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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access  
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access  
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access  
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Avrasya Terim Dergisi     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
BJHS Themes     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access  
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access  
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Technology and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access  
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access  
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access  
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Scientometric Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science     Open Access  
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 127)
Journal of the Indian Institute of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Unsolved Questions     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Terapan Universitas Jambi : JIITUJ     Open Access  
Jurnal Matematika, Sains, Dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Jurnal MIPA     Open Access  
Jurnal Natural     Open Access  
Jurnal Sains Dasar     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  

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Frontiers in Climate
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9553
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Gender, Climate Change Adaptation, and Cultural Sustainability: Insights
           From Bangladesh

    • Authors: Sajal Roy, Shristi Tandukar, Utsab Bhattarai
      Abstract: The focus of this paper is mainly to investigate climate change adaptation practices and the applicability of a cultural sustainability approach in understanding gender dimension of the residents of the southwest coast of Bangladesh. It is one of the most vulnerable regions in South Asia due to the significant impacts of climate change. The long-term effects of climate change in this region are the increasing salinity in farmlands, heatwaves, and sea-level rise. The southwest coast of Bangladesh is a classic example of “good practice” as well as the center for learning, implementing, and communicating climate change adaptation actions in practice. The reason for this the collective action carried out to initiate and improve adaptation activities by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change of the Government of Bangladesh, as well as several national and international development and non-government organizations (NGOs). Using a systematic review of literature, and field-based case studies, we examined how gender and cultural issues (such as the adaptive capacity of men and women, and the transformation of gendered power relations) have been addressed to successfully implement climate change adaptation initiatives in the context of the nominated study area. Our study results revealed that both male and female participants were strategic and capable of dealing with climate change impacts, although the adaptive capacity of the former group was comparatively sturdier than the later. The extent of cultural sustainability was found to be weaker in the study region compared to many other coastal communities in the country. The efforts made by NGOs in collaboration with the governmental bodies of Bangladesh were found contributory in providing knowledge of climate change along with the techniques to adapt to its consequences for the people of the study region. Similarly, the activities of NGOs were found influential in helping the government to support people in adapting to climate change in terms of the gendered and cultural sustainability perspectives. Our findings contribute to the field of climate change impacts in understanding the complexities of rural development.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Enhanced Weathering Using Basalt Rock Powder: Carbon Sequestration,
           Co-benefits and Risks in a Mesocosm Study With Solanum tuberosum

    • Authors: Arthur Vienne, Silvia Poblador, Miguel Portillo-Estrada, Jens Hartmann, Samuel Ijiehon, Peter Wade, Sara Vicca
      Abstract: Enhanced weathering (EW) of silicate rocks can remove CO2 from the atmosphere, while potentially delivering co-benefits for agriculture (e.g., reduced nitrogen losses, increased yields). However, quantification of inorganic carbon sequestration through EW and potential risks in terms of heavy metal contamination have rarely been assessed. Here, we investigate EW in a mesocosm experiment with Solanum tuberosum growing on alkaline soil. Amendment with 50 t basalt/ha significantly increased alkalinity in soil pore water and in the leachate losses, indicating significant basalt weathering. We did not find a significant change in TIC, which was likely because the duration of the experiment (99 days) was too short for carbonate precipitation to become detectable. A 1D reactive transport model (PHREEQC) predicted 0.77 t CO2/ha sequestered over the 99 days of the experiment and 1.83 and 4.48 t CO2/ha after 1 and 5 years, respectively. Comparison of experimental and modeled cation pore water Mg concentrations at the onset of this experiment showed a factor three underestimation of Mg concentrations by the model and hence indicates an underestimation of modeled CO2 sequestration. Moreover, pore water Ca concentrations were underestimated, indicating that the calcite precipitation rate was overestimated by this model. Importantly, basalt amendment did not negatively affect potato growth and yield (which even tended to increase), despite increased Al availability in this alkaline soil. Soil and pore water Ni increased upon basalt addition, but Ni levels remained below regulatory environmental quality standards and Ni concentrations in leachates and plant tissues did not increase. Last, basalt amendment significantly decreased nitrogen leaching, indicating the potential for EW to provide benefits for agriculture and for the environment.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Solar Geoengineering Modeling and Applications for Mitigating Global
           Warming: Assessing Key Parameters and the Urban Heat Island Influence

    • Authors: Alec Feinberg
      Abstract: In this paper, solar geoengineering modeling is presented with a goal to simplify reverse forcing assessments and the capability to apply it to a wide variety of applications. Results find improvements on sun-shade space mirror and desert surface treatment estimates, stratosphere sun-dimming methods, and the Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) influence. A heat amplification parameter is added to the model allowing it to be applied to UHI estimates. UHI amplification effects are due to the large solar area of buildings, reduction of wind cooling, solar canyons, and so forth. The UHI reverse forcing requirements are assessed with amplification estimates of 3.1 and 5.2, yielding 7.6% to 12.7% of gross global warming (corresponding to forcing percentages of 16% to 27%) could be due to the urbanization effect, respectively. The gross warming 7.6% estimate, accurately compares to the author's prior study, and the 12.7% represents very recent results by other authors from new measurement methods. Key issues are pointed out that without including a heat amplification estimate and other modeling parameters, the UHI intensity, that likely dominates the urbanization warming effect could be severely underestimated, yielding urbanization estimates possibly as low as 2.4%. It is important to identify possible reasons where underestimates may occur from a modeling perspective to help understand controversies that may be occurring. The new model helps to clarify such parameters, allows for a significant reduction in complexity and calibration, and is shown to be helpful for numerous solar geoengineering applications including the serious need to reduce the UHI effect worldwide. Solar geoengineering solutions will require a lot of creativity, in addition to modeling, suggestions are provided for drought relief ideas and Paris Accord goals required for any successful urban solar geoengineering coordinated effort.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T00:00:00Z
  • Re-gendering Climate Change: Men and Masculinity in Climate Research,
           Policy, and Practice

    • Authors: Joane Nagel, Trevor Scott Lies
      Abstract: In this Perspective, we argue that much climate change research conflates “gender” with “women.” We ask, what are the consequences of this conflation, and what do we learn when we follow sociologist George Homan's classical command to “bring men back in” to our analysis of the gendered dimensions of climate change' We find, first, that scholarship on gender and climate change tends to depict women mainly as victims of the uneven impacts of climate change. While this assessment is accurate on its face, it leads to solutions that address the problem (women's troubles), not its causes (men's greater responsibilities and failures relating to climate change). We note that researchers' focus on women's suffering diverts attention from a thorough examination of the mechanisms and consequences of men's domination of climate change research and policy. We find, further, that analysts' gender/women conflation hinders redress of women's injuries by camouflaging men's blameworthiness and offering solutions that often increase women's duties. Gender researchers' emphasis on women's plight and inequality obscures the exception that proves the rule: men wield the (sometimes) invisible hands that create and perpetuate the climate crisis at the expense of everyone, including women. In this Perspective, we acknowledge women's relative vulnerability to climate change, outline in some detail the role of men and masculinity in the climate crisis, and identify the unique strengths that women and men each bring to the table to address the environmental challenges facing humanity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T00:00:00Z
  • Migration Theory in Climate Mobility Research

    • Authors: Alex de Sherbinin, Kathryn Grace, Sonali McDermid, Kees van der Geest, Michael J. Puma, Andrew Bell
      Abstract: The purpose of this article is to explore how migration theory is invoked in empirical studies of climate-related migration, and to provide suggestions for engagement with theory in the emerging field of climate mobility. Theory is critical for understanding processes we observe in social-ecological systems because it points to a specific locus of attention for research, shapes research questions, guides quantitative model development, influences what researchers find, and ultimately informs policies and programs. Research into climate mobility has grown out of early studies on environmental migration, and has often developed in isolation from broader theoretical developments in the migration research community. As such, there is a risk that the work may be inadequately informed by the rich corpus of theory that has contributed to our understanding of who migrates; why they migrate; the types of mobility they employ; what sustains migration streams; and why they choose certain destinations over others. On the other hand, there are ways in which climate and broader environment migration research is enriching the conceptual frameworks being employed to understand migration, particularly forced migration. This paper draws on a review of 75 empirical studies and modeling efforts conducted by researchers from a diversity of disciplines, covering various regions, and using a variety of data sources and methods to assess how they used theory in their research. The goal is to suggest ways forward for engagement with migration theory in this large and growing research domain.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T00:00:00Z
  • Investigating the Impacts of Feedstock Variability on a Carbon-Negative
           Autothermal Pyrolysis System Using Machine Learning

    • Authors: Arna Ganguly, Robert C. Brown, Mark Mba Wright
      Abstract: Feedstock properties impact the economic feasibility and sustainability of biorefinery systems. Scientists have developed pyrolysis kinetics, process, and assessment models that estimate the costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of various biorefineries. Previous studies demonstrate that feedstock properties have a significant influence on product costs and lifecycle emissions. However, feedstock variability remains a challenge due to a large number of possible feedstock property combinations and limited public availability of feedstock composition data. Here, we demonstrate the use of machine learning (ML) models to generate large feedstock sample data from a smaller sample set for sustainability assessment of biorefinery systems. This study predicts the impact of feedstock properties on the profitability and sustainability of a lignocellulosic biomass autothermal pyrolysis (ATP) biorefinery producing sugar, phenolic oil, and biochar. Generative Adversarial Networks and Kernel Density Estimation machine learning models are used to generate 3,000 feedstock samples of diverse biochemical compositions. Techno-economic and lifecycle assessments estimated that the ATP minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranges between $66/metric ton (MT) and $280/MT, and the greenhouse gas (GHG) range from a net negative GHG emission(s) of −0.56 to −0.74 kg CO2e/kg lignocellulosic biomass processed. These results show the potential of ML to enhance sustainability analyses by replacing Monte Carlo-type approaches to generate large feedstock composition datasets that are representative of empirical data.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T00:00:00Z
  • How Can Earth Scientists Contribute to Community Resilience'
           Challenges and Recommendations

    • Authors: Arika Virapongse, Rupanwita Gupta, Zachary J. Robbins, Jonathan Blythe, Ruth E. Duerr, Christine Gregg
      Abstract: Community resilience increases a place-based community's capacity to respond and adapt to life-changing environmental dynamics like climate change and natural disasters. In this paper, we aim to support Earth science's understanding of the challenges communities face when applying Earth science data to their resilience efforts. First, we highlight the relevance of Earth science in community resilience. Then, we summarize these challenges of applying Earth science data to community resilience:Inequity in the scientific process,Gaps in data ethics and governance,A mismatch of scale and focus, andLack of actionable information for communities.Lastly, we offer the following recommendations to Earth science as starting points to address the challenges presented:Integrate community into the scientific data pathway,Build capacity to bridge science and place-based community needs,Reconcile openness with self-governance, andImprove access to data tools to support community resilience.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Climate Change, Aerosol Pollution and Public Health Risk in an
           Urban Context

    • Authors: Yuanjian Yang, Hung Chak Ho, Simone Lolli, Xuchao Yang
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T00:00:00Z
  • How Much Difference Does Household Energy Source Selection Make in Winter
           CO2 Emissions'

    • Authors: Shigeru Matsumoto
      Abstract: Households use various energy sources for many purposes. Past studies have not investigated how much CO2 emissions change when households with similar socioeconomic characteristics choose different energy source combinations. In this study, we estimate the difference household energy source selection makes in winter CO2 emissions through a microdata analysis of 29,887 households randomly selected from whole Japan. Since socioeconomic characteristics of households affect both energy source selection and energy consumption, the impact of energy source selection on CO2 emissions cannot be assessed by simply comparing CO2 emissions among households using different energy sources. Therefore, we employ a selection bias correction model characterized by two stages, energy source selection and energy consumption. Our empirical results reveal that households using various energy source combinations increase CO2 emissions at different speeds with decreases in temperature. Households primarily using electricity and kerosene increase CO2 emissions faster than households simultaneously using gases. This result casts doubt on the promotion of fully electrified houses and at the same time encourages gas use in winter.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T00:00:00Z
  • Carbon Accounting for Enhanced Weathering

    • Authors: Thorben Amann, Jens Hartmann
      Abstract: The inevitable deployment of negative emission technologies requires carbon accounting to incentivise the investment and to foster an active CO2 certificate trading schema. Enhanced Weathering as one of the negative emission technologies is being tested in the field now, but lacks a verifiable and cost-effective carbon accounting approach. Based on results from a lab scale column experiment and field observations, it is hypothesized that the observed stable positive correlation between total alkalinity and electrical conductivity may present a way to easily predict the initial CO2 sequestration at the application site by chemical mineral weathering at low costs. Alkalinity is a measure to track weathering products. It is not difficult to measure, yet continuous and mid- to high-frequency sampling and analyses are expensive and time consuming. The observed strong correlation of alkalinity with electrical conductivity could be harnessed and enable a CO2 uptake monitoring by simple electrical conductivity measurements in soils or any point in the discharge system. For a successful implementation and calibration, data are needed, covering the most likely employment scenarios of soil, climate, hydrology, rock product, application scenario and plant abundance. Incorporated in a growing public database, this could be used as an assessment and benchmark system for future EW deployment.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T00:00:00Z
  • Local Drivers of Marine Heatwaves: A Global Analysis With an Earth System

    • Authors: Linus Vogt, Friedrich A. Burger, Stephen M. Griffies, Thomas L. Frölicher
      Abstract: Marine heatwaves (MHWs) are periods of extreme warm ocean temperatures that can have devastating impacts on marine organisms and socio-economic systems. Despite recent advances in understanding the underlying processes of individual events, a global view of the local oceanic and atmospheric drivers of MHWs is currently missing. Here, we use daily-mean output of temperature tendency terms from a comprehensive fully coupled coarse-resolution Earth system model to quantify the main local processes leading to the onset and decline of surface MHWs in different seasons. The onset of MHWs in the subtropics and mid-to-high latitudes is primarily driven by net ocean heat uptake associated with a reduction of latent heat loss in all seasons, increased shortwave heat absorption in summer and reduced sensible heat loss in winter, dampened by reduced vertical mixing from the non-local portion of the K-Profile Parameterization boundary layer scheme (KPP) especially in summer. In the tropics, ocean heat uptake is reduced and lowered vertical local mixing and diffusion cause the warming. In the subsequent decline phase, increased ocean heat loss to the atmosphere due to enhanced latent heat loss in all seasons together with enhanced vertical local mixing and diffusion in the high latitudes during summer dominate the temperature decrease globally. The processes leading to the onset and decline of MHWs are similar for short and long MHWs, but there are differences in the drivers between summer and winter. Different types of MHWs with distinct driver combinations are identified within the large variability among events. Our analysis contributes to a better understanding of MHW drivers and processes and may therefore help to improve the prediction of high-impact marine heatwaves.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T00:00:00Z
  • Local Drivers of Extreme Upper Ocean Marine Heatwaves Assessed Using a
           Global Ocean Circulation Model

    • Authors: Maxime Marin, Ming Feng, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, Helen E. Phillips
      Abstract: The growing threat of Marine heatwaves (MHWs) to ecosystems demands that we better understand their physical drivers. This information can be used to improve the performance of ocean models in predicting major events so more appropriate management decisions can be made. Air-sea heat fluxes have been found to be one of the dominant drivers of MHWs but their impact are expected to decrease for MHWs extending deeper into the water column. In this study, we examine the most extreme MHWs occurring within an upper ocean layer and quantify the relative contributions of oceanic and atmospheric processes to their onset and decay phases. The base of the upper ocean layer is defined as the local winter mixed layer depth so that summer events occurring within a shallower mixed layer are also included. We perform a local upper ocean heat budget analysis at each grid point of a global ocean general circulation model. Results show that in 78% of MHWs, horizontal heat convergence is the main driver of MHW onset. In contrast, heat fluxes dominate the formation of MHWs in 11% of cases, through decreased latent heat cooling and/or increased solar radiation. These air-sea heat flux driven events occur mostly in the tropical regions where the upper ocean layer is shallow. In terms of MHW decay, heat advection is dominant in only 31% of MHWs, while heat flux dominance increases to 23%. For the majority of remaining events, advection and air-sea heat flux anomalies acted together to dissipate the excessive heat. This shift toward a comparable contribution of advection and air-sea heat flux is a common feature of extreme MHW decay globally. The anomalous air-sea heat flux cooling is mostly due to an increased latent heat loss feedback response to upper ocean temperature anomalies. Extreme upper ocean MHWs coincided with SST MHWs consistently, but with lower intensity in extra-tropical regions, where the upper ocean layer is deeper. This suggests that the upper ocean heat accumulation may pre-condition the SST MHWs in these regions. Our analysis provides valuable insights into the local physical processes controlling the onset and decay of extreme MHWs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T00:00:00Z
  • Framework for Assessing the Feasibility of Carbon Dioxide Removal Options
           Within the National Context of Germany

    • Authors: Johannes Förster, Silke Beck, Malgorzata Borchers, Erik Gawel, Klaas Korte, Till Markus, Nadine Mengis, Andreas Oschlies, Romina Schaller, Angela Stevenson, Terese Thoni, Daniela Thrän
      Abstract: Removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere will be required over the next decades to achieve the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to well below 2°C aiming at not exceeding 1.5°C. Technological and ecosystem-based options are considered for generating negative emissions through carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and several nations have already included these in their Long-Term Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Development Strategies. However, strategies for development, implementation, and upscaling of CDR options often remain vague. Considering the scale at which CDR deployment is envisioned in emission pathways for limiting global warming to 1.5°C, significant environmental, social, and institutional implications are to be expected and need to be included in national feasibility assessments of CDR options. Following a multi-disciplinary and comprehensive approach, we created a framework that considers the environmental, technological, economic, social, institutional, and systemic implications of upscaling CDR options. We propose the framework as a tool to help guide decision-relevant feasibility assessments of CDR options, as well as identify challenges and opportunities within the national context. As such, the framework can serve as a means to inform and support decision makers and stakeholders in the iterative science-policy process of determining the role of CDR options in national strategies of achieving net-zero carbon emissions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T00:00:00Z
  • Coverage of In Situ Climatological Observations in the World's Mountains

    • Authors: James M. Thornton, Nicholas Pepin, Maria Shahgedanova, Carolina Adler
      Abstract: Many mountainous environments and ecosystems around the world are responding rapidly to ongoing climate change. Long-term climatological time-series from such regions are crucial for developing improving understanding of the mechanisms driving such changes and ultimately delivering more reliable future impact projections to environmental managers and other decision makers. Whilst it is already established that high elevation regions tend to be comparatively under-sampled, detailed spatial and other patterns in the coverage of mountain climatological data have not yet been comprehensively assessed on a global basis. To begin to address this deficiency, we analyse the coverage of mountainous records from the Global Historical Climatological Network-Daily (GHCNd) inventory with respect to space, time, and elevation. Three key climate-related variables—air temperature, precipitation, and snow depth—are considered across 292 named mountain ranges. Several additional datasets are also introduced to characterize data coverage relative to topographic, hydrological, and socio-economic factors. Spatial mountain data coverage is found to be highly uneven, with station densities in several “Water Tower Units” that were previously identified as having great hydrological importance to society being especially low. Several mountainous regions whose elevational distribution is severely undersampled by GHCNd stations are identified, and mountain station density is shown to be only weakly related to the human population or economic output of the corresponding downstream catchments. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of a script (which is provided in the Supplementary Material) to produce detailed assessments of individual records' temporal coverage and measurement quality information. Overall, our contribution should help international authorities and regional stakeholders identify areas, variables, and other monitoring-related considerations that should be prioritized for infrastructure and capacity investment. Finally, the transparent and reproducible approach taken will enable the analysis to be rapidly repeated for subsequent versions of GHCNd, and could act as a basis for similar analyses using other spatial reporting boundaries and/or environmental monitoring station networks.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T00:00:00Z
  • Environmental Peacebuilding and Solar Geoengineering

    • Authors: Holly Jean Buck
      Abstract: Solar geoengineering, or reflecting incoming sunlight to cool the planet, has been viewed by international relations and governance scholars as an approach that could exacerbate conflict. It has not been examined through the framework of environmental peacebuilding, which examines how and when environmental challenges can lead to cooperation rather than conflict. This article argues that scholars should treat the link between solar geoengineering and conflict as a hypothesis rather than a given, and evenly examine both hypotheses: that solar geoengineering could lead to conflict, and that it could lead to peace. The article examines scenarios in which geoengineering may lead to negative peace—peace defined as the absence of conflict—and then applies a theoretical framework developed by environmental peacebuilding scholars to look at how solar geoengineering could relate to three trajectories of environmental peacebuilding. A peace lens for solar geoengineering matters for research and policy right now, because focusing narrowly on conflict in both research and policy might miss opportunities to understand and further scenarios for environmental peacebuilding. The paper concludes with suggestions for how research program managers, funders, and policymakers could incorporate environmental peacebuilding aims into their work.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T00:00:00Z
  • La Plata Basin Hydroclimate Response to Solar Radiation Modification With
           Stratospheric Aerosol Injection

    • Authors: Inés Camilloni, Natalia Montroull, Carla Gulizia, Ramiro I. Saurral
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T00:00:00Z
  • Climate Adaptation Interventions in Coastal Areas: A Rapid Review of
           Social and Gender Dimensions

    • Authors: Anjal Prakash, Katriona McGlade, Mathew Koll Roxy, Joyashree Roy, Shreya Some, Nitya Rao
      Abstract: In this paper, we present the results of a rapid review of the literature on gender and coastal climate adaptation. The IPCC's 2019 Special Report on Oceans and Cryosphere (SROCC) highlighted some of the major ways in which gender inequality interacts with coastal climate change. However, the report does not consider how gender interacts with adaptation interventions. This review was driven the need to understand these dynamics in more detail as well as deepen the understanding of how coastal climate adaptation affects the attainment of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5, for gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls. Our analysis is based on a screening of over 1,000 peer-reviewed articles published between 2014 and 2020. The results were strongly populated by natural science publications leading to very low coverage of gender as a social dimension of adaptation. Of the papers reviewed, a mere 2.6% discussed gender and often only in a cursory manner. While the literature surveyed does not allow us to close the gap present in the SROCC in any meaningful way, the results do provide important new insights from the literature that does exist. Of particular note is the fact that adaptation measures may have positive and negative gender outcomes currently invisible under the SDG5 framework. We conclude that there is a need to collect gender-disaggregated data on coastal adaptation efforts and to review SDG5 targets and indicators to ensure that the gender dimensions of climate adaptation are fully captured and accounted for.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T00:00:00Z
  • Historical Observations for Improving Reanalyses

    • Authors: Stefan Brönnimann
      Abstract: Historical reanalyses have become a widely used resource for analyzing weather and climate processes and their changes over time. In this article I explore how further historical observations could support reanalyses and lead to products that reach further back in time or have a better quality. Using an off-line Ensemble Kalman Filter I estimate improvements arising from assimilating additional observations into the ensemble of the “Twentieth Century Reanalysis” Version 3 (20CRv3). I demonstrate this for three case studies and evaluate them using independent data and a leave-one-out approach. For Europe in 1807, assimilating additional pressure data improves the skill for pressure but slightly decreases it for temperature, while assimilating temperature data, a variable that is not assimilated in 20CRv3, improves the skill for temperature but slightly decreases it for pressure. Assimilating both leads to substantially increased skill in a leave-one-out approach. For Sub-Saharan Africa in 1877/78, assimilating ship-based pressure observations as well as land station data, albeit extremely sparse, leads to a slight improvement over the entire domain. Finally, for Europe in 1926/27, assimilating upper air and total column ozone observations both lead to improvements in geopotential height and wind in the middle troposphere and in total column ozone, but with little or no effect in the lower troposphere. This is because 20CRv3 is already close to perfect over Europe in this period. The article shows how additional observations could improve historical reanalyses. A backward extension to the 1780s seems possible, but further data rescue efforts are necessary. For some applications, improved fields as generated by the offline assimilation presented in this study could be useful.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T00:00:00Z
  • Using a Climate Change Risk Perceptions Framing to Identify Gaps in
           Climate Services

    • Authors: Anna Steynor, Lorena Pasquini
      Abstract: Given the rise in climate services for decision-making, it is important to understand whether these services are meeting the context-specific needs of decision-makers, including identifying any gaps in current climate services. This study sets out to investigate the efficacy of current climate services provision in east Africa through the lens of climate change risk perceptions. Risk perceptions have established relationships with important aspects of the decision context and have been shown to influence the kinds of information people use in making decisions, therefore, an understanding of how elements of risk perceptions relate to climate services use can provide valuable insights for enhancing climate services. Using this premise, the relationships between determinants of climate change risk perceptions and the use of climate services information are explored through a combination of statistical survey analysis and qualitative interview analysis. The analysis revealed three main gaps in climate services in east Africa. These gaps include the lack of long-term climate change projections disseminated through National Meteorological Services (NMS), limited locally ground-truthed delivery of impact-based forecasts and the requirement for specialist capacity to use some complex climate services. Filling these gaps will require enhanced collaboration between the NMS, other providers of climate-related information (such as research institutes) and the practitioner and user communities in order to facilitate the coordinated delivery of locally ground-truthed impact-based forecasts, facilitate capacity development across the user-producer spectrum and augment the role of the NMS as conduits of climate change information.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T00:00:00Z
  • Analyzing the Macro-Economic and Employment Implications of Ambitious
           Mitigation Pathways and Carbon Pricing

    • Authors: Panagiotis Fragkos, Kostas Fragkiadakis
      Abstract: The recent EU Green Deal puts forward ambition climate targets aiming to make the EU the first climate neutral continent by mid-century while ensuring a just transition. This requires a large-scale transformation of the EU and global energy and economic systems induced by both regulatory and market-based policies, in particular carbon pricing. Macro-economic models currently used for the analysis of climate policy impacts need improvements to consistently capture the transition dynamics and challenges. The study presents the methodological enhancements realized in general equilibrium model GEM-E3-FIT (including enhanced energy system representation, low-carbon innovation, clean energy markets, technology progress, policy instruments) to improve the simulation of the impacts of ambitious climate policies. The model-based analysis shows that high carbon pricing has limited negative impacts on the EU GDP and consumption, while leading to an economy transformation toward a capital-intensive structure triggered by increased investment in low-carbon technologies and energy efficient equipment. Global decarbonization to achieve the well-below 2°C goal of the Paris Agreement will modestly impact total employment, but its effects are pronounced on specific sectors which are impacted either negatively (e.g., supply of fossil fuels, energy intensive industries) or positively by creating additional jobs (e.g., low-carbon manufacturing, electricity sector).
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T00:00:00Z
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