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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ABC Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AZimuth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Scientific Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
BIBECHANA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BibNum     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bistua : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Básicas     Open Access  
BJHS Themes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Central European Journal of Clinical Research     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencia, Docencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Dharmakarya     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ergo     Open Access  
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Extensionismo, Innovación y Transferencia Tecnológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 379)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Iberoamerican Journal of Science Measurement and Communication     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science & Emerging Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Review of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science     Open Access  
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Interaction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Research     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Frontiers in Climate
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9553
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [89 journals]
  • Is There a Case for Recognising Taiwan at the International Science-Policy
           Interface for Climate Change'

    • Authors: Leslie Mabon, Wan-Yu Shih
      PubDate: 2021-10-15T00:00:00Z
  • U.S. Family Forest Owners' Forest Management for Climate Adaptation:
           Perspectives From Extension and Outreach Specialists

    • Authors: Nicolena vonHedemann, Courtney A. Schultz
      Abstract: In the United States (US), family forest owners, a group that includes individuals, families, trusts, and estates, are the largest single landowner category, owning approximately one-third of the nation's forests. These landowners' individualized decision-making on forest management has a profound impact on US forest cover and function at both local and regional scales. We sought to understand perceptions among family forest specialists of: climate impacts and adaptation options across different forested US regions; how family forest owners are taking climate adaptation into consideration in their forest management, if at all; and major barriers to more active management for adaptation among family forest owners. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 48 forest experts across the US who work with family forest owners, including extension specialists, state forestry agency employees, and consulting foresters who focus on family forest engagement. Our interviewees shared details on how both climate change impacts and forest management for climate adaptation vary across the US, and they perceived a lack of active forest management by family forest owners. They explained that western forest landowners confronting the imminent threat of catastrophic wildfires are more likely to see a need for active forest management. By contrast, in the east, where most forestland is privately owned, interviewees said that landowners see relatively fewer climate impacts on their forests and less need for forest management to respond to climate change. Perceived barriers to more active family forest management for climate adaptation include the lack of more robust markets for a wide range of forest products, a higher capacity forestry workforce, education and assistance in planning forest management, and addressing the issue of increased parcelization of family forest lands. We situate these perceptions in conversations on the role of boundary organizations in climate adaptation, how individual adaptation occurs, and how governing methods frame adaptation possibilities.
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T00:00:00Z
  • The Good Is Never Perfect: Why the Current Flaws of Voluntary Carbon
           Markets Are Services, Not Barriers to Successful Climate Change Action

    • Authors: Oliver Miltenberger, Christophe Jospe, James Pittman
      Abstract: The world's current level of climate change action does not match its ambitions to tackle the issue, and its ambitions do not currently meet the levels of action science recommends. Voluntary carbon markets (VCMs) are one option proposed to lessen those disparities, and have been both criticized and championed by various groups. Critiques note them as being opaque, flawed, and ineffective. Yet they demonstrate tremendous potential for impact and unprecedented levels of finance. We contend that the critiques of these markets are not only resolvable, but are unavoidable challenges that must be addressed on the path to mobilizing climate change ambition and achieving targets. Furthermore, we believe that by 2050, the current discrete market-based solutions in climate action will become internalized aspects of our economies rather than separate remediations. This goal of internalizing the externalities that cause climate change will result in massive, sustained decarbonization, rapid reorganization of global economies, and an extraordinary push to invent, solve, and scale strategies that facilitate the transition. Pricing carbon is a key contemporary step for transitioning to that future. Voluntary carbon markets are one means to catalyze this action and while needing improvements, should be given appropriate leeway to improve and fulfill that role.
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T00:00:00Z
  • Technological Demonstration and Life Cycle Assessment of a Negative
           Emission Value Chain in the Swiss Concrete Sector

    • Authors: Johannes Tiefenthaler, Lisa Braune, Christian Bauer, Romain Sacchi, Marco Mazzotti
      Abstract: Switzerland, such as most of the other countries which are part of the Paris agreement, decided to reduce GHG emissions to zero by 2050. The ambition of net-zero GHG emission across all industrial sectors can only be achieved by rapid decarbonization and the deployment of negative emission technologies to compensate residual emissions from for example agriculture. In the scope of this work, the proof of technology of a negative emission value chain at industrial scale in the concrete sector is presented. The core of the system is a mineralization technology, which fixes biogenic CO2 permanently as calcium carbonate in concrete aggregate. In addition, the net-negativity in terms of GHG emissions and environmental burdens beyond these are quantified in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). It could be shown that an industrial-scale mineral carbonation process can be seamlessly integrated in today's concrete recycling processes and that it can process relevant amounts of concrete aggregate while storing on average 7.2 kg CO2 per ton of concrete aggregate. Moreover, material tests revealed that the carbonated concrete aggregate fulfills the same service as the regular one—thus no significant effects on the concrete properties could be observed. The LCA shows that every processing step requires materials and energy, and thus generates associated emissions. However, from a cradle to gate perspective, the carbon removal efficiency is 93.6%. Thus, 1,000 kg of CO2 stored generate 64 kg of CO2-eq. emissions. Furthermore, it could be shown that biogas upgrading can supply sufficient amounts of CO2 until 2030 in Switzerland. From 2030 on, more and more CO2 from other emission sources, such as waste incineration, need to be utilized to exploit the full potential of the value chain, which is going to be 560 kt of negative CO2 emissions in Switzerland in 2050, corresponding to 30% of the projected demand within the national borders.
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T00:00:00Z
  • Potential for Negative Emissions by Carbon Capture and Storage From a
           Novel Electric Plasma Calcination Process for Pulp and Paper Mills

    • Authors: Elin Svensson, Holger Wiertzema, Simon Harvey
      Abstract: The pulp and paper industry has a high potential to contribute to negative emissions through carbon capture and storage (CCS) applied to existing processes. However, there is a need to investigate how CCS solutions also can be combined with implementation of other emerging technologies in pulp and paper mills. This paper investigates the integration of a novel calcination process in two kraft mills and evaluates its potential combination with capture and storage of CO2 from the calcination plant. The alternative calcination process uses electric gas-plasma technology combined with steam slaking and allows replacing the conventional fuel-driven lime kilns with a process driven by electricity. The novel calcination process generates a pure, biogenic, CO2 stream, which provides an opportunity to achieve negative emissions at relatively lower costs. The potential reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when replacing the lime kiln with the plasma calcination concept depends strongly on the emissions intensity of grid electricity, and on whether fossil fuel or biomass was used as a fuel in the lime kiln. If fossil fuel is replaced and electricity is associated with very low emissions, avoided CO2 emissions reach ~50 kt/a for the smaller mill investigated in the paper (ca 400 kt pulp per year) and almost 100 kt/a for the larger mill (ca 700 kt pulp per year). Further emission reductions could then be achieved through CCS from the electrified calcination process, with capture potentials for the two mills of 95 and 164 kt/a, respectively, and capture and storage costs estimated to 36–60 EUR/tCO2.
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T00:00:00Z
  • Assessment of the Ability of CMIP6 GCMS to Simulate the Boreal Summer
           Intraseasonal Oscillation Over Southeast Asia

    • Authors: Abayomi A. Abatan, Matthew Collins, Mukand S. Babel, Dibesh Khadka, Yenushi K. De Silva
      Abstract: The boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) plays an important role in the intraseasonal variability of a wide range of weather and climate phenomena across the region modulated by the Asian summer monsoon system. This study evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of 19 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) models to reproduce the basic characteristics of BSISO. The models' rainfall and largescale climates are evaluated against GPCP and ERA5 reanalysis datasets. All models exhibit intraseasonal variance of 30–60-day bandpass-filtered rainfall and convection anomalies but with diverse magnitude when compared with observations. The CMIP6 models capture the structure of the eastward/northward propagating BSISO at wavenumbers 1 and 2 but struggle with the intensity and location of the convection signal. Nevertheless, the models show a good ability to simulate the power spectrum and coherence squared of the principal components of the combined empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) and can capture the distinction between the CEOF modes and red noise. Also, the result shows that some CMIP6 models can capture the coherent intraseasonal propagating features of the BSISO as indicated by the Hovmöller diagram. The contribution of latent static energy to the relationship between the moist static energy and intraseasonal rainfall over Southeast Asia is also simulated by the selected models, albeit the signals are weak. Taking together, some of the CMIP6 models can represent the summertime climate and intraseasonal variability over the study region, and can also simulate the propagating features of BSISO, but biases still exist.
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T00:00:00Z
  • Complex Vulnerabilities of the Water and Aquatic Carbon Cycles to
           Permafrost Thaw

    • Authors: Michelle A. Walvoord, Robert G. Striegl
      Abstract: The spatial distribution and depth of permafrost are changing in response to warming and landscape disturbance across northern Arctic and boreal regions. This alters the infiltration, flow, surface and subsurface distribution, and hydrologic connectivity of inland waters. Such changes in the water cycle consequently alter the source, transport, and biogeochemical cycling of aquatic carbon (C), its role in the production and emission of greenhouse gases, and C delivery to inland waters and the Arctic Ocean. Responses to permafrost thaw across heterogeneous boreal landscapes will be neither spatially uniform nor synchronous, thus giving rise to expressions of low to medium confidence in predicting hydrologic and aquatic C response despite very high confidence in projections of widespread near-surface permafrost disappearance as described in the 2019 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate: Polar Regions. Here, we describe the state of the science regarding mechanisms and factors that influence aquatic C and hydrologic responses to permafrost thaw. Through synthesis of recent topical field and modeling studies and evaluation of influential landscape characteristics, we present a framework for assessing vulnerabilities of northern permafrost landscapes to specific modes of thaw affecting local to regional hydrology and aquatic C biogeochemistry and transport. Lastly, we discuss scaling challenges relevant to model prediction of these impacts in heterogeneous permafrost landscapes.
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T00:00:00Z
  • Unintended Consequences: Unknowable and Unavoidable, or Knowable and

    • Authors: James Suckling, Claire Hoolohan, Iain Soutar, Angela Druckman
      Abstract: Recognizing that there are multiple environmental limits within which humanity can safely operate, it is essential that potential negative outcomes of seemingly positive actions are accounted for. This alertness to unintended consequences underscores the importance of so called “nexus” research, which recognizes the integrated and interactive nature of water, energy and food systems, and aims to understand the broader implications of developments in any one of these systems. This article presents a novel framework for categorizing such detrimental unintended consequences, based upon how much is known about the system in question and the scope for avoiding any such unintended consequences. The framework comprises four categories (Knowable and Avoidable; Knowable and Unavoidable; Unknowable and Avoidable, and Unknowable and Unavoidable). The categories are explored with reference to examples in both the water-energy-food nexus and planetary boundary frameworks. The examples highlight the potential for the unexpected to happen and explore dynamic nature of the situations that give rise to the unexpected. The article concludes with guidance on how the framework can be used to increase confidence that best efforts have been made to navigate our way toward secure and sustainable water, energy and food systems, avoiding and/or managing unintended consequences along the way.
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T00:00:00Z
  • Sensitivity Analysis of Geomechanical Constraints in CO2 Storage to Screen
           Potential Sites in Deep Saline Aquifers

    • Authors: Yashvardhan Verma, Vikram Vishal, P. G. Ranjith
      Abstract: In order to tackle the exponential rise in global CO2 emissions, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) proposed a carbon budget of 2,900 Gt to limit the rise in global temperature levels to 2°C above the pre-industrial level. Apart from curbing our emissions, carbon sequestration can play a significant role in meeting these ambitious goals. More than 500 Gt of CO2 will need to be stored underground by the end of this century to make a meaningful impact. Global capacity for CO2 storage far exceeds this requirement, the majority of which resides in unexplored deep aquifers. To identify potential storage sites and quantify their storage capacities, prospective aquifers or reservoirs need to be screened based on properties that affect the retention of CO2 in porous rocks. Apart from the total volume of a reservoir, the storage potential is largely constrained by an increase in pore pressure during the early years of injection and by migration of the CO2 plume in the long term. The reservoir properties affect both the pressure buildup and the plume front below the caprock. However, not many studies have quantified these effects. The current analysis computes the effect of rock properties (porosity, permeability, permeability anisotropy, pore compressibility, and formation water salinity) and injection rate on both these parameters by simulating CO2 injection at the bottom of a 2D mesh grid with hydrostatic boundary conditions. The study found that the most significant property in the sensitivity analysis was permeability. Porosity too affected the CO2 plume migration substantially, with higher porosities considerably delaying horizontal and vertical migration. Injection rate impacted both the pressure rise and plume migration consistently. Thus, in screening potential storage sites, we can infer that permeability is the dominant criterion when the pore pressure is closer to the minimum principal stress in the rocks, due to which injection rate needs to be managed with greater caution. Porosity is more significant when the lateral extents of the reservoir limit the storage potential.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T00:00:00Z
  • Remote Effects of IOD and ENSO on Motivating the Atmospheric Pattern
           Favorable for Snowfall Over the Tibetan Plateau in Early Winter

    • Authors: Hongyan Shen, Zhiqiang Gong, Boqi Liu, Yipeng Guo, Xiaoli Feng, Tingting Wen, Xiaojuan Wang, Guolin Feng
      Abstract: The interannual variation of snowfall over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in early winter (November–December) and its related atmospheric attribution are clarified. Meanwhile, the influence of tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on TP snowfall is investigated by diagnostic analyses and Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) simulations. The leading mode of TP snowfall in early winter features a spatially uniform pattern with remarkable interannual variability. It is found that the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are main external forcing factors for TP snowfall. Positive IOD with positive ENSO and positive IOD with neutral ENSO cases both have remote impact on motivating Southern Eurasia (SEA) pattern, which can induce an anomalous cyclone around the TP. The corresponding anomalous ascending motion and cold air in the mid-upper troposphere provide the dynamical and thermal conditions for heavy snowfall. The low-level southwesterly winds are enhanced over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, bringing abundant water vapor into the TP for excessive snowfall. Furthermore, CAM5 simulation experiments forced by IOD- and ENSO-related SST anomalies are performed to verify their combined and independent effects on TP snowfall in early winter. It is confirmed that either positive IOD or El Niño has certain impacts on motivating circulation anomalies favorable for snowfall over the TP. However, IOD plays a leading role in producing the excessive snowfall-related atmospheric conditions, and there is an asymmetric influence of ENSO and IOD on the TP snowfall.
      PubDate: 2021-09-29T00:00:00Z
  • Limitations of Remote Sensing in Assessing Vegetation Damage Due to the
           2019–2021 Desert Locust Upsurge

    • Authors: Emily C. Adams, Helen B. Parache, Emil Cherrington, Walter L. Ellenburg, Vikalp Mishra, Ronan Lucey, Catherine Nakelembe
      Abstract: The 2019–2020 Desert Locust (DL) upsurge in East Africa threatened food security for millions in the region. This highlighted the need to track and quantify the damaging impacts of the swarming insects on cropland and rangelands. Satellite Earth observations (EO) data have the potential to contribute to DL damage assessments that can inform control measures, aid distribution and recovery efforts. EO can complement traditional ground based surveys (which are currently further limited due to COVID-19), by rapidly and cost effectively capturing the full spatial scale of the DL upsurge. However, EO-based techniques struggled to accurately quantify damage from this DL upsurge due to the sporadic and localized nature of infestations impacting scale, timing, and anomalous vegetation conditions. This study analyzed time series data from MODIS, the harmonized Landsat Sentinel-2 product, and C-band radar data from Sentinel-1 to distinguish DL damage from normal senescence or other confounding factors from January to June 2020. These data were compared to in situ locust swarm, band, and non locust observations collected by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and PlantVillage. The methods presented did not produce results that could confidently differentiate senescence from locust activity, and may represent a limitation of publicly available remotely sensed data to detect DL damage. However, the higher spatial resolution data sets showed promise, and there is potential to explore commercially available satellite products such as Planet Labs for damage assessment protocols.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27T00:00:00Z
  • Emerging Skill in Multi-Year Prediction of the Indian Ocean Dipole

    • Authors: F. Feba, Karumuri Ashok, Matthew Collins, Satish R. Shetye
      Abstract: The Indian Ocean Dipole is a leading phenomenon of climate variability in the tropics, which affects the global climate. However, the best lead prediction skill for the Indian Ocean Dipole, until recently, has been limited to ~6 months before the occurrence of the event. Here, we show that multi-year prediction has made considerable advancement such that, for the first time, two general circulation models have significant prediction skills for the Indian Ocean Dipole for at least 2 years after initialization. This skill is present despite ENSO having a lead prediction skill of only 1 year. Our analysis of observed/reanalyzed ocean datasets shows that the source of this multi-year predictability lies in sub-surface signals that propagate from the Southern Ocean into the Indian Ocean. Prediction skill for a prominent climate driver like the Indian Ocean Dipole has wide-ranging benefits for climate science and society.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27T00:00:00Z
  • European Carbon Dioxide Removal Policy: Current Status and Future

    • Authors: Eve Tamme, Larissa Lee Beck
      Abstract: Over the past two years, the European Union, Norway, Iceland, and the UK have increased climate ambition and aggressively pushed forward an agenda to pursue climate neutrality or net-zero emissions by mid-century. This increased ambition, partly the result of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's landmark findings on limiting global warming to 1.5°C, has also led to a renewed approach to and revitalized debate about the role of carbon capture and storage and carbon dioxide removal. With increasing climate ambition, including a mid-century climate neutrality goal for the whole European Union, the potential role of technological carbon dioxide removal (CDR) is emerging as one of the critical points of debate among NGOs, policymakers, and the private sector. Policymakers are starting to discuss how to incentivize a CDR scale-up. What encompasses the current debate, and how does it relate to CDR technologies' expected role in reaching climate neutrality' This perspective will highlight that policy must fill two gaps: the accounting and the commercialization gap for the near-term development of a comprehensive CDR policy framework. It will shine a light on the current status of negative emission technologies and the role of carbon capture and storage in delivering negative emissions in Europe's decarbonized future. It will also analyze the role of carbon markets, including voluntary markets, as potential incentives while exploring policy pathways for a near-term scale-up.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27T00:00:00Z
  • Deploying Low Carbon Public Procurement to Accelerate Carbon Removal

    • Authors: Eric Dunford, Robert Niven, Christopher Neidl
      Abstract: Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) will be required to keep global temperature rise below 2°C based on IPCC models. Greater adoption of carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies will drive demand for CDR. Public procurement of low carbon materials is a powerful and under-utilized tool for accelerating the development and of CCUS through a targeted and well-regulated approach. The policy environment is nascent and presents significant barriers for scaling and guiding emerging technology solutions. The concrete sector has unique attributes that make it ideally suited for large-scale low-carbon public procurement strategies. This sector offers immediate opportunities to study the efficacy of a supportive policy and regulatory environment in driving the growth of CCUS solutions.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27T00:00:00Z
  • Ocean Acidification in the Arctic in a Multi-Regulatory, Climate Justice

    • Authors: Sandra Cassotta
      Abstract: The latest IPCC report on Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, which builds upon previous IPCC's reports, established a causal link between anthropogenic impacts and ocean acidification, by noting a significant decrease in the Ocean's uptake of CO2, with consequent damage to Earth's ecosystems, which in turn has traceable repercussions on the Arctic Ocean and then from the Arctic to the Planet Earth. The impact of ocean acidification is not only in the biological ecosystem but also on human activities, such as livelihood, food security, socio-economic security and developing communities. However, who can possibly be held ethically/legally responsible for ocean acidification from a climate justice perspective' Since what happens in the Arctic does not stay there, a more systematic law and policy approach to study options and responses in a multi-level, climate- ethical, global perceptive is needed. This paper sheds light on the legal responses available at global, regional and national levels to ocean acidification in a law of the sea and ocean context, both in the Arctic and from the Arctic. The gaps in legal and policy responses in connection to the ethical climate component will be identified. It will shed light on the planetary limits that humanity needs to stay within in order to maintain the future of the Earth. Since it touches upon questions of legal responsibility, on who is responsible for ocean acidification, it will connect to the “supply side” of fossil fuels production and global extraction projects causing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, one of the major causes of ocean acidification. It will also identify which actors, be they “officials” or “non-officials” (such as international organizations, states, regional institutes, Arctic citizens or even forums) should be held ethically responsible, and who should take action.
      PubDate: 2021-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Permission to Say “Capitalism”: Principles for Critical Social Science
           Engagement With GGR Research

    • Authors: Stephen Hall, Mark Davis
      Abstract: The grand scale of GGR deployment now necessary to avoid dangerous climate change warrants the use of grand interpretive theories of how the global economy operates. We argue that critical social science should be able to name the global economy as “capitalism”; and instead of speaking about “transforming the global economy” as a necessary precondition for limiting climate change, instead speak about transforming, or even transcending, capitalism. We propose three principles are helpful for critical social science researchers willing to name and analyse the structural features of capitalism and their relation to greenhouse gas removal technology, policy, and governance. These principles are: (1) Greenhouse Gas Removal technologies are likely to emerge within capitalism, which is crisis prone, growth dependent, market expanding, We use a broad Marxist corpus to justify this principle. (2) There are different varieties of capitalism and this will affect the feasibility of different GGR policies and supports in different nations. We draw on varieties of capitalism and comparative political economy literature to justify this principle. (3) Capitalism is more than an economic system, it is ideologically and culturally maintained. Globally-significant issues such as fundamentalism, institutional mistrust, precarity, and populism, cannot be divorced from our thinking about globally significant deployment of greenhouse gas removal technologies. We use a broad Critical Theory body of work to explore the ideational project of maintaining capitalism and its relation to GGR governance and policy.
      PubDate: 2021-09-21T00:00:00Z
  • Phenological Water Balance Applications for Trend Analyses and Risk

    • Authors: Chris Funk, Juliet Way-Henthorne, Will Turner
      Abstract: The overarching goal of this work is to develop and demonstrate methods that support effective agro-pastoral risk management in a changing climate. Disaster mitigation strategies, such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR), emphasize the need to address underlying causes of disaster risk and to prevent the emergence of new risks. Such assessments can be difficult, because they require transforming changes in meteorological outcomes into sector-specific impact. While it is common to examine trends in seasonal precipitation and precipitation extremes, it is much less common to study how these trends interact with crop and pasture water needs. Here, we show that the Water Requirement (WR) component of the widely used Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) can be used to enhance the interpretation of precipitation changes. The WR helps answer a key question: was the amount of rainfall received in a given season enough to satisfy a crop or pasture's water needs' Our first results section focuses on analyzing spatial patterns of climate change. We show how WR values can be used to translate east African rainfall declines into estimates of crop and rangeland water deficits. We also show that increases in WR, during recent droughts, has intensified aridity in arid regions. In addition, using the PWB, we also show that precipitation increases in humid areas of western east Africa have been producing increasingly frequent excessive rainfall seasons. The second portion of our paper focuses on assessing temporal outcomes for a fixed location (Kenya) to support drought-management scenario development. Kenyan rainfall is decreasing and population is increasing. How can we translate this data into actionable information' The United Nations and World Meteorological Organization advise nations to proactively plan for agro-hydrologic shocks by setting aside sufficient grain and financial resources to help buffer inevitable low-crop production years. We show how precipitation, WR, crop statistics, and population data can be used to help guide 1-in-10 and 1-in-25-year low crop yield scenarios, which could be used to guide Kenya's drought management planning and development. The first and second research components share a common objective: using the PWB to translate rainfall data into more actionable information that can inform disaster risk management and development planning.
      PubDate: 2021-09-20T00:00:00Z
  • Environmental Geopolitics of Climate Engineering Proposals in the IPCC 5th
           Assessment Report

    • Authors: Shannon O'Lear, Madisen K. Hane, Abigail P. Neal, Lauren Louise M. Stallings, Sierra Wadood, Jimin Park
      Abstract: Environmental geopolitics offers an analytical approach that considers how environmental themes are brought into the service of geopolitical agendas. Of particular concern are claims about environment-related security and risk and the justification of actions (or inactions) proposed to deal with those claims. Environmental geopolitical analysis focuses on geographical knowledge and how that knowledge is generated and applied to stabilize specific understandings of the world. Climate engineering is a realm in which certain kinds of geographical knowledge, in the form of scientific interpretations of environmental interactions, are utilized to support a selective agenda that, despite claims about benefiting people and environments on a global scale, may be shown to reinforce uneven relationships of power as well as patterns of injustice. This paper focuses on how the IPCC AR5 discusses and portrays climate engineering. This particular conversation is significant, since the IPCC is widely recognized as reflecting current, international science and understanding of climate change processes and possible responses. We demonstrate an initial, environmental geopolitical analysis of this portrayal and discussion around climate engineering proposals by observing how the role and meaning of environmental features is limited, how human agency and impact in these scenarios is selective, and how insufficient attention is paid to spatial dimensions and impacts of these proposals. This paper contributes to a larger conversation about why it matters how we engage in discussion about climate impacts and issues; a central argument is that it is vital that we consider these proposed plans in terms of what they aim to secure, for whom, how and where.
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T00:00:00Z
  • 3D Printed PEI Containing Adsorbents Supported by Carbon Nanostructures
           for Post-combustion Carbon Capture From Biomass Fired Power Plants

    • Authors: Shreenath Krishnamurthy, Richard Blom, Kari Anne Andreassen, Vesna Middelkoop, Marleen Rombouts, Adolfo Benedito Borras
      Abstract: Processes that utilize solid adsorbents to capture CO2 are promising alternatives to state-of-art Amine based technologies for capturing CO2 from large point sources. Although the energy needs of solid sorbent-based processes are low, the process footprint and consequently the capital cost connected to its implementation can be large due to the relatively long cycle times needed to get the required purity and recovery of the CO2 product. To overcome this challenge, processes having structured adsorbents like laminates, monoliths etc. are needed due to their low pressure drop and better mass transfer characteristics. The aim of this multiscale study is to evaluate the process-based performance of a 3D printed sorbent containing polyethyleneimine (PEI) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for capturing CO2 from a biomass fired power plant flue gas. A 6-step vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) cycle was simulated and optimized using equilibrium and kinetics data obtained from volumetry and breakthrough experiments. The optimization study showed that it was possible to achieve purity values >95% and recovery values >90% from dry CO2 feed streams containing 10 and 15% CO2 respectively. The minimum specific energy values were 0.94 and 0.6 MJ/kg and maximum productivity values were 0.8 and 2.2 mol/m3 ads s, respectively, for the two scenarios.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13T00:00:00Z
  • The Role of Private Environmental Governance in Climate Adaptation

    • Authors: Michael P. Vandenbergh, Bruce M. Johnson
      Abstract: This Article examines the role of private environmental governance (PEG) in climate change adaptation. PEG occurs when private organizations perform traditionally governmental functions such as providing public goods and reducing negative externalities. PEG initiatives that target climate change mitigation have expanded rapidly in the last decade and have been the subject of research in multiple fields, but PEG initiatives that target climate change adaptation have received less attention. As a first step, the Article develops a definition of private governance regarding climate adaption, identifies several types of PEG adaptation initiatives, and briefly identifies research gaps.
      PubDate: 2021-09-10T00:00:00Z
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