economic collapses.The quantitative phase will involve administering a standardized survey instrument to measure the emotions of fear and resilience experienced by the participants. Fear will be assessed by examining anxiety levels, concerns about financial stability, and worries about career prospects. Resilience will be evaluated by exploring coping mechanisms, self-efficacy, and adaptability to change. The survey will also include demographic and employment-related questions.In the qualitative phase, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with a subset of participants to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences. The interviews will explore the specific fears encountered, the strategies employed to cope with the layoff, and the impact of these emotions on the participants' job search process.The collected data will be analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Statistical analyses, such as correlation and regression analyses, will be conducted to examine the relationships between fear, resilience, and reemployment outcomes.The qualitative data will be analyzed thematically to identify recurring patterns, emerging themes, and narratives related to the research question.The findings of this research will contribute to the existing literature on the impact of emotions on reemployment following job loss, particularly within the context of the Lebanese banking sector. The results will shed light on the extent to which fear and resilience influence individuals' ability to secure new employment after being laid off. Furthermore, the study will provide valuable insights into the coping mechanisms and strategies that laid-off employees utilize to navigate the challenging job market.The implications of this research are twofold. First, it will inform policymakers and practitioners about the emotional experiences of laid-off employees in the Lebanese banking sector and highlight the importance of addressing their fears and enhancing their resilience during the transition to reemployment. Second, it will contribute to the development of effective support programs and interventions aimed at facilitating the successful reintegration of laid-off individuals into the workforce.Overall, this research will deepen our understanding of the emotions of fear and resilience among laid-off employees and their impact on reemployment outcomes. By examining these factors in the specific context of the Lebanese banking sector, it will provide valuable insights into the challenges faced by individuals in a turbulent economic environment and offer recommendations to promote their successful reemployment. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2023 10:00:00 +030
  • Data Security Threats On Smart Devices At Home

    • Abstract: ARPHA Conference s 6: e106978
      DOI : 10.3897/aca.6.e106978
      Authors : Giovanny Andrés Piedrahita Solorzano, Anderson Flórez Gutiérrez, Angie Paola Gordillo : The Internet of things (IoT) has been trending recently as a new technology for connecting devices to the Internet, from simple sensors or actuators to more powerful components with processing and prediction capabilities. Although home automation is not new, IoT has boosted domotics by allowing remote management of security and energy through mobile phones and providing new (smart) and more natural methods of interaction with home devices (Edu et al. 2019). Along with this trend, information security concerns have also emerged due to the possible security breaches and personal data access by IoT devices, or even unauthorized access to devices and their capabilities to turn on or off electrical appliances.When mobile app users skip or ignore the terms and conditions proposed by the companies, it shows how little concern exists about the use or exploitation of personal data because there is no choice, because it's difficult to understand the legal terms, or just because the threats or abuses are unknown. Similarly, the users of home automation devices (not necessarily using IoT protocols or standards) are focused on functionality but unaware of security issues due to the device's connection to the home network and the Internet.The exploration of common vulnerabilities and attacks in home automation devices highlights the need for resilience in the IoT ecosystem. As more devices become connected to the Internet, the risk of security breaches and unauthorized access to personal data increases. Developing effective countermeasures and improving awareness among users are key factors in creating a more resilient IoT infrastructure.This working paper explores common vulnerabilities and attacks in home automation devices identified in the literature, aiming to establish guides and recommendations for using them more smartly and securely.For this, we have done a preliminary review based on the results of the search equations shown in Table 1, filtering those titles which address technical issues, thus classifying them and analyzing possible countermeasures to prevent or mitigate the vulnerability at different levels.The review of the documents has led to a first classification of the results of the threats for the users, regardless of the technical source of the security breach:Personal data exploitation: it refers to gathering data related directly to the functions of the device, for example, voice patterns extracted from personal assistants, which may be used for identity supplantation, or routines analysis based on timestamps stored on each interaction with the device (Acar et al. 2018).Unauthorized control of devices: it refers to accessing the device to control its outputs (lights, locks, appliances) due to poor authentication mechanisms, communication protocols, or the lack of a secure channel between the user and its device.Unauthorized access to network resources and personal data: this is related to sharing network access data with third parties, letting them access other devices on the same network, getting personal data from the user’s accounts.Understanding the roots of the vulnerabilities help us to establish a road to further examination of its challenges and possible solutions, which are not only technical, but also regulatory, or oriented to improve the awareness of the final users. Also, the results also lead to other studies directly with the users and their knowledge and perceptions about the security issues inherent to the smart devices. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2023 10:00:00 +030
  • The Lebanese Entrepreneurial Resilience In Times Of Crisis

    • Abstract: ARPHA Conference s 6: e107045
      DOI : 10.3897/aca.6.e107045
      Authors : Nada Mallah Boustani, Sanaa Hajj : Entrepreneurship is thriving throughout the world. And while the nature and processes of economic activity and development vary widely across countries, there is widespread acknowledgement that entrepreneurship, defined as “any attempt at new venture or new business creation by an individual, a team of individuals, or an established business” (Reynolds et al. 1999) is an essential ingredient in the economic development mix (Kim-Soon et al. 2016). Entrepreneurship has time and again been shown to increase the economic development of a country, enhance job creation, alleviate poverty, and positively contribute to innovation (Romer 1994).In terms of societal development, employment and economic growth, entrepreneurship is crucial ( Shane and Venkataraman 2000). To solve societal and environmental problems including poverty, hunger, and global warming, entrepreneurship has recently been suggested to play a key role (Dean and McMullen 2007; PPorter and Kramer 2011). One of the many types of entrepreneurships that has appeared to address these problems is social (Mair and Martí 2006), sustainable (Cohen and Winn 2007), and environmental (Keogh and Polonsky 1998) entrepreneurship. The goal to become an entrepreneur and underlying motivations have consequently attracted scholarly research.What could be the context of Lebanese entrepreneurial system and contrasts that abound in Lebanon' According to Forbes, Lebanon had at least seven billionaires in the United States in 2018. According to the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan 2017–20, 106,000 Lebanese households make less than $120 per month, or $3.84 per day (www.data2.unhcr.org). Individual choices regarding whether to launch a business are framed by the Lebanese economy. A developing economy broadens consumer and commercial markets, improves access to financing, offers new business prospects, and boosts confidence to take advantage of those opportunities, which could either impede or promote the start-up. In contrast, a slowing or deteriorating economy may restrict both opportunity and confidence. However, because there aren't many other ways to make money in that weak economy, more people may decide to start their own businesses most likely in the highly competitive and simple-to-enter consumer services or retail industries.Innovative entrepreneurial vigor has been shown to greatly increase economic resilience by improving the industrial structure, reducing the income gap, and directing economic agglomeration in the face of unpredictable economic policy (Wang et al. 2021). Additionally, there were notable regional and economic heterogeneities in the effects of creative entrepreneurial vigor and economic policy uncertainty on economic resilience.This study explores the following research questions: What impact does innovative entrepreneurial actions and initiatives have on economic resilience and what is the role of the entrepreneurial ecosystem in resorbing the Lebanese economic crisis'To examine these issues, the researchers intend to first propose a theoretical framework, and review the existing literature. Second, to present the hypotheses of entrepreneurial actions in Lebanon. Third, to discuss the research methodology and questionnaire used. Fourth, the results are reported. Fifth, the key findings are discussed, practical and theoretical implications are presented and avenues for future research are shown.To demonstrate the research hypotheses, the authors will adopt a mixed methodology, a triangulation between quantitative and qualitative. A questionnaire will be sent to entrepreneurs who have already founded their business before the crisis and those who tried to create their business during the crisis. Usually, entrepreneurs who perceive opportunity and establish new organizations to benefit from opportunity (Shane and Venkataraman 2000) are viewed as agents of change who disrupt markets and build the future. To understand this attitude, Interviews are scheduled to study how these entrepreneurs have been able to resist the crisis (based on entrepreneurship resilience theory) and how new entrepreneurs have been able to create businesses despite all the difficulty of this unprecedented crisis in Lebanon and even at the international level (based on entrepreneurship innovation theory). The target audience will be entrepreneurs who have been trained by the existing entrepreneurial ecosystem in Lebanon.The entrepreneurial ecosystem can have a significant impact by aiding in the nation's rehabilitation. Infrastructure and public support are necessary for the government to carry out its protection from the economic crisis in a successful manner (Comfort 2002). In addition to the issue of crisis management in the business world the presence of the state is crucial for overcoming the crisis, and this has emerged as one of the research trends during a crisis (Doern et al. 2019). The research would address some potential ways that the entrepreneurial ecosystem could contribute include:Investing in the economy: Private companies can help stimulate economic growth and create jobs by investing in the economy (Saleh and Levy-Tadjine 2023). This could include investing in new ventures or expanding existing businesses.Supporting economic reforms: The entrepreneurial ecosystem can support economic reforms by adopting good business practices and operating transparently (Mallah Boustani and El Boustani 2017) . This can help to create a more stable and predictable business environment, which can attract investment and support economic growth.Partnering with the government: The entrepreneurial ecosystem can work with the government to identify and implement solutions to address the economic crisis (Nsouli 2022). This could include participating in public-private partnerships or collaborating on initi...
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2023 10:00:00 +030
  • Organizational Resilience: Case Study of SGPROD medical IT Company

    • Abstract: ARPHA Conference s 6: e107003
      DOI : 10.3897/aca.6.e107003
      Authors : Stephane Ginocchio : Organizational resilience has become a crucial topic in management literature (Cyrulnik and Jorland 2012) as organizations face an increasingly volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) environment (Boulay et al. 2021). In such an environment, organizations that are resilient are more likely to survive and thrive, while those that are not at risk of failure (Giordano-Spring et al. 2022). While organizational resilience is a multidimensional and interdisciplinary concept, one important aspect is the role of individuals in the resilience management process, specifically the levers of the manager-leader and associated behaviors (Frimousse and Peretti 2021).The objective of this working paper is to examine and analyze a case study of organizational resilience, with a focus on the role of individuals, particularly managers (Nekka and Assens 2020), in the resilience management process. The study is based on the author's personal experience of managing an SME medical IT company for over 20 years. The author highlights the importance of effective communication, emotional intelligence, and ethical leadership in building a resilient organization.This case study presents a comprehensive synthesis of empirical data from the author's experience and highlights key factors that contributed to the success of the organization. These factors include:Effective communication: The author emphasizes the importance of communication in building a resilient organization. He stresses the need for active meetings, a broad language specific to humans, and emotional intelligence that allows individuals to anchor their "employee experience" and "collective experience." The author notes that positive and ethical emotions can imprint relationships, define behaviors, and build a reassuring psychological environment (Brillet and Nicolas 2014).Ethical leadership: The author highlights the importance of ethical leadership in building a resilient organization. He suggests that ethical leadership generates a very powerful organizational resilience capable of resisting violent attacks, such as attempts to poach talents from the organization (Bruna and Jahmane 2020).Emotional intelligence: The author notes that emotions play a crucial role in building resilience in organizations (Berghmans 2018). He suggests that if emotions are positive and ethical, they can create a cultural bath that reveals talents and inspires individuals to work together towards common goals (Sghari et al. 2015).The research also proposes a new section of the process communication model to align management communication 3.0 with the specific expectations of Generation Z (Dalmas 2019). The article suggests that this is important in preparing for future challenges and ensuring organizational resilience.Overall, the paper aims to provide insights into the mechanisms of organizational resilience and the role of individuals, particularly managers, in building and maintaining resilient organizations (Weppe et al. 2013). It also aims to highlight the importance of effective communication, ethical leadership, and emotional intelligence in creating a positive and reassuring environment that can withstand challenges and inspire individuals to work together towards common goals (Albertini and Berger-Remy 2019). HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2023 10:00:00 +030
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