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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 201 - 265 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
LOGIKA Jurnal Ilmiah Lemlit Unswagati Cirebon     Open Access  
Makara Journal of Science     Open Access  
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Maskana     Open Access  
MethodsX     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Metode & Forskningsdesign     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Middle East Journal of Science     Open Access  
Middle European Scientific Bulletin     Open Access  
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
MUST : Journal of Mathematics Education, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Mutis     Open Access  
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
National Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Natural Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal  
Naturen     Full-text available via subscription  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Studies in Science Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nova     Open Access  
Nuncius     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
OmniScience : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Open Conference Proceedings Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Orbis Cógnita : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Patterns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PENDIPA : Journal of Science Education     Open Access  
People and Nature     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Población y Desarrollo - Argonautas y caminantes     Open Access  
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, The     Full-text available via subscription  
QScience Connect     Open Access  
RAC: Revista Angolana de Ciências     Open Access  
Rafidain Journal of Science     Open Access  
Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Rekayasa     Open Access  
Reportes Científicos de la FaCEN     Open Access  
Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences     Open Access  
Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Research Integrity and Peer Review     Open Access  
Research Policy : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Respuestas     Open Access  
Reviews in Theoretical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Bases de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Revista Binacional Brasil - Argentina: Diálogo entre as ciências     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Iniciação Científica     Open Access  
Revista Catarinense da Ciência Contábil     Open Access  
Revista Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Ciência, Tecnologia & Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Científica de la FAREM     Open Access  
Revista Científica de la Universidad Nacional del Este     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Cientifica Guillermo de Ockham     Open Access  
Revista Científica y Tecnológica UPSE     Open Access  
Revista Conhecimento Online     Open Access  
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de Información Científica     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de la Sociedad Científica del Paraguay     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica Ludus Scientiae     Open Access  
Revista Logos Ciencia & Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista MundoFesc     Open Access  
Revista Politécnica     Open Access  
Revista Saber Digital     Open Access  
Revista Sociedad y Economía     Open Access  
Revista Tecnológica     Open Access  
Revista Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista UNIMAR     Open Access  
Revista UniVap     Open Access  
Revista Vivências em Ensino de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rihan Journal for Scientific Publishing     Open Access  
Royal Society Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ruhuna Journal of Science     Open Access  
Sainstek : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
SAINSTIS     Open Access  
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Sakarya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies     Open Access  
Sci     Open Access  
Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4369)
Science & Diplomacy     Free   (Followers: 3)
Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science Advances     Free   (Followers: 28)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science Diliman     Open Access  
Science Heritage Journal     Open Access  
Science World Journal     Open Access  
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ScienceRise     Open Access  
Sciences du jeu     Open Access  
Sciential     Open Access  
Scientific African     Open Access  
Scientific American     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 449)
Scientific American Mind     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Scientific Bulletin     Open Access  
Scientific Data     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scientific Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Scientific World     Open Access  
Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scienze Regionali : Italian Journal of Regional Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Selforganizology     Open Access  
Seminário de Iniciação Científica e Seminário Integrado de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão     Open Access  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
SINET : Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Smart Science     Open Access  
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South American Sciences     Open Access  
South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Springer Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Studies in Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Science     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
TD : The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Open Access  
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TECNOSCIENZA: Italian Journal of Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Temas y Debates     Open Access  
The Innovation     Open Access  
The Scientific World Journal     Open Access  
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Winnower     Open Access  
Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
THEORIA : An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Trilogía     Open Access  
TÜBAV Bilim Dergisi     Open Access  
Türk Bilim ve Mühendislik Dergisi     Open Access  
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe     Open Access  
Uluslararası Bilimsel Araştırmalar Dergisi (IBAD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Uni-pluriversidad     Open Access  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
Universidad, Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Universitas (León)     Open Access  
Universitas Scientiarum     Open Access  
Unnes Science Education Journal     Open Access  
Vilnius University Proceedings     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
WikiJournal of Science     Open Access  
World Scientific Research     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Образование и наука     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Східно-Європейський журнал передових технологій : Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Frontiers in Climate
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9553
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Horizon Scan on the Benefits of Ocean Seasonal Forecasting in a Future of
           Increasing Marine Heatwaves for Aotearoa New Zealand

    • Authors: Craig L. Stevens, Claire M. Spillman, Erik Behrens, Niall Broekhuizen, Paula Holland, Yvonne Matthews, Ben Noll, Joanne M. O'Callaghan, Neelesh Rampal, Robert Owain Smith, Iman Soltanzadeh, Leigh W. Tait, David I. Taylor, François Thoral, Erica Williams
      Abstract: With climate heating, Aotearoa New Zealand is expected to experience more marine heatwaves (MHW) in the coming decades. These extreme events are already impacting the island nation's marine and coastal environments and marine industries at a variety of scales. There will potentially be substantial benefits in developing an early warning system–specifically ocean seasonal forecast tools. This near-term 2,030 horizon scan reviews studies supporting the development of this capability and notes work needed to enable stakeholders to benefit from this knowledge. Review findings congregate around six themes; (1) MHW impacts, (2) mechanistic understanding, (3) observational basis, (4) seasonal forecast tools, (5) supporting Te Tiriti (The Treaty of Waitangi) and Māori aspirations, and (6) end-user engagement. The primary recommendation is a cross-institutional, cross-sector MHW Taskforce that would address, in a coordinated and effective fashion, the real, multi-faceted challenges associated with the committed pathway of warming. A range of sub-recommendations follow that connect with the United Nations Ocean Decade initiative.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Democratizing Glacier Data – Maturity of Worldwide Datasets and
           Future Ambitions

    • Authors: Isabelle Gärtner-Roer, Samuel U. Nussbaumer, Bruce Raup, Frank Paul, Ethan Welty, Ann K. Windnagel, Florence Fetterer, Michael Zemp
      Abstract: The creation and curation of environmental data present numerous challenges and rewards. In this study, we reflect on the increasing amount of freely available glacier data (inventories and changes), as well as on related demands by data providers, data users, and data repositories in-between. The amount of glacier data has increased significantly over the last two decades as remote sensing techniques have improved and free data access is much more common. The portfolio of observed parameters has increased as well, which presents new challenges for international data centers, and fosters new expectations from users. We focus here on the service of the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) as the central organization for standardized data on glacier distribution and change. Within GTN-G, different glacier datasets are consolidated under one umbrella, and the glaciological community supports this service by actively contributing their datasets and by providing strategic guidance via an Advisory Board. To assess each GTN-G dataset, we present a maturity matrix and summarize achievements, challenges, and ambitions. The challenges and ambitions in the democratization of glacier data are discussed in more detail, as they are key to providing an even better service for glacier data in the future. Most challenges can only be overcome in a financially secure setting for data services and with the help of international standardization as, for example, provided by the CoreTrustSeal. Therefore, dedicated financial support for and organizational long-term commitment to certified data repositories build the basis for the successful democratization of data. In the field of glacier data, this balancing act has so far been successfully achieved through joint collaboration between data repository institutions, data providers, and data users. However, we also note an unequal allotment of funds for data creation and projects using the data, and data curation. Considering the importance of glacier data to answering numerous key societal questions (from local and regional water availability to global sea-level rise), this imbalance needs to be adjusted. In order to guarantee the continuation and success of GTN-G in the future, regular evaluations are required and adaptation measures have to be implemented.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Misapplication of Conventional Economic Analysis to Climate Change From
           

    • Authors: Kozo Mayumi, Ansel Renner
      Abstract: A critical reflection over the latest comprehensive reporting efforts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests that applications of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) to climate change, acts which importantly include the monetary calculation of the social cost of carbon (SCC), do not bring about the avoidance or mitigation of pervasive and irreversible climate change issues, issues which could likely continue on a multi-century to millennial time scale. This paper presents, first, a consideration of the most recent IPCC reports that indicated various contemporary problems and threats both to socioeconomic systems and ecosystems on this planet if and when CBA is uncritically applied to climate change issues. Following, a critical reexamination of three crucial concepts, namely, scarcity, discounting and substitution, is made in view of the roles they play in the theoretical foundation of conventional economics. Climate change is shown to be far beyond the scope of these concepts, hence far beyond the scope of CBA and the SCC approach. A discussion of a general alternative approach to addressing climate change issues is presented—one grounded in post-normal science that acknowledges the critical role deep uncertainty plays in many aspects of climate change issues. Reflecting on the need for such an approach and the shortcomings of past, conventional approaches suggests that establishing a process of social resolution of fundamental problems, including participation and mutual learning among relevant stakeholders, rather than a definite solution or technological implementation, is absolutely necessary. A critical study on many aspects of uncertainty is required for reaching constructive disagreement among stakeholders
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Corrigendum: Self-Organizing Maps Identify Windows of Opportunity for
           Seasonal European Summer Predictions

    • Authors: Julianna Carvalho-Oliveira, Leonard F. Borchert, Eduardo Zorita, Johanna Baehr
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Cation Exchange in Smectites as a New Approach to Mineral Carbonation

    • Authors: Nina Zeyen, Baolin Wang, Siobhan A. Wilson, Carlos Paulo, Amanda R. Stubbs, Ian M. Power, Matthew Steele-Maclnnis, Antonio Lanzirotti, Matthew Newville, David J. Paterson, Jessica L. Hamilton, Thomas R. Jones, Connor C. Turvey, Gregory M. Dipple, Gordon Southam
      Abstract: Mineral carbonation of alkaline mine residues is a carbon dioxide removal (CDR) strategy that can be employed by the mining industry. Here, we describe the mineralogy and reactivity of processed kimberlites and kimberlite ore from Venetia (South Africa) and Gahcho Kué (Canada) diamond mines, which are smectite-rich (2.3–44.1 wt.%). Whereas, serpentines, olivines, hydrotalcites and brucite have been traditionally used for mineral carbonation, little is known about the reactivity of smectites to CO2. The smectite from both mines is distributed as a fine-matrix and is saponite, Mx/mm+Mg3(AlxSi4−x)O10(OH)2·nH2O, where the layer charge deficiency is balanced by labile, hydrated interlayer cations (Mm+). A positive correlation between cation exchange capacity and saponite content indicates that smectite is the most reactive phase within these ultramafic rocks and that it can be used as a source of labile Mg2+ and Ca2+ for carbonation reactions. Our work shows that smectites provide the fast reactivity of kimberlite to CO2 in the absence of the highly reactive mineral brucite [Mg(OH)2]. It opens up the possibility of using other, previously inaccessible rock types for mineral carbonation including tailings from smectite-rich sediment-hosted metal deposits and oil sands tailings. We present a decision tree for accelerated mineral carbonation at mines based on this revised understanding of mineralogical controls on carbonation potential.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Open Citizen Science Data and Methods

    • Authors: Carolynne Hultquist, Alex de Sherbinin, Anne Bowser, Sven Schade
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • Geochemical Negative Emissions Technologies: Part I. Review

    • Authors: James S. Campbell, Spyros Foteinis, Veronica Furey, Olivia Hawrot, Daniel Pike, Silvan Aeschlimann, Cara N. Maesano, Paul L. Reginato, Daniel R. Goodwin, Loren L. Looger, Edward S. Boyden, Phil Renforth
      Abstract: Over the previous two decades, a diverse array of geochemical negative emissions technologies (NETs) have been proposed, which use alkaline minerals for removing and permanently storing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Geochemical NETs include CO2 mineralization (methods which react alkaline minerals with CO2, producing solid carbonate minerals), enhanced weathering (dispersing alkaline minerals in the environment for CO2 drawdown) and ocean alkalinity enhancement (manipulation of ocean chemistry to remove CO2 from air as dissolved inorganic carbon). CO2 mineralization approaches include in situ (CO2 reacts with alkaline minerals in the Earth's subsurface), surficial (high surface area alkaline minerals found at the Earth's surface are reacted with air or CO2-bearing fluids), and ex situ (high surface area alkaline minerals are transported to sites of concentrated CO2 production). Geochemical NETS may also include an approach to direct air capture (DAC) that harnesses surficial mineralization reactions to remove CO2 from air, and produce concentrated CO2. Overall, these technologies are at an early stage of development with just a few subjected to field trials. In Part I of this work we have reviewed the current state of geochemical NETs, highlighting key features (mineral resources; processes; kinetics; storage durability; synergies with other NETs such as DAC, risks; limitations; co-benefits, environmental impacts and life-cycle assessment). The role of organisms and biological mechanisms in enhancing geochemical NETs is also explored. In Part II, a roadmap is presented to help catalyze the research, development, and deployment of geochemical NETs at the gigaton scale over the coming decades.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • How Climate Extremes Influence Conceptual Rainfall-Runoff Model
           Performance and Uncertainty

    • Authors: Andrew Watson, Guy Midgley, Patrick Ray, Sven Kralisch, Jörg Helmschrot
      Abstract: Rainfall-runoff models are frequently used for assessing climate risks by predicting changes in streamflow and other hydrological processes due to anticipated anthropogenic climate change, climate variability, and land management. Historical observations are commonly used to calibrate empirically the performance of conceptual hydrological mechanisms. As a result, calibration procedures are limited when extrapolated to novel climate conditions under future scenarios. In this paper, rainfall-runoff model performance and the simulated catchment hydrological processes were explored using the JAMS/J2000 model for the Berg River catchment in South Africa to evaluate the model in the tails of the current distribution of climatic conditions. An evolutionary multi-objective search algorithm was used to develop sets of parameters which best simulate “wet” and “dry” periods, providing the upper and lower bounds for a temporal uncertainty analysis approach to identify variables which are affected by these climate extremes. Variables most affected included soil-water storage and timing of interflow and groundwater flow, emerging as the overall dampening of the simulated hydrograph. Previous modeling showed that the JAMS/J2000 model provided a “good” simulation for periods where the yearly long-term mean precipitation shortfall was 0.7) during “wet” periods using parameters from a long-term calibration, “wet” parameters were not recommended for the Berg River catchment, but could play a large role in tropical climates. The results of this study are likely transferrable to other conceptual rainfall/runoff models, but may differ for various climates. As greater climate variability drives hydrological changes around the world, future empirically-based hydrological projections need to evaluate assumptions regarding storage and the simulated hydrological processes, to enhanced climate risk management.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Data Usability: The Forgotten Segment of Environmental Data Workflows

    • Authors: Shannon Dosemagen, Emelia Williams
      Abstract: While there has been a rapid increase in the use of participatory science methods over the last decade, the usability of resulting data in addressing situations of environmental injustice is often overlooked, neglected, or used as political fuel for ignoring inconvenient truths. The inability of data to be used for policy, regulation, and enforcement impedes its usefulness in various situations depending on user requirements and governance scales. On the other hand, there are vast open datasets that could be useful for communities and researchers, but these data are often difficult to find, use, or repurpose, beyond their original intent. This article unpacks the data usability problem at the frontier of environmental governance and decision-making, suggesting that by prioritizing environmental data as a public good, there are clear mechanisms for ensuring data usability toward participatory environmental governance. The authors are interested in uncovering the policies and behavioral and bureaucratic patterns that have remained static as participatory science methods and tools have advanced. It is necessary to understand where and when associated tools, methods, and platforms have failed to ensure that data is usable and useful for communities attempting deeper engagement and representation in environmental governance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Nationally Determined Contribution Expert Tool (NEXT): A Comprehensive
           Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tool to Support Annual Environmental Impact
           Assessment Over a 30-Year Time Series in the Agriculture, Forestry and
           Other Land Use Sector

    • Authors: Laure-Sophie Schiettecatte, Philip Audebert, Viviane Umulisa, Daniel Dionisio, Martial Bernoux
      Abstract: The Nationally Determined Contribution Expert Tool (NEXT) is a greenhouse gas accounting tool developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to support annual environmental impact assessment for the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use sector (AFOLU). It provides a 30-year time series of annual and cumulated estimates of carbon removal and greenhouse gas emission reductions from actions determined by Parties in their climate policies. NEXT was developed using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies, and estimates can be made using either the IPCC 2006 guidelines or the IPCC 2019 refinement to the IPCC 2006 which are both complemented with the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement. The tool was designed to provide results that directly respond to the provisions of the Enhanced Transparency Framework and support the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) development as required by the modalities, procedures and guidelines. NEXT provides a detailed temporal series of results and a wide set of indicators, including the social value of carbon, enabling a comprehensive environmental and economic overview of climate actions in achieving mitigation targets. The tool helps countries to interpret, track and scale up ambition of their NDCs which could ultimately inform the global stocktake of the Paris Agreement in a harmonized way.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Examining Climate Policy-Making Through a Critical Model of Evidence Use

    • Authors: Peter Tangney
      Abstract: Evidence-based decision-making has been a focus of academic scholarship and debate for many decades. The advent of global, complex problems like climate change, however, has focused the efforts of a broader pool of scholarship on this endeavor than ever before. The “linear model” of expertise, despite obvious problems, continues to be a touchstone for many policy practitioners as well as for academic understandings of evidence development and use. Knowledge co-production, by contrast, is increasingly proposed as both the antithesis and the solution to the linear model's difficulties. In this paper I argue that, appropriately considered, both models have their uses for understanding evidence for policy, yet neither adequately accounts for the political contexts in which expert knowledge has often been asserted to address climate change. The paper proposes that the difficulty with both models lies in lingering assumptions about the information value of evidence for decision-making, the sensitivity of decision-making to scientific expertise, and the assumed mendacity or irrationality of decision-makers when they seem to fail to heed expert advice. This paper presents a model of evidence use that incorporates the aspirations of linear and co-production frameworks, while providing appropriate guidance for evaluating the role of expert knowledge in climate change policy-making.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Affective Dimensions of Climate Risk

    • Authors: Theresa Harada, Nadine Andrews, Nino Antadze, Jo Hamilton, Manjana Milkoreit, Alette Willis, Nicole Klenk
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T00:00:00Z
       
  • Using Selected Members of a Large Ensemble to Improve Prediction of
           Surface Air Temperature Anomalies Over Japan in the Winter Months From
           Mid-Autumn

    • Authors: J. V. Ratnam, Takeshi Doi, Ingo Richter, Pascal Oettli, Masami Nonaka, Swadhin K. Behera
      Abstract: A large ensemble of 120 predictions of the Scale Interaction Experiment-Frontier Research Center for Global Change Version 2 (SINTEX-F2) coupled general circulation model were evaluated for their skill in predicting the surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies over Japan in the winter months December, January, and February. The predictions were initialized using November initial conditions. The members with skill scores based on anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) were selected and an average of the selected predictions (SEM) was generated. Comparison of SAT anomaly predictions by the average of all the 120 members (ENS) to the SEM predictions shows SEM to outperform the ENS predictions in all the three winter months with higher ACC skill score, higher hit rate and low false alarm rate over the regions covering central Japan in December and January and over the northern region of Hokkaido in February. The improvement in the skill scores in the SEM is found to be due to improved representation of 200 hPa geopotential height anomalies in SEM compared to ENS predictions. The results indicate SEM to be useful for improving skill in predicting SAT anomalies over parts of Japan in the winter months.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Marine Heatwaves and Their Depth Structures on the Northeast U.S.
           Continental Shelf

    • Authors: Hendrik Großelindemann, Svenja Ryan, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Torge Martin, Arne Biastoch
      Abstract: Marine Heatwaves (MHWs) are ocean extreme events, characterized by anomalously high temperatures, which can have significant ecological impacts. The Northeast U.S. continental shelf is of great economical importance as it is home to a highly productive ecosystem. Local warming rates exceed the global average and the region experienced multiple MHWs in the last decade with severe consequences for regional fisheries. Due to the lack of subsurface observations, the depth-extent of MHWs is not well-known, which hampers the assessment of impacts on pelagic and benthic ecosystems. This study utilizes a global ocean circulation model with a high-resolution (1/20°) nest in the Atlantic to investigate the depth structure of MHWs and associated drivers on the Northeast U.S. continental shelf. It is shown that MHWs exhibit varying spatial extents, with some only occurring at depth. The highest intensities are found around 100 m depth with temperatures exceeding the climatological mean by up to 7°C, while surface intensities are typically smaller (around 3°C). Distinct vertical structures are associated with different spatial MHW patterns and drivers. Investigation of the co-variability of temperature and salinity reveals that over 80% of MHWs at depth (>50 m) coincide with extreme salinity anomalies. Two case studies provide insight into opposing MHW patterns at the surface and at depth, being forced by anomalous air-sea heat fluxes and Gulf Stream warm core ring interaction, respectively. The results highlight the importance of local ocean dynamics and the need to realistically represent them in climate models.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • Accelerating Climate Change Adaptive Capacity Through Regional Sustained
           Assessment and Evaluation in Hawai‘i and the U.S. Affiliated Pacific
           Islands

    • Authors: Victoria W. Keener, Zena N. Grecni, Susanne C. Moser
      Abstract: As the impacts and risks from climate change increase, the climate assessment landscape has expanded in scope and application, resulting in the desire for more information relevant to local decision-making. Some regions lack detailed climate projections and a body of consensus findings about sector-specific impacts, and there is a need for actionable, culturally cognizant, translated climate information suitable for integration into operations and management, budgeting, funding proposals, and domestic and international policy. The Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment, or PIRCA, is the subject of this decade-long case study illustrating the need, development, and benefit of creating and sustaining a nuanced, collaborative, and deliberately inclusive climate assessment effort among researchers and practitioners in Hawai‘i and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). Using external evaluations done in 2013 and 2021, and our observations as participants in the process, we describe regional adaptive capacity challenges—an important component of the decision context for PIRCA stakeholders—and analyze the role of the PIRCA network in accelerating climate adaptation. We also examine how regional and national assessments complement each other, and how assessment processes can aid in translation to sub-national decision making across the climate science-policy interface. Results reveal components of the PIRCA that are foundational to its effectiveness: framing climate information in human and decision-centric ways; use of inclusive and non-extractive methods; willingness to shift approaches to meet stakeholder objectives; leveraging the resources of the Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) and other boundary organizations; taking the time to build relationships; and creating a dedicated position to sustain collaborations and relationships within the region and at larger assessment scales. Our experience and the feedback received through the evaluation suggest that these lessons are transferable to other regions and scales, and that sustained and collaborative regional climate assessments can serve a key function in complementing major national and international assessments, by translating and more effectively targeting information to meet local needs in support of regional climate adaptation and policymaking.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • Impact of Riverine Fresh Water on Indian Summer Monsoon: Coupling a Runoff
           Routing Model to a Global Seasonal Forecast Model

    • Authors: Ankur Srivastava, Suryachandra A. Rao, Subimal Ghosh
      Abstract: Rivers form an essential component of the earth system, with ~36,000 km3 of riverine freshwater being dumped into the global oceans every year. The role of rivers in controlling the sea-surface salinity and ensuing air-sea interactions in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) is well-known from observational studies; however, attempts to include rivers in coupled models used for seasonal prediction have been limited. This study reports the benefits of river routing in coupled models over prescribing observational river discharge and the impact on the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) simulation. Seasonal hindcasts are carried out using a state-of-the-art global coupled ocean-atmosphere-land-sea ice model, Climate Forecast System version 2, coupled to a runoff routing model. It is demonstrated that such a coupling leads to a better representation of the upper ocean stratification in northern BoB, causes mixed layer warming during July-August, and imparts a significant inter-annual variability to the mixed layer heat budget. The rainfall-runoff coupled feedback associated with ISM is captured better, and remote teleconnections with the equatorial Pacific are enhanced. Improved seasonal mean temperature and salinity profiles in the northern BoB lead to the formation of a thicker barrier layer, which is closely tied to the freshwater from rivers. These processes result in an overall enhancement of the ISM rainfall simulation skill, which stems from scale interactions between the sub-seasonal and seasonal variability of ISM. A significant community effort is required to reduce biases in land-surface processes to improve streamflow simulations, along with better parameterization of mixing of river water with the ocean.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Case Report: Another Burden to Bear: The Impacts of Climate Change on
           Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights and Services in Bangladesh
           

    • Authors: Sediqa Husaini, Sara E. Davies
      Abstract: Climate change disproportionately impacts women, particularly those who are already restricted by gender inequality. Climate related events (CRE), such as extreme weather events, droughts, rising sea levels, leave millions vulnerable. Increasingly, the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of women are negatively impacted during and post climate change related events. In the absence of climate related events, access to SRHR services is already limited due to economic, cultural, and social constraints that prevent women from making decisions concerning their bodily autonomy. During and post climate disasters, such constrains are worsened. Limited access to SRHR services increases women's risk of physical, mental, and psychological harm; it also impacts on their ability to build capacity and resilience to climate change. This article examines the rise in climate related events in Bangladesh and the corresponding harm of climate change on women's access to sexual and reproductive health care. The article argues that the impact of climate change on women needs to be viewed through a reproductive justice framework. The first step to prevent the gendered impacts of climate change is for international and national frameworks to identify individual needs to build capacity and resilience.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Politics of Governing Resilience: Gendered Dimensions of Climate-Smart
           Agriculture in Kenya

    • Authors: Anouk Brisebois, Siri Hallstrøm Eriksen, Todd Andrew Crane
      Abstract: This paper uses climate-smart agriculture (CSA) in Kenya as an empirical entry point for investigating how climate actions reshape or reinforce gender relations, and how they are aimed at improving local resilience that is nested in such relations. While enhancing national food security, CSA practices could however reproduce inequitable power relations, such as gendered authority relations that produce vulnerability and inequalities. Equity and knowledge represent particularly contested aspects of CSA because it largely fails to address who wins and who loses from such interventions, who are able to participate while others are excluded, and whose knowledge and perspectives count in decision-making processes. Gender relations provide a stark illustration of the way that CSA fails to address how enduring inequalities of access in both production and consumption shape who is rendered vulnerable to climate change and who is left food insecure. In this paper, we treat CSA projects as a site of tensions between stability and contestation of gender relations, brought into view through moments where practices and knowledges are (re)shaped. We first review the concepts of authority, recognition, and resilience as a framework to understand how gendered inequalities and struggles over rights to resources are perpetuated within adaptation and resilience responses to climate variability. We analyze evidence from past studies regarding rural adaptation processes and gender dimensions in CSA projects to identify how such projects may modify the space for renegotiating inequitable gender relations. We approach gender relations as authority relations that are constantly internalized, resisted, and contested through practices and interactions between different actors associated with CSA projects, and the different knowledges that direct these practices. The examination focuses on Kenya as an empirical context to gain sufficient depth in understanding the social and political processes in which climate actions and gender relations are nested, enabling us to identify key points of intersection within these two themes. In addition, gendered dimensions of rural resource governance and adaptation are relatively well-described in Kenya, providing lessons for how climate actions can become more gender-responsive.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T00:00:00Z
       
  • Targeted Green Recovery Measures in a Post-COVID-19 World Enable the
           Energy Transition

    • Authors: Ioannis Dafnomilis, Hsing-Hsuan Chen, Michel den Elzen, Panagiotis Fragkos, Unnada Chewpreecha, Heleen van Soest, Kostas Fragkiadakis, Panagiotis Karkatsoulis, Leonidas Paroussos, Harmen-Sytze de Boer, Vassilis Daioglou, Oreane Edelenbosch, Bence Kiss-Dobronyi, Detlef P. van Vuuren
      Abstract: Despite the significant volume of fiscal recovery measures announced by countries to deal with the COVID-19 crisis, most recovery plans allocate a low percentage to green recovery. We present scenarios exploring the medium- and long-term impact of the COVID-19 crisis and develop a Green Recovery scenario using three well-established global models to analyze the impact of a low-carbon focused stimulus. The results show that a Green Recovery scenario, with 1% of global GDP in fiscal support directed to mitigation measures for 3 years, could reduce global CO2 emissions by 10.5–15.5% below pre-COVID-19 projections by 2030, closing 8–11.5% of the emissions gap with cost-optimal 2°C pathways. The share of renewables in global electricity generation is projected to reach 45% in 2030, the uptake of electric vehicles would be accelerated, and energy efficiency in the buildings and industry sector would improve. However, such a temporary investment should be reinforced with sustained climate policies after 2023 to put the world on a 2°C pathway by mid-century.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T00:00:00Z
       
  • Interactions Between a Marine Heatwave and Tropical Cyclone Amphan in the
           Bay of Bengal in 2020

    • Authors: Saurabh Rathore, Rishav Goyal, Babita Jangir, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Ming Feng, Mayank Mishra
      Abstract: Interactions are diagnosed between a marine heatwave (MHW) event and tropical super cyclone Amphan in the Bay of Bengal. In May 2020, an MHW developed in the Bay of Bengal driven by coupled ocean-atmosphere processes which included shoaling of the mixed layer depth due to reduced wind speed, increased net surface shortwave radiation flux into the ocean, increased upper ocean stratification, and increased sub-surface warming. Ocean temperature, rather than salinity, dominated the stratification that contributed to the MHW development and the subsurface ocean warming that also increased tropical cyclone heat potential. The presence of this strong MHW with sea surface temperature anomalies >2.5°C in the western Bay of Bengal coincided with the cyclone track and facilitated the rapid intensification of tropical cyclone Amphan to a super cyclone in just 24 h. This rapid intensification of a short-lived tropical cyclone, with a lifespan of 5 days over the ocean, is unprecedented in the Bay of Bengal during the pre-monsoon period (March-May). As the cyclone approached landfall in northern India, the wind-induced mixing deepened the mixed layer, cooled the ocean's surface, and reduced sub-surface warming in the bay, resulting in the demise of the MHW. This study provides new perspectives on the interactions between MHWs and tropical cyclones that could aid in improving the current understanding of compound extreme events that have severe socio-economic consequences in affected countries.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T00:00:00Z
       
 
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