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Rafidain Journal of Science
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1608-9391 - ISSN (Online) 2664-2786
Published by U of Mosul Homepage  [20 journals]
  • Enterococcus faecalis a Major Cause of STD: A New Evidence

    • Abstract: The current study aimed to highlight the relationship of Enterococcus faecalis with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) as an uncommon cause of this infection. Thirty samples of urethral swabs were collected from male patients diagnosed by the specialist physician with sexually transmitted diseases according to clinical signs and history of the disease. The swabs were inoculated on the medium of blood and chocolate agar and diagnosed by classical methods, then confirmed using vitek-2 technique. The incidence of E. faecalis isolates was 16.6%.This study also dealt with investigation of antibiotic resistanceoofobacteriaotoovancomycin,olevofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline depending on the minimum  inhibitory concentration (MIC) using vitek-2 compact system,  and the results showed that  20 %, 60 %, 80 %  and 100 %  of isolates were resistant to vancomycin, levofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline respectively. This study concluded the existence of a relationship between this bacterium and STD by isolating it as the only cause in hypersexuality patients. 16S rRNA sequencing has been used for a more specific diagnosis, and the isolate designated as Enterococcus faecalis QaAm-IRAQ-1 was deposited in the GeneBank database under the accession number ON796012.1. The sequence similarity search using BLAST, phylogenetic analysis of the isolated bacteria was done by neighbor-joining (NB) method, the results showed that our isolate has a compatibility of 99% with many isolates including E. faecalis China, India, Japan, Germany and USA.
  • Fumigant Toxicity and Repellent Effect of Propolis Oil Against Adults and
           Third Instar Larvae of Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst),

    • Abstract: The current study aimed to evaluate the fumigation toxicity and the repellent effect of the honeybee propolis (Apis mellifera) oil at five concentrations (0.12, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50%) over time periods (12,24,48,72) hours, against adults and third instar larvae of red flour beetle. The results showed that all concentrations were toxic and repellent for both adults and larvae, the lowest concentration of 0.12% caused a significant killing rate of 79 and 68%, while the highest concentration of oil 1.50% caused a killing rate of 96 and 94 % in adults  and larvae after 72 hours of treatment respectively. The concentrations also showed a repellent effect for the adults and larvae with an expulsion rate of (- 86 , - 84) at 0.50% after half an hour of the test, respectively, and the repellency percentage increased with the increased time and concentrations. The results showed that the  adults were more sensitive to the oil than the larvae after 24 hours of treatment.
  • A new Spectrophotometric Approach for Determination of Meropenem in
           Pharmaceutical Formulation

    • Abstract:         A new, sensitive spectrophotometric determination of meropenem (MRP) the broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic has been suggested using p-aminobiphenyl amine  reagent and periodate in 6M HCl media to form one to one blue color complex with maximum peak at 716nm.The reaction is carried out at room temperature, Beer’s law is followed from 10 to 125 µg/mL, the molar absorptivity is 1265.22 L/mole.cm., LOD, LOQ are 0.0202, and 0.0673 ppm respectively, the method has been applied for estimation of MRP in vials with high accuracy (error % 0.0106) and good precision (RSD % ±0.0319).
  • Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Different uses at the Kharab Bazar
           Village in Al-Baaj District of Nineveh Governorate

    • Abstract: The physical and chemical properties for the water of three wells in the Kharab Bazar village of Al-Baaj district in Nineveh Governorate were studied to determine its suitability for drinking, animal consumption and domestic uses, as groundwater is the main water resource in Al-Baaj district. Well water samples were collected monthly from October 2021 to March 2022, It included the measurement of some the physical and chemical properties: turbidity, electrical conductivity (ec), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, chloride (Cl-) and sulfates (SO4-2).        The results of this study showed the increase and decrease values of some physical and chemical properties, including turbidity, which ranged between (0-9.88) N.T.U in wells 1,2,3 respectively, and total dissolved solids (TDS) that ranged between 383-262 mg/L in well3, and EC reached (766-523) μS/cm in well3, salinity ranged between (1-1.8) mg/L in well 3, DO ranged between (2-8.2) mg/L in wells 2,3 respectively, total hardness ranged between (160-500) mg/L in wells 2,3 respectively, and calcium ranged between (100-180) mg /L in wells 1,2 and well3 respectively, and magnesium ranged between (40-340) mg /L in wells 2,3 respectively, while chloride and sulfates reached (53.25 - 88.75) mg /L in wells 1,3 and well3 respectively, and (843 -1955) mg /L in wells 1,3 respectively.         These results reflect the geological nature of the area in which the water passes, in addition to the effect of rainfall on water quality. Turbidity, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, calcium and magnesium did not permissible the standard standards, except for EC, TDS, salinity, Cl- and SO4-2. So, these wells water is acceptable for drinking except after treatment and suitable for animal consumption, but suitable for most domestic uses.
  • Phylogenetic Analysis of 16S rRNA Gene of Burkholderia cepacia Complex
           Species Isolated from Different Clinical Sources

    • Abstract: Twenty hundred and fifty clinical samples were collected from different clinical sources for patients of both sexes for the period from October 2021 to May 2022. These samples were obtained from several hospitals in Mosul city (Al-Jumhouri Teaching Hospital, Al-Salam Teaching Hospital, Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital, Mosul specialized center for burns and surgery aesthetics and Fayda health center). Out of 250 samples, 47 samples showed no growth at a rate of 18.8%, while 203 samples at 81.2% showed bacterial growth on Maconkey agar medium. The diagnosis was confirmed by using Oxidation Fermentation Polymyxin Bacitracin Lactose Agar medium, 18 isolates were diagnosed as Bcc related and the percentage of isolates obtained reached 7.2% of the total diseased (250), which included 2.4% (6) of burns, 1.6% (4) of wounds, 1.2% (3) of urine, 1.2% (3) of diabetic foot ulcer and 0.8% (2) of sputum. Bcc isolates were characterized by the production of virulence factors, including urease enzyme, slime layer production, biofilm production, gelatinase enzyme production and hemolysin production. With percentages of (100%) 21, (100%) 21, (100%) 21 (100%), (66.7 %) 14 and (47.6%) 10, respectively. The sequencing of 16S rRNA genes were compared with the gene sequences of the references isolates in the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) within the NCBI database. A tree diagram was obtained in which the strains belonging to the Bcc group were distributed into five clusters A, B, C, D, and E at 97% similarity for cluster A, 97.4% similarity for cluster B, 97.8% similarity for cluster C, and at 97.6% similarity for cluster D, while cluster E included one isolate that was associated at 95% by using Mega 7 program and UPGMA methodThe strains HE2 and HE14 were submitted to the GenBank under the accession numbers OP218010 and OP218012, respectively. It was found that these bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics, but they showed a kind of sensitivity to the antibiotic Meropenem. The multi-drug resistance of bacteria also corresponds to their possession of efflux pumps.
  • Spectrophotometric Estimation of Sulfacetamide Sodium Using
           N,N-Diethyl-p-phenylenediamine Reagent

    • Abstract:        A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method was described for the determination of sulfacetamide sodium in an aqueous solution. The method is based on the oxidative coupling reaction of N,N-diethyl-p-phenelenediamine with sulfacetamide sodium in the presence of potassium dichromate as an oxidizing agent in an acidic medium to form a violet- colored product, which has a maximum absorbance at 546 nm. Beer׳s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 1.25-75 µg.ml-1 of sulfacetamide sodium, with a molar absorptivity of 0.76×104 L.mol-1.cm-1 and sandell,s sensitivity value of 0.03344 μg.cm-2.The relative error values are in between-2.01 and  -0.14 while the relative standard deviation values are in between 0.34 and 1.55. The proposed method was applied successfully to assay sulfacetamide sodium in its pharmaceutical preparations as eye drops and ointment.
  • Preparation and Study of a Number of Divalent Metal Complexes with the
           Ligand 2--Hydroxyphthalic Acid

    • Abstract: The research includes preparation and study of twenty-one new complexes for some transition elements such as Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II) and some non-transition elements Zn (II), Cd (II) with the amide ligand 2-hydroxy phthalic acid (L1) derived from the condensation of phthalic anhydride with 2-aminophenol.These prepared complexes were studied and characterized using the following physical and spectral methods:Micro elemental analysis of the elements (C, H, N), molar electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, infrared and electronic spectrum. The complexes were prepared in the base and neutral medium, and the binuclear complexes were prepared by reacting the prepared complexes with the halides of Cobalt (II), Nickel (II) and Copper (II).The results showed that the method of bonding metals with the ligand depends on several basic points, including the environment used in the reaction, as well as the type of metal and the type of substituted groups such as the carboxyl group (COO), OH-phenolic and –NH2 group.
  • Effect the Static Magnetic Field on some Hematological Parameters of Human
           AML Leukemia: in vitro

    • Abstract: In contrast to its relative effects on PLT and white blood cells, the percentage of the magnetic field's influence on red blood cells in this study is lower. The behavior of PLT and RBC are identical (decrease relativity after exposure) at low dose rates of 0.1 Tesla/ hr. and high dose rates of 0.7 Tesla/ hr., and they exhibit opposite behaviors to those of WBC. The ratio of PLT and RBC reaches the high ratio for both males and females at the dose rate of 0.4 Tesla/hr. So, the best exposure dose rate for PLT, WBC, and RBC is 0.4 Tesla/hr.Because these components are radiosensitive, the reversal of the AML leukemia blood components of the incident magnetic field changes. Additionally, cancer cells experience higher levels of ionization than healthy cells. Therefore, the ratio of PLT and RBC after exposure rose at the high-dose rate (0.7 Tesla/hr.). This is so because healthy cells are also included in the damage rate. It is obvious that leukemia blood samples exhibit distinct PLT, WBC, and RBC behaviors than healthy blood samples. This is a result of the increased rate of ionizations during the radiation treatment of blood samples with leukemia. This indicates that the rates of ionization for blood samples containing leukemia and healthy blood are different. The findings are consistent with the fundamental ideas underlying the phenomenon of biological radiation interaction.
  • Oxidation: The Most Common Pathway for the Pro-drugs Bio Precursors

    • Abstract: Oxidation of inactive prodrug (that their mode of action is not via linkage carrier, but occur through modification of their molecules which are called the bio precursor) to active parent drug design is generally via the methods modification strategies that aim to improve the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of drugs such as increases bioavailability, water solubility and/or duration of action.The goal of this review is to study the up-to-date advances in the prodrug’s oxidative activation such as N- and O- oxidative dealkylation, oxidative deamination, N-oxidative and S-oxidative important strategies to produce the parents’ active drugs. Oxidation reactions are of great importance and most cancerous diseases begin with these reactions.
  • The Relationship Between the Lengths of the Pole and the Iron Arm in the
           Design of the Electronic Magnetic Snorkel- Lens

    • Abstract: The dipole region is one of the most important factors in determining the effectiveness of a magnetic lens. The optimum position of the pole and the most important aspect of magnetic electron lenses are the iron covers, which are used to study the concentrations and optical properties of the display devices, where the magnetic field increases smoothly and uniformly at the highest possible value and with only one peak. The main objective of this study is to determine and reach a relationship between the length of the tip of the iron arm relative to the length of the axial magnetic pole (Z), where the pole tip was chosen at (Z = 0 mm). In practice, it was observed that the optical properties of the electron lenses showed a significant improvement when the length of the tip of the iron arm and the length of the magnetic pole were changed. The opposite of the coil as it was noted that it is possible to increase its performance by removing or reducing the magnetic flux leakage so that the axial magnetic field will then rise inside the lens in a direction that prevents its loss. The designers’ choice is when preparing the lens along the iron arm based on extensive studies and choosing an appropriate length of the pole that determines the desired function of the lens or what is known as the optical system. In this work, a relationship was established between the length of the electrode and the length of the iron arm, and FEMM and MELOP programs were used to verify the performance of the lens, the axial magnetic field as well as the focal optical properties. 
  • Study of the Effect Range on Linear Magnification in the Change of the

    • Abstract: Electrostatic lenses are designed using an array of electrodes with cylindrical apertures precisely arranged on a line of symmetry. In this research, four cylindrical three-electrode electrostatic lenses were designed, three of them with unusual geometric shapes and one with a traditional geometric shape, as the same electrical voltages and the same geometric parameters were applied to all the proposed lenses in both acceleration and deceleration modes. The optical properties of each lens designed in acceleration and deceleration modes were calculated to show the extent to which linear magnification is affected by the geometry of electrostatic lenses, and the results were compared between the proposed lenses. As the results prove that the electrostatic lens geometry has an important effect in increasing or decreasing the linear magnification range, the best lens is selected from among the four designed lenses based on its optical performance. It was found that the lens with the concave inner surface of the electrode has the best optical performance of the rest of the lenses, which shows that the concavity of the inner surface of the electrode has a direct effect on the properties of electrostatic lenses. Which lens' has the largest linear magnification range (1.0-2.4) and (1.4-3.74), respectively, in both acceleration and deceleration modes. The calculations were made using the program (SIMION8.0).
  • Temperature Calculation for Plasma Spectrum Analysis using
           Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT        A first-generation, low-cost Cherny-Turner spectrometer has been tested. Dimensions for this spectrometer were developed using industry-leading optical design software, engineering drawings, and Dimensions for Telescopes and Spectrometers (Zemax). The spectrometer's focal length (150mm) was determined. Using two (2) concave mirrors, the first woman is to collect the light radiation from the source and the second woman is to focus the rays to a (CCD) camera (Charge-Coupled-Device). The manufactured spectrophotometer can analyze wavelengths between (1000-300) nanometers. Calibration of the axes of the spectrometer using major light sources of generally known lengths, before taking measurements the horizontal axis is calibrated from the pixel system to the wavelength, and the vertical axis is reversed from count (cont) to intensity. This spectrometer has a resolution (full width at half maximum) (FWHM) of (0.7) nanometers. Spectrophotometric methods were used in the power range (15,22,38,40,44,47,50,57,58,61 W) and constant pressure (6.5 Tor). Spectrophotometers are typically used in laboratories to test plasma parameters using the optical emission method and perform calculations using the slope (line ratio) method. The objective in this research is to use optical emission spectroscopy to calculate the plasma electron temperature (Te) of an argon gas plasma.
  • The Effect of some Parameters of the Solar Wind on the Amounts of
           Clouds-Over Iraq for the Period (1988-2019)

    • Abstract: It is known that the sun and its phenomena have an effect on the Earth's atmosphere in general and the troposphere in particular Especially from this pulpit and because of the importance of this topic and the studies that included it on Iraq, there were few studies to find the relationship between some The parameters of the solar wind are represented by (the radio flux of the sun, F10.7, the magnetic field DST and the electric field Ey)  and their effect on the amounts of clouds above Iraq for the period 10/1/1988-31/5/2019. Solar wind parameters data were adopted from the official website of NASA (NOAA), at When clouds quantities were adopted from the Iraqi general authority for Meteorology and Seismic Monitoring for four different stations (Mosul and Kirkuk represent the northern region - Baghdad represents the central region - Basra represents the southern region. The data were statistically analyzed by the statistical program (Minitab 19.0), where the results showed that the effect of F10.7 is generally opposite, except for the phase descending from solar cycle 24 does not show an effect. DST is fluctuating in effect as it is reversed in the total duration and descending phase of the solar cycle 24 and is directed to the solar cycle 23 and does not show the effect of the solar cycle 22 While the electric field Ey has a direct effect for the total duration and an inverse effect with respect to the descending phase of the solar cycle 23.
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