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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Frontiers in Climate
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9553
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Key drivers of vulnerability to rainfall flooding in New Orleans

    • Authors: Patrick Bodilly Kane, Nastaran Tebyanian, Daniel Gilles, Brett McMann, Jordan R. Fischbach
      Abstract: IntroductionFuture urban stormwater flood risk is determined by the confluence of both climate-driven changes in precipitation patterns and the effectiveness of flood mitigation systems, such as urban drainage and pump systems. This is especially true in coastal cities protected by levee systems like New Orleans, where even present-day rainfall would be enough to cause serious flooding in the absence of extensive stormwater drainage and pumping. However, while the uncertainties associated with climate change have been well studied, uncertainties in infrastructure performance and operation have received less attention.MethodsWe investigated how these interrelated sets of uncertainties drive flood risk in New Orleans using a Robust Decision Making (RDM) approach. RDM is a framework for Decision Making Under Deep Uncertainty (DMDU) that leverages simulation models to facilitate exploration across many possible futures and the identification of decision-relevant scenarios. For our work, we leveraged a detailed Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) representation of the New Orleans urban stormwater management system to examine flood depths across the city when faced with different levels of future precipitation, sea-level rise, drainage pipe obstruction, and pumping system failure. We also estimated direct flood damage for each neighborhood in the city for this scenario ensemble. These damage estimates were then subjected to vulnerability analysis using scenario discovery—a technique designed to determine which combinations of uncertainties are most stressful to the system in terms of an outcome of interest (excess flood damage).ResultsOur results suggest that key drivers of vulnerability depend on geographic scale. Specifically, we find that possible climate-driven precipitation increases are the most important determinant of vulnerability at the citywide level. However, for some individual neighborhoods, infrastructure operation challenges under present day conditions are a more significant driver of vulnerability than possible climate-driven precipitation increases.
      PubDate: 2024-06-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Efficacy of climate forcings in transient CMIP6 simulations

    • Authors: Gunnar Myhre, Rachael E. Byrom, Timothy Andrews, Piers M. Forster, Christopher J. Smith
      Abstract: For effective radiative forcing (ERF) to be an ideal metric for comparing the strength of different climate drivers (such as CO2 and aerosols), the ratio of radiative forcing to global-mean temperature change must be the same for each driver. Typically, this ratio is divided by the same ratio for CO2 and termed efficacy. Previously it has been shown that efficacy is close to unity in abrupt perturbation experiments for a range of climate drivers, but efficacy with respect to CO2 has not been investigated in transient realistic simulations. Here, we analyse transient simulations from CMIP6 experiments and show comparable results between transient and abrupt perturbation experiments. We demonstrate that aerosol efficacy is not significantly different from unity, however inter-model differences in aerosol experiments are notably large.
      PubDate: 2024-06-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • The linkage between global financial crises, corporate social
           responsibility and climate change: unearthing research opportunities
           through bibliometric reviews

    • Authors: Abdella K. Chebo, Shepherd Dhliwayo, Muhdin M. Batu
      Abstract: Financial matters, corporate social responsibility (CSR), climate change, and other sustainable solutions all work in tandem. In order to provide a thorough understanding of the integration between various components during crises, it is necessary to provide knowledge of the interaction between financial, societal, and environmental aspects. In order to accomplish this, hundreds of papers were examined and presented using bibliometric analysis. The study demonstrated that, when examining financial crises in relation to CSR and climate change, sustainability issues were clearly examined. Sustainability, environmental economics, governance approaches, and sustainable development are some of the main issues in this comprehensive subject. Besides, the emerging topics that need more research include organizational resilience, global financial crises, and sustainable performance, while there are no specific themes developed in the subject matter that integrate financial crises, CSR, and climate change. Thus, future researchers need to provide new insights on the integration of these concepts.
      PubDate: 2024-06-07T00:00:00Z
       
  • Overlooked technological and societal trends that will level-up our fight
           against climate change

    • Authors: Maximus L. L. Beaumont
      Abstract: Our ability to fight COVID-19 demonstrates that where there’s a will, there’s a way. Yet proactive action will not be the single driving force behind us winning a stable and benign environment for our children. This article focuses on the not so obvious yet impactful trends affecting our ability to stave off the worst of climate change. These trends include carbon taxation, climate litigation, AI, space exploration, Direct Air Capture and an ever younger, more motivated demographic. Some trends will affect our efforts in unknown and unpredictable ways, while others will drive them with ever more force over the years to come. Carbon taxation requires a proactive change in government policy, but that change will place implementation in the hands of the free market. As we face an existential crisis never before seen by humanity, perhaps the largest driving force affecting our ability to ensure a healthy planet will be a more engaged public.
      PubDate: 2024-05-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • Promoting transdisciplinary collaboration in academia: uniting for
           climate-resilient health

    • Authors: Wajiha Qamar, Mehran Qayum, Waqar un Nisa, Nadia Khaleeq, Asma Ali
      Abstract: In a world where some regions are directly experiencing the effects of the climate change, while others are more vulnerable; this article dives into the deep and frequently catastrophic impact of the climate change on vulnerable countries. This review emphasizes the need for transdisciplinary academic collaboration, including social scientists, healthcare professionals, engineers, policy experts, and climate scientists, and underscores academia’s potential role in advancing climate-resilient health systems in these areas. The study promotes inclusive research that prioritizes at-risk groups, involves communities, and supports culturally sensible methodologies. Beyond their traditional tasks, academia has an obligation for action, learning, innovation, and change. To address the complex health concerns brought on by the planetary crisis, collaboration across academic fields and in tandem with communities, governments, and international organizations is crucial. Ongoing collaboration between academia, governments, and stakeholders is crucial to developing healthcare systems and technologies that are climate resilient. The complex role of academia involves developing pioneering solutions in healthcare for a sustainable future, advocating for policies based on evidence, and educating the next generation of professionals.
      PubDate: 2024-05-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Climate variability and change in Ecuador: dynamic downscaling of regional
           

    • Authors: Diego Portalanza, Malena Torres, Flavia Rosso, Cristian Felipe Zuluaga, Angelica Durigon, Finbarr G. Horgan, Eduardo Alava, Simone Ferraz
      Abstract: Ecuador, a country with distinct coastal (CO), highland (HL), and Amazon (AM) regions that are characterized by unique climatic, ecological, and socio-economic features is highly vulnerable to climate change. This study focuses on these three regions, highlighting their individual importance in the broader context of Ecuador's climate vulnerability. Utilizing dynamically downscaled data from the Regional Climate Model (RCM), we generated precipitation and air temperature projections for the period 2070–2099 under three different climate change scenarios. We indicate projected temperature increases across all three regions: mean temperature increases for the CO, HL and AM regions are of 1.35, 1.55, and 1.21°C, respectively. Each year, the largest temperature increases are predicted for the third quarter (June–August), with the smallest increases predicted for the last quarter (December–February). Precipitation patterns show varied changes, with CO exhibiting a positive mean daily change, in contrast to a mean negative change in the AM region. These region-specific projections underscore the differential impacts of climate change within Ecuador and highlight the necessity for tailored adaptation measures. The study's novel approach, focusing on distinct regional impacts within a single nation, offers valuable insights for policymakers, aiding in the development of effective, region-specific climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. This targeted approach is crucial to address unique challenges faced by different regions, thereby supporting national resilience strategies.
      PubDate: 2024-05-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Crafting effective oversight for the long-term storage of spent nuclear
           fuel on sites at risk of climate and coastal hazards

    • Authors: Alexander Brown, Jennifer Marlow, Julie Sorfleet
      Abstract: Despite a documented push to expand nuclear energy in the U.S., the status quo of indefinite in-situ nuclear waste storage is uncertain and increasingly threatened by climate and coastal hazards. Findings from Humboldt Bay, California, one of the nation’s most vulnerable nuclear storage sites, informed recommendations for managing emergent climate and coastal hazards. The existing legislative framework was not designed to address climate and nuclear waste interactions, but more effective oversight leveraging existing federal, state, local, and Tribal government authorities could adapt spent nuclear fuel management to a climate-changed world. More effective oversight requires updated regulations and site-specific risk assessments as well as enhanced coordination across jurisdictions, disciplines, and publics to increase legitimacy, trust, accountability, and creativity in light of failed solutions to a multi-decadal issue.
      PubDate: 2024-05-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • How does climate change affect the food security and vulnerability of
           women' A systematic review of gender perspectives

    • Authors: Monira Parvin Moon
      Abstract: In Bangladesh, vulnerable groups including women and food security are severely impacted by climate change. Due to their lack of means for unequal climate adaptation, the impoverished and marginalized in developing countries are more exposed and vulnerable. This research study looks at how Bangladesh’s food security and the status of disadvantaged women are affected by climate change. Gender-based vulnerability is rising as a result of expanding catastrophe consequences, such as decreased agricultural productivity, rising costs, joblessness, food insecurity, post-hazardous illnesses, etc., according to the literature review findings. The assessment highlights the significant risks that climate change poses to Bangladesh’s food security and vulnerable women, including increased susceptibility to food shortages and post-disaster issues, given that women in Bangladesh are more susceptible to these issues due to their social, economic, and political circumstances. The literature review demonstrates that disadvantaged groups, particularly women, are negatively impacted by climate change. Profound policy implications should propose for enhancing system performance, coordinating regional agricultural output, and fortifying resistance to climate change.
      PubDate: 2024-05-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • New characteristics of Meiyu precipitation changes in the middle and lower
           reaches of the Yangtze River since 2000

    • Authors: Li-Sheng Hao, Yi-Hui Ding, Yan-Ju Liu
      Abstract: This study comprehensively analyzed the long-term changes of Meiyu in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River with regard to precipitation, precipitation threshold, and interdecadal changes in atmospheric circulation. Results revealed obvious new features of Meiyu precipitation since 2000. (1) Meiyu precipitation shows a significant linear increase trend, with an average increment of 73.5 mm every 10 years. The increase in torrential rain is the most significant, accounting for 61% of the total precipitation increase, and its proportion has been increasing, while the proportions of light, moderate, and heavy rain in the total precipitation have been decreasing. (2) At the interdecadal scale, Meiyu precipitation and the local surface average temperature show opposite changes. Meiyu precipitation decreases by approximately 150 mm for every 1°C increase in the average temperature. This inverse correlation was not evident before 2000. (3) The saturated specific humidity in this area shows a significant increasing trend, indicating that precipitation in this area is caused by a higher threshold of atmospheric saturation and condensation, which may be a reason for the low Meiyu precipitation during high-temperature years. (4) The main atmospheric circulation in East Asia associated with Meiyu shows clear interdecadal changes, including the Western North Pacific Subtropical High and South Asian High having become significantly stronger and having extended westward and eastward, respectively, thereby facilitating the occurrence and persistence of Meiyu precipitation. The atmospheric circulation patterns associated with Meiyu, such as the Western North Pacific Subtropical High and South Asian High, have more significant impacts on Meiyu precipitation.
      PubDate: 2024-05-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Urban flash floods modeling in Mzuzu City, Malawi based on Sentinel and
           MODIS data

    • Authors: Webster Gumindoga, Chikumbutso Liwonde, Donald Tendayi Rwasoka, Pedzisai Kowe, Auther Maviza, James Magidi, Lloyd Chikwiramakomo, Moises de Jesus Paulo Mavaringana, Eric Tshitende
      Abstract: Floods are major hazard in Mzuzu City, Malawi. This study applied geospatial and hydrological modeling techniques to map flood incidences and hazard in the city. Multi-sensor [Sentinel 1, Sentinel 2, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)] Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets were used to determine the spatio-temporal variation of flood inundation. Ground control points collected using a participatory GIS mapping approach were used to validate the identified flood hazard areas. A Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) model was used to determine and predict the spatial variation of flood hazard as a function of selected environmental factors. The Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) was used to quantify the peak flow and runoff contribution needed for flood in the city. The runoff and peak flow from the HEC-HMS model were subjected to extreme value frequency analysis using the Gumbel Distribution approach before input into the Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (RAS) (HEC-RAS). The HEC-RAS model was then applied to map flood inundated areas producing flood extents maps for 100, 50, 20, and 10-year return periods, with rain-gauge and Climate Prediction Center MORPHed precipitation (CMORPH) satellite-based rainfall inputs. Results revealed that selected MODIS and Sentinel datasets were effective in delineating the spatial distribution of flood events. Distance from the river network and urban drainage are the most significant factors (p < 0.05) influencing flooding. Consequently, a relatively higher flood hazard probability and/susceptibility was noted in the south-eastern and western-most regions of the study area. The HEC-HMS model calibration (validation) showed satisfactory performance metrics of 0.7 (0.6) and similarly, the HEC-RAS model significantly performed satisfactorily as well (p < 0.05). We conclude that bias corrected satellite rainfall estimates and hydrological modeling tools can be used for flood inundation simulation especially in areas with scarce or poorly designed rain gauges such as Mzuzu City as well as those affected by climate change. These findings have important implications in informing and/updating designs of flood early warning systems and impacts mitigation plans and strategies in developing cities such as Mzuzu.
      PubDate: 2024-05-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Unlocking the potential of peatlands and paludiculture to achieve
           Germany’s climate targets: obstacles and major fields of action

    • Authors: Sabine Wichmann, Anke Nordt
      Abstract: Greenhouse gas emissions from drained peatlands must be substantially reduced to meet climate mitigation targets. In Germany, annual peatland emissions of 53 Mt CO2e account for more than 7% of total national GHG emissions. Peatland drainage and reclamation is traditionally considered as a symbol of progress and technical achievement, where agriculture has been the major driver. In Germany, an area of 1.3 million ha of drained peatlands used for agriculture ought to be rewetted by 2050 to meet the 1.5°C target of the Paris Agreement. Paludiculture allows a productive use of wet peatlands instead of abandonment following rewetting. This approach might therefore pave the way for voluntary large-scale peatland rewetting. However, implementation remains scarce. The long history and large extent of peatland drainage has shaped the political and legal framework as well as perceptions and attitudes, thus impeding rewetting and climate-friendly peatland use. This policy and practice review investigates the political, legal, economic and social aspects that hinder the implementation in Germany and derives approaches to overcome multifold restrictions. Finally, three major fields of action are identified: (1) To increase and accelerate rewetting, a consistent peatland mainstreaming approach is needed that overcomes structural barriers and adapts the policy and legal framework, e.g., the Common Agricultural Policy, planning law, water law and nature conservation law. (2) To motivate for a rapid transition, a system of immediate, comprehensive and attractive positive incentives is needed. This should be accompanied by early announcement and gradual introduction of negative incentives to set a clear course and provide planning certainty for farmers and landowners. (3) A just transition depends on empowering local communities to develop and pursue perspectives tailored to their peatland region. Future research of peatlands as social-ecological systems can help to identify region-specific drivers for sustainable peatland management.
      PubDate: 2024-05-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Expert insights into future trajectories: assessing cost reductions and
           scalability of carbon dioxide removal technologies

    • Authors: Manon Abegg, Zeynep Clulow, Lucrezia Nava, David M. Reiner
      Abstract: IntroductionTo achieve net-zero targets, it is essential to evaluate and model the costs and scalability of emerging carbon dioxide removal technologies like direct air capture with CO2 storage (DACCS) and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). Yet such efforts are often impeded by varying assessments of the climate impact and potential contributions of these technologies. This study explores the future costs and scalability of DACCS and BECCS to advance net-zero goals.MethodsWe analyze expert opinions on these technologies’ potential costs and deployment scales for 2030, 2040, and 2050. Data was collected from 34 experts, comprising 21 DACCS and 13 BECCS specialists. They provided 90% confidence interval estimates and ‘best estimates’ for future costs and deployment under two International Energy Agency (IEA) policy scenarios—Stated Policies (STEPS) and Net Zero Emissions by 2050 (NZE).ResultsWe find that BECCS costs start at a lower level but decrease more slowly, whereas DACCS costs decline more steeply from a higher initial cost. However, DACCS estimates varied significantly among experts, showing no convergence over time. Regarding potential scalability, both technologies are associated with substantially higher deployment under the NZE scenario. Yet the combined estimated capacity of DACCS and BECCS by 2050 is only about a quarter of the CO2 removals projected by the IEA for its NZE scenario (1.9 GtCO2).DiscussionThis study provides valuable insights into the future of DACCS and BECCS technologies in Europe, especially since our experts expect that DACCS and BECCS costs will be even higher (and deployment scales lower) than those predicted by recent IEA tracking, opening future research directions.
      PubDate: 2024-05-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Overlaps of indigenous knowledge and climate change mitigation: evidence
           from a systematic review

    • Authors: Nelson Chanza, Walter Musakwa, Clare Kelso
      Abstract: There is now increasing acknowledgement of the role of indigenous and local people (ILP) in climate change, particularly in impact assessment, mitigation and adaptation. However, the methods and ways on how exactly indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) can be used in climate change action largely remain fragmented. While a growing share of scholarship has addressed the overlaps between ILK and adaptation, limited attention has been given on practical ways of working with indigenous communities to enhance knowledge of implementing mitigation actions. Without clearly articulated indigenous-sensitive methods for ILK integration in mitigation science, holders and users of this knowledge may remain at the boundaries of climate change action. Their knowledge and experiences may not be used to guide effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction activities. There are also fears that hurriedly and poorly developed mitigation projects that ignore indigenous and local communities may infringe their customary rights and livelihoods. To contribute to improved guidance on meaningful involvement of ILP in climate change mitigation, this study used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) to systematically review literature that links ILK and climate mitigation. We do this by (a) Identifying case studies that examine the overlaps of ILK and climate change mitigation from Scopus and Web of Science databases (n = 43); (b) analysing the methods used for engaging indigenous people in these studies; (c) determining the knowledge, ways, practices and experiences of ILP that show mitigation benefits; and (d) highlighting the direction for participatory engagement of ILP in mitigation research and practice. We have added to the emerging but fast growing knowledge on the overlaps of ILK and climate change mitigation. This intersection is evident in three ways: (a) Validation and application of concepts used to understand carbon sequestration; (b) GHG emission reduction mainly from natural resource dependent livelihoods involving ILP; and (c) the application of participatory methodologies in research and the practice of climate change mitigation. We conclude that studies that focus on the intersection of ILK and climate mitigation need to use indigenous-sensitive methodologies to give more benefits for climate mitigation objectives while recognising the rights of ILP.
      PubDate: 2024-05-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Scaling carbon removal systems: deploying direct air capture amidst
           Canada’s low-carbon transition

    • Authors: Stephanie Rose Cortinovis, Neil Craik, Juan Moreno-Cruz, Kasra Motlaghzadeh, Vanessa Schweizer
      Abstract: Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies, such as direct air carbon capture and storage (DACCS), will be critical in limiting the rise of the average global temperature over the next century. Scaling up DACCS technologies requires the support of a complex array of policies and infrastructure across multiple overlapping policy areas, such as climate, energy, technology innovation and resource management. While the literature on DACCS and other CDR technologies acknowledges the path-dependent nature of policy development, it has tended to focus on abstract policy prescriptions that are not rooted in the specific political, social and physical (infrastructural) context of the implementing state. To address this gap, this paper provides a country-level study of the emerging DACCS policy regime in Canada. Drawing on the existing literature that identifies idealized (acontextual) policy objectives that support DACCS development and effective regulation, we identify the actionable policy objectives across six issue domains: general climate mitigation strategies; energy and resource constraints; carbon storage and transport regulation and infrastructure; financing scale-up and supporting innovation; removal and capture technology availability and regulation; and addressing social acceptability and public interest. Using a database of Canadian climate policies (n = 457), we identify policies within the Canadian (federal and provincial) policy environment that map to the idealized policy objectives within each of these domains. This exercise allows us to analyze how key policy objectives for DACCS development are represented within the Canadian system, and enables us to identify potential niches, and landscape influences within the system, as well as gaps and potential barriers to the system transition process. This paper contributes to our understanding of national DACCS policy development by providing a framework for identifying components of the DAC system and linking those components to desired policy outcomes and may provide a basis for future cross-country comparisons of national-level DACCS policy.
      PubDate: 2024-05-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Comparative analysis of the variability and impacts of tropical cyclones
           in flood-prone areas of Zimbabwe

    • Authors: More-Grace Hungwe, Webster Gumindoga, Oscar Manuel Baez Villanueva, Donald T. Rwasoka
      Abstract: Tropical cyclones (TCs) are extreme meteorological events that cause significant deaths, infrastructure damage, and financial losses around the world. In recent years, the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe's have become increasingly vulnerable to TCs caused by Indian Ocean tropical cyclones making landfall more frequently. There is still a limited understanding of the phenomenon and the quantification of its impacts. The aim of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis of the variability in the severity of tropical cyclones by analysing historical storm tracks and mapping the environmental impacts in Zimbabwe's Chimanimani and Chipinge districts. Results indicate that, between 1945 and 2022, the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe experienced 5 of the total 865 cyclones in the Southwest Indian Ocean. The maximum sustained winds from the Cyclone Idai in the Eastern Highlands were recorded as 195 km/h. Some of the remote sensing-based indices used to extract spatial information about the condition of vegetation, wetlands, built-up area, and bar land during pre and post cyclonic events included the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI). Analysis of NDVI in the Eastern Highlands revealed that there was a significant decrease in vegetated area because of the cyclone impact, with a decrease of 2.1% and 16.68% for cyclone Japhet and Idai respectively. The MNDWI shows a 10.74% increase in water content after cyclone Eline. Field validation in 2019 confirms the research findings. An Operations Dashboard Disaster Management System was developed in order to disseminate information to the affected stakeholders about the potential risk that the face due to the occurrence of the natural phenomena.
      PubDate: 2024-05-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Examining climate trends and patterns and their implications for
           agricultural productivity in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

    • Authors: Paschal Mugabe, Harison Kipkulei, Stefan Sieber, Emmanuel Mhache, Katharina Löhr
      Abstract: Climate variability impacts various global challenges, including food security, biodiversity loss, water scarcity, and human well-being. However, climate patterns and trends and community perceptions at spatially-explicit levels have been minimally addressed. The spatial and temporal trends of climate conditions in Bagamoyo District in Tanzania were examined using historical (1983–2010) and projected (2022–2050) meteorological and climate model data, respectively. Community knowledge and experiences of past climate occurrences were included. The implications of projected climate change for regional agricultural production and food security were assessed. The study drew on empirical data obtained from household surveys conducted in seven villages in the district. Effectively, 309 households were randomly sampled across the villages to provide the perception of climate change and associated impacts on agriculture and livelihoods. Both qualitative and quantitative statistical techniques were employed to analyse the incidence, frequency, and intensity of regional extreme climate events. The meteorological and climate modelling data were subjected to trend analysis using the Mann–Kendall and Sen’s slope estimator tests, and the present and projected spatial and temporal trends of climatic variables in the region were analysed. The household-based questionnaire results were combined with climate modelling and the literature to determine the implications of climate change for regional agricultural production and food security. The results revealed that local knowledge and climate model data strongly concur on regional climate changes. Furthermore, the region is highly likely to experience increased warming and decreased precipitation at varying magnitudes. The shifts in climate trends and patterns are anticipated to greatly impact agricultural production, affecting livelihoods and hampering food security efforts. Recommendations include adopting context-specific measures and tailored strategies for enhancing resilience throughout the entire region.
      PubDate: 2024-05-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Economic evaluation of decarbonizing the electricity sector in the
           Dominican Republic

    • Authors: Luis Victor-Gallardo, Susana Solórzano-Jiménez, Lucía Rodríguez-Delgado, Jessica Roccard, Jairo Quirós-Tortós, Rafael Gómez, Maribel Dionicio, Hector Baldivieso, Benoit Lefevre
      Abstract: This paper presents an in-depth analysis of decarbonizing the electricity sector in the Dominican Republic, pivotal for addressing climate change and fostering economic growth. Employing the robust-decision making methodology, we studied multiple scenarios via computational models, capturing inputs from stakeholders and evaluating each scenario across 1,000 futures to capture deep uncertainty. Four scenarios were examined: baseline, reference, natural gas, and renewable. The renewable scenario emerged as the most advantageous, proposing the replacement of coal-fired power generation with renewable sources, primarily solar and wind, coupled with batteries. A significant investment, averaging US$3.3 billion, is necessary for this shift toward renewable energy; however, these investments are overcompensated by savings in operational costs. Crucially, this transition promises substantial benefits by 2050: an estimated cumulative average net economic gain of US$2.7 billion, an 8% reduction in average generation costs in 2050, the creation of 160,000 direct jobs, and the avoidance of circa 140 million tons of CO2. The findings underscore the feasibility and economic viability of transitioning to a 55% renewable energy generation by 2050. The study offers a critical roadmap for policymakers, highlighting renewable energy expansion, transmission grid strengthening, and strategic coal generation replacement, thus offering a comprehensive blueprint for the nation's energy transition.
      PubDate: 2024-05-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • Climatic characteristics of various tracks of tropical cyclones and their
           impact on rainfall in Qingdao during 1949–2020

    • Authors: Yan Ma, Lina Guo, Yan Hao
      Abstract: The climatic characteristics of tropical cyclones affecting Qingdao, China, were analyzed from the aspects of frequency, period, and intensity of the tropical cyclones and their impact on rainfall in Qingdao by referring to the Typhoon Yearbook, the tropical cyclone data of China during 1949–2020 as well as surface meteorological observations. The results showed that the frequency of tropical cyclones affecting Qingdao during 1949–2020 took on an overall decreasing trend and mostly exhibited a significant variation period of 2–4 year. Tropical cyclones with the track of turning after landfall and continuing northward after landfall accounted for 47.9%. In July, there were tropical cyclones mainly followed tracks of continuing northward after landfall, and tracks turning after landfall mostly occurred in September. The intensity of the tropical cyclones showed an overall weakening feature with distinct inter-decadal variations, and it did not change much when the northward tropical cyclones close affecting Qingdao. The different track of tropical cyclones had spatially heterogeneous, strong rainfall in Qingdao with the track of continuing northward after landfall brought the highest daily and process rainfall to Qingdao, while the tropical cyclones turning nearshore or advancing offshore before landfall had relatively little rainfall.
      PubDate: 2024-05-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Job creation and decarbonization synergies in Latin America: a
           simulation-based exploratory modeling analysis

    • Authors: Fernando Esteves, Edmundo Molina-Perez, Nidhi Kalra, James Syme, Adrien Vogt-Schilb
      Abstract: This study employs an Input–Output simulation model to assess the potential employment effects resulting from investments in 40 sector-specific decarbonization transformations across Latin America and the Caribbean. Using a Multi-region Input–Output framework (Eora26), our findings indicate that investments in energy production and buildings sectors offer promising job creation opportunities, averaging 5.5 total jobs per $1 million invested. Similarly, in the waste, industry and agriculture, forestry, and land use sectors demonstrate significant potential, yielding approximately 5 total jobs per $1 million. The analysis models investments as demand vectors, producing results for 17 countries in the region. These estimates endogenize the diverse economic structure and state of development of these countries. We argue that country-level analysis is needed to identify climate strategies that maximize job creation while achieving net-zero emissions.
      PubDate: 2024-05-10T00:00:00Z
       
  • Interactions within climate policyscapes: a network analysis of the
           electricity generation space in the United Kingdom, 1956–2022

    • Authors: Valeria Zambianchi, Katja Biedenkopf
      Abstract: The systems of policies impacting climate change mitigation are complex. Yet, to date, we have limited conceptual and empirical knowledge on the dynamics within these. We address this gap by employing a systems lens to untangle the interactions between the policies affecting climate change mitigation in the electricity generation space. We conceptualise climate policyscapesfor electricity generation as systems populated with policies whose means impact decarbonisation in the electricity generation space. The impacts under analysis include both support and obstruction of climate change mitigation. We analyse the evolution of the UK climate policyscape from 1956 to 2022. Methodologically, we combine qualitative content analysis and network analysis. We populate the policyscapes with pieces of legislation in the electricity generation space and employ qualitative content analysis to identify the policy means affecting climate change mitigation. Our network analysis of the 2022 climate policyscape reveals that policies hindering climate mitigation remain largely present, which renders the climate policyscape incoherent. We show that policies supporting mitigation are more likely to behave as a group than policies hindering climate mitigation. Climate policies tend to be adopted as packages, whilst fossil policies remain a steady process throughout the history of the UK climate policyscape.
      PubDate: 2024-05-09T00:00:00Z
       
 
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