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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ABC Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avrasya Terim Dergisi     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Scientific Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
BIBECHANA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BibNum     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bistua : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Básicas     Open Access  
BJHS Themes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Central European Journal of Clinical Research     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencia, Docencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Dharmakarya     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Extensionismo, Innovación y Transferencia Tecnológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 381)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Iberoamerican Journal of Science Measurement and Communication     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Technology and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science & Emerging Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Review of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science     Open Access  
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Interaction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Research     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  

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J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2571-8800
Published by MDPI Homepage  [240 journals]
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 544-563: Ethno-Veterinary Survey and Quantitative Study
           of Medicinal Plants with Anthelmintic Potential Used by Sheep and Goat
           Breeders in the Cotton Zone of Central Benin (West Africa)

    • Authors: Christian Cocou Dansou, Pascal Abiodoun Olounladé, Basile Saka Boni Konmy, Oriane Songbé, Kisito Babatoundé Arigbo, André Boha Aboh, Latifou Lagnika, Sylvie Mawulé Hounzangbé-Adoté
      First page: 544
      Abstract: This study presents the diversity of anthelmintic plants in the cotton zone of Central Benin. The aim was to identify the medicinal anthelmintic plants used by small ruminant breeders in cotton zone of Central Benin to treat gastrointestinal parasites. Three hundred and sixty breeders were selected during individual semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Different quantitative indices of cultural importance were calculated in order to determine the level of use of plant species. Jaccard similarity index (JI) was calculated and Pearson’s correlation was determined for Use Value (UV) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC). In this study, a total of 99 medicinal species, of which 63 have anthelmintic potential, were listed, including Khaya senegalensis, Launaea taraxacifolia, Napoleonaea vogelii, Momordica charantia and Vernonia amygdalina, which all had UV and RFC above 20%. Each of them had a Fidelity Level above 50% and an Informant Agreement Rate (IAR) value close to one. Pearson’s correlation showed a significant correlation between RFC and UV with r = 0.94, and the studies were clearly independent (IJ < 50%). This study showed that the cotton zone of Central Benin represents 4% of the total flora of Benin, with many anthelmintic plants such as Launaea taraxacifolia and Napoleonaea vogelii that require further investigation.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/j4040040
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 564-576: A Systems and Control Theory Approach for Law
           and Artificial Intelligence: Demystifying the “Black-Box”

    • Authors: Woodrow Barfield
      First page: 564
      Abstract: In this paper, I propose a conceptual framework for law and artificial intelligence (AI) that is based on ideas derived from systems and control theory. The approach considers the relationship between the input to an AI-controlled system and the system’s output, which may affect events in the real-world. The approach aims to add to the current discussion among legal scholars and legislators on how to regulate AI, which focuses primarily on how the output, or external behavior of a system, leads to actions that may implicate the law. The goal of this paper is to show that not only is the systems output an important consideration for law and AI but so too is the relationship between the systems input to its desired output, as mediated through a feedback loop (and other control variables). In this paper, I argue that ideas derived from systems and control theory can be used to provide a conceptual framework to help understand how the law applies to AI, and particularly, to algorithmically based systems.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/j4040041
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 577-588: Computational Prediction of New Series of
           

    • Authors: Jack Howard, Joshua Steier, Neel Haldolaarachchige, Kalani Hettiarachchilage
      First page: 577
      Abstract: Dirac materials and their advanced physical properties are one of the most active fields of topological matter. In this paper, we present an ab initio study of electronics properties of newly designed LaXS (X = Si, Ge, Sn) tetragonal structured ternaries, with the absence and presence of spin–orbit coupling. We design the LaXS tetragonal non-symophic p4/nmm space group (no. 129) structures and identify their optimization lattice parameters. The electronic band structures display several Dirac crossings with the coexistence of both type I and type II Dirac points identified by considering the effect of spin–orbit coupling toward the linear crossing. Additionally, we perform the formation energy calculation through the density functional theory (DFT) to predict the stability of the structures and the elastic constants calculations to verify the Born mechanical stability criteria of the compounds.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/j4040042
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 589-603: The European Commission’s Proposal for an
           Artificial Intelligence Act—A Critical Assessment by Members of the
           Robotics and AI Law Society (RAILS)

    • Authors: Martin Ebers, Veronica R. S. Hoch, Frank Rosenkranz, Hannah Ruschemeier, Björn Steinrötter
      First page: 589
      Abstract: On 21 April 2021, the European Commission presented its long-awaited proposal for a Regulation “laying down harmonized rules on Artificial Intelligence”, the so-called “Artificial Intelligence Act” (AIA). This article takes a critical look at the proposed regulation. After an introduction (1), the paper analyzes the unclear preemptive effect of the AIA and EU competences (2), the scope of application (3), the prohibited uses of Artificial Intelligence (AI) (4), the provisions on high-risk AI systems (5), the obligations of providers and users (6), the requirements for AI systems with limited risks (7), the enforcement system (8), the relationship of the AIA with the existing legal framework (9), and the regulatory gaps (10). The last section draws some final conclusions (11).
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/j4040043
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 604-614: Benchmarking Free Energy Calculations in Liquid
           

    • Authors: Roy, Kovalenko
      First page: 604
      Abstract: The three-dimensional reference interaction site model of the molecular solvation theory with the Kovalenko–Hirata closure is used to calculate the free energy of solvation of organic solutes in liquid aliphatic ketones. The ketone solvent sites were modeled using a modified united-atom force field. The successful application of these solvation models in calculating ketone–water partition coefficients of a large number of solutes supports the validation and benchmarking reported here.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/j4040044
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 223-232: Reactivity of Ground Coal Bottom Ash to Be Used
           in Portland Cement

    • Authors: Esperanza Menéndez, Cristina Argiz, Miguel Ángel Sanjuán
      First page: 223
      Abstract: Ground coal bottom ash is considered a novel material when used in common cement production as a blended cement. This new application must be evaluated by means of the study of its pozzolanic properties. Coal bottom ash, in some countries, is being used as a replacement for natural sand, but in some others, it is disposed of in a landfill, leading thus to environmental problems. The pozzolanic properties of ground coal bottom ash and coal fly ash cements were investigated in order to assess their pozzolanic performance. Proportions of coal fly ash and ground coal bottom ash in the mixes were 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 50:50, 0:100. Next, multicomponent cements were formulated using 10%, 25% or 35% of ashes. In general, the pozzolanic performance of the ground coal bottom ash is quite similar to that of the coal fly ash. As expected, the pozzolanic reaction of both of them proceeds slowly at early ages, but the reaction rate increases over time. Ground coal bottom ash is a promising novel material with pozzolanic properties which are comparable to that of coal fly ashes. Then, coal bottom ash subjected to an adequate mechanical grinding is suitable to be used to produce common coal-ash cements.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030018
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 233-243: Correlation between Different Methods to
           Diagnose Foot Posture Condition

    • Authors: Joel Marouvo, Maria António Castro, Carlos Santos, Filipa Sousa
      First page: 233
      Abstract: Background:
      Authors refer to different methods to assess subjects’ foot posture. All methods present several limitations depending on the examiner or the chosen test. This study aims to investigate the relationship between different tests and Footprints parameters to diagnose subjects with a flat and neutral foot. Methods: The sample consisted of 37 participants, where 16 were included in the flatfoot group and 21 in the neutral foot group. Only subjects who presented a Navicular Drop Test value of >9 mm were included in the flatfooted group. All participants were submitted to Resting Calcaneal Stance Position and plantar pressure platform assessment for Footprints analysis. Associations between all tests and Footprints parameters were determined by Pearson’s correlation analysis. Results: Regarding both groups, significant correlations between tests were moderate to nearly perfect to identified both conditions of foot posture. All correlations were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The diagnosis accuracy of foot posture condition can be compromised depending on the used test. The Navicular Drop Test and the Resting Calcaneal Stance Position were shown to mislead foot posture condition assessment, unlike Footprints parameters that can be important evaluation tools in a clinical environment.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030019
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 244-256: Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Satellite Imagery
           (NDVI) to Identify Terroir and Vineyard Yeast Differences according to
           Appellation of Origin (AOP) and Biogeographic Origin

    • Authors: Sergio Vélez, Enrique Barajas, Pilar Blanco, José Antonio Rubio, David Castrillo
      First page: 244
      Abstract: Terroir is one of the core concepts associated with wine and presumes that the land from which the grapes are grown, the plant habitat, imparts a unique quality that is specific to that growing site. Additionally, numerous factors can influence yeast diversity, and terroir is among the most relevant. Therefore, it can be interesting to use Remote Sensing tools that help identify and give helpful information about the terroir and key characteristics that define the AOP (Appellation of Origin). In this study, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) calculated from Landsat 8 imagery was used to perform a spatio-temporal analysis during 2013, 2014, and 2015 of several vineyards belonging to four different AOP in Galicia (Spain). This work shows that it is possible to use Remote Sensing for AOP delimitation. Results suggest: (i) satellite imagery can establish differences in terroir, (ii) the higher the NDVI, the higher the yeast species richness, (iii) the relationship between NDVI, terroir, and yeasts shows a stable trend over the years (Pearson’s r = 0.3894, p = 0.0119).
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030020
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 257-265: Postural Control and Sleep Quality in Cognitive
           Dual Tasking in Healthy Young Adults

    • Authors: Marina Saraiva, Joel Marouvo, Orlando Fernandes, Maria António Castro, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
      First page: 257
      Abstract: Although sleep quality disorders can have a negative effect on postural control, studies about this subject are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the differences in standing posture performance during dual tasking between healthy young adults with a good and poor sleep quality. Thirty-five healthy participants (23.09 ± 3.97 years) performed a postural task (standing posture single task ((ST)) and a dual task (DT): quiet standing while performing a concurrent cognitive task, while the total excursion of the center of pressure (TOTEX CoP), the displacement anterior–posterior (CoP-AP) and medial–lateral (CoP-ML), the mean total velocity displacement of CoP (MVELO CoP) and ellipse sway area (CEA) were measured with a force plate. After assessing the sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, they were divided into two groups (good ((n = 21)) and poor ((n = 14)) sleep quality) to establish comparisons. This study revealed no significant differences in TOTEX CoP, CoP-ML, CoP-AP, MVELO CoP, and CEA among both sleep quality groups. In conclusion, differences in the sleep quality (good or poor sleep quality) among young adults appear not to be a relevant factor in the CoP variation, but the DT versus ST can compromise postural control performance independently of the sleep quality.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030021
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 266-287: Hydrogen Production by Fluidized Bed Reactors: A
           Quantitative Perspective Using the Supervised Machine Learning Approach

    • Authors: Zheng Lian, Yixiao Wang, Xiyue Zhang, Abubakar Yusuf, Lord Famiyeh, David Murindababisha, Huan Jin, Yiyang Liu, Jun He, Yunshan Wang, Gang Yang, Yong Sun
      First page: 266
      Abstract: The current hydrogen generation technologies, especially biomass gasification using fluidized bed reactors (FBRs), were rigorously reviewed. There are involute operational parameters in a fluidized bed gasifier that determine the anticipated outcomes for hydrogen production purposes. However, limited reviews are present that link these parametric conditions with the corresponding performances based on experimental data collection. Using the constructed artificial neural networks (ANNs) as the supervised machine learning algorithm for data training, the operational parameters from 52 literature reports were utilized to perform both the qualitative and quantitative assessments of the performance, such as the hydrogen yield (HY), hydrogen content (HC) and carbon conversion efficiency (CCE). Seven types of operational parameters, including the steam-to-biomass ratio (SBR), equivalent ratio (ER), temperature, particle size of the feedstock, residence time, lower heating value (LHV) and carbon content (CC), were closely investigated. Six binary parameters have been identified to be statistically significant to the performance parameters (hydrogen yield (HY)), hydrogen content (HC) and carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimal operational conditions derived from the machine leaning were recommended according to the needs of the outcomes. This review may provide helpful insights for researchers to comprehensively consider the operational conditions in order to achieve high hydrogen production using fluidized bed reactors during biomass gasification.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030022
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 288-307: Topical Emulsion Containing Lavandula stoechas
           Essential Oil as a Therapeutic Agent for Cutaneous Wound Healing

    • Authors: Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem, Henni Chader, Aicha Houche, Faiza Oudjida, Fatma Benkebaili, Yahia Hakim
      First page: 288
      Abstract: Background and objectives: The present research was designed to evaluate the chemical composition of Lavandula stoechas essential oil (EOLS) as well as the in vivo wound-healing property. The chemical composition of EOLS was identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Nineteen compounds of EOLS were reported. Linalool was identified as the major chemical compound (24.87%), followed by linalyl acetate (19.10%). EOLS showed a high content of oxygenated compounds (63.54%). In vivo wound healing activity of the topical cream prepared from EOLS (0.5% w/w) was assessed using a circular excision wound model. The wound area (mm2) in all animal groups was estimated and measured on day 0, 4, 8, 11, and 16. Results: The EOLS formulation cream (0.5% v/w) showed the highest effect on wound models when compared to reference Madecassol® (Asiaticoside). On days 4, 11, and 16, wound contractions were 26.4%, 78%, and 96.3% for the EOLS-treated group, and 8.5%, 64.1%, and 86.1% for the vehicle cream-treated group. Animals treated with EOLS cream showed a significant decrease in the epithelization period, wound area, and scar thickness, whereas the rate of wound contraction significantly increased. This is the first such report to be published. Histological analyses were also consistent with the results of the excision experimental method. Treatment with EOLS cream formulation resulted in decreased inflammation and an increased rate of tissue perfusion and proliferation as well as remodeling, along with re-epithelization. Conclusions: Our results support the use of EOLS in the development of pharmaceuticals for the management of wounds, and/or inflammatory-related diseases. Additional studies are needed to elucidate and explain the exact mechanism of its pharmacological activity.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030023
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 308-327: Filtering-Based Instance Selection Method for
           Overlapping Problem in Imbalanced Datasets

    • Authors: Marcio Rubbo, Leandro A. Silva
      First page: 308
      Abstract: The overlapping problem occurs when a region of the dimensional data space is shared in a similar proportion by different classes. It has an impact on a classifier’s performance due to the difficulty in correctly separating the classes. Further, an imbalanced dataset consists of a situation in which one class has more instances than another, and this is another aspect that impacts a classifier’s performance. In general, these two problems are treated separately. On the other hand, Prototype Selection (PS) approaches are employed as strategies for selecting appropriate instances from a dataset by filtering redundant and noise data, which can cause misclassification performance. In this paper, we introduce Filtering-based Instance Selection (FIS), using as a base the Self-Organizing Maps Neural Network (SOM) and information entropy. In this sense, SOM is trained with a dataset, and, then, the instances of the training set are mapped to the nearest prototype (SOM neurons). An analysis with entropy is conducted in each prototype region. From a threshold, we propose three decision methods: filtering the majority class (H-FIS (High Filter IS)), the minority class (L-FIS (Low Filter IS)), and both classes (B-FIS). The experiments using artificial and real dataset showed that the methods proposed in combination with 1NN improved the accuracy, F-Score, and G-mean values when compared with the 1NN classifier without the filter methods. The FIS approach is also compatible with the approaches mentioned in the relevant literature.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030024
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 328-340: Global Stability and Exponential Decay of
           Processes in Nonlinear Feedback Systems with Different Fractional Orders

    • Authors: Tadeusz Kaczorek, Łukasz Sajewski
      First page: 328
      Abstract: The global stability of continuous-time multi-input multi-output nonlinear feedback systems with different fractional orders and interval matrices of positive linear parts is investigated. New sufficient conditions for the global stability of this class of positive nonlinear systems are established. Sufficient conditions for the exponential decay of processes in fractional nonlinear systems are given. Procedures for computation of a gain matrix characterizing the class of nonlinear elements are proposed and illustrated by examples.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030025
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 341-355: Semi-Dilute Dumbbells: Solutions of the
           Fokker–Planck Equation

    • Authors: Stephen Chaffin, Julia Rees
      First page: 341
      Abstract: Spring bead models are commonly used in the constitutive equations for polymer melts. One such model based on kinetic theory—the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic dumbbell model incorporating a Peterlin closure approximation (FENE-P)—has previously been applied to study concentration-dependent anisotropy with the inclusion of a mean-field term to account for intermolecular forces in dilute polymer solutions for background profiles of weak shear and elongation. These investigations involved the solution of the Fokker–Planck equation incorporating a constitutive equation for the second moment. In this paper, we extend this analysis to include the effects of large background shear and elongation beyond the Hookean regime. Further, the constitutive equation is solved for the probability density function which permits the computation of any macroscopic variable, allowing direct comparison of the model predictions with molecular dynamics simulations. It was found that if the concentration effects at equilibrium are taken into account, the FENE-P model gives qualitatively the correct predictions, although the over-shoot in extension in comparison to the infinitely dilute case is significantly underpredicted.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030026
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 356-366: A Cost-Effective IoT Model for a Smart Sewerage
           Management System Using Sensors

    • Authors: Jahid Hasan Rony, Nazmul Karim, MD. Abdur Rouf, Md. Monirul Islam, Jia Uddin, Momotaz Begum
      First page: 356
      Abstract: The sewerage system is a primary element of a city and is responsible for the congestion of both rain and gray water from homes and industries. It is essential to have a monitoring system and a plan to perform prior expansion in the sewerage management system, to avoid massive disruption. However, there is no monitoring system in several overpopulated cities in the world, and the expansion process faces myriad difficulties and takes much time. This paper presents a model for an intelligent sewerage management system that provides real-time monitoring without any major changes to the previous system, using water sensors, a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) module, and a micro-controller. The condition of the sewerage acts as an input through the sensors; then, the microcontroller stores the value in the cloud and performs waste collection depending on the current situation. Meanwhile, after processing, the information reaches the monitoring system. Various trial installations of the proposed system have shown that it enables real-time monitoring to observe live conditions and helps to prevent sewerage blockage caused by solid waste. Considering a deficient cost model, this system can intensify the performance of poorly managed sewerage systems.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030027
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 367-375: Pyoderma Gangrenosum: A Review of Updates in
           Diagnosis, Pathophysiology and Management

    • Authors: Maria Skopis, Ayse Bag-Ozbek
      First page: 367
      Abstract: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare entity that is characterized by infiltration of neutrophils into the dermis, causing the formation of rapidly enlarging, painful and necrotic skin ulcers. The pathophysiology of PG is still poorly understood. However, genetic, autoimmune and autoinflammatory mechanisms have been proposed that could potentially explain the etiology of this ulcerating skin disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment are key, as the disease course is rapidly progressive and can leave disfiguring, cribriform scars. However, the diagnosis of PG proves difficult, firstly because there are multiple variants of the disease and secondly because it is a clinical diagnosis and can appear similar to that of other diseases such as vasculitis, skin/soft tissue infections and malignancy. Additionally, there are no official diagnostic criteria to aid in the recognition of PG, which often leads to significant delays in diagnosis. The treatment of PG consists in immunosuppression. However, due to a lack of standardized guidelines, therapeutic regimens are usually dependent upon the individual clinician’s experience and are based on little evidence. Knowledge of the clinical features and pathophysiology of PG can aid in early diagnosis and targeted treatment strategies, which in turn results in improved patient outcomes.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030028
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 376-393: Emotions Evoked by Geometric Patterns

    • Authors: Laura Trautmann
      First page: 376
      Abstract: Many studies have shown that the appearance of products has a great impact on consumers. In addition to functionality, aesthetics is of paramount importance in many branches of product design. Visual appearance includes, among other things, the colour, shape, and pattern of the product. The effect of shapes and colours is often studied, but not much data are available on the emotional impact of patterns. This study specifically examines the impact of geometric patterns, which may be of help in the work of product designers. Interviews and questionnaires based on a newly introduced method revealed, for instance, that the basic geometry that makes up geometric patterns and the way the pattern is arranged fundamentally influence the effect of the pattern on consumers.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030029
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 394-403: Compost Functions as Effective Replacement for
           Peat-Based Potting Media in Organic Greenhouse Transplant Production

    • Authors: Tsuzuchi Isaka, Sean Clark, Janet Meyer
      First page: 394
      Abstract: Commercial horticulture in many regions of the world depends upon Sphagnum peat as a potting-media substrate, but extracting peat has serious environmental consequences. Composts may be able to serve as effective substitutes for peat and offer potential environmental advantages. The suitability of compost as potting media depends upon the raw materials as well as processing methods used. This study includes two related experiments—one with beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and the other with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)—aimed at assessing the potential viability of farm-produced, food-residuals compost as a replacement for peat-based potting media in the production of organic vegetable transplants. The experiments were conducted in 2021 on the Berea College Farm in Kentucky, USA, a USDA certified organic farm. The results indicated that potting media composed of 75% to 100% compost performed as well as fertilized, peat-based growing media for plant growth. Further, although weeds were present in the compost, weed pressure was not severe enough to adversely affect crop growth. Thus, sterilization of compost, which did eliminate weeds in the compost, was not deemed necessary for using the compost as a partial or complete potting medium. Compost pasteurization was also assessed but was ineffective in destroying weed seeds.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030030
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 404-419: Subjective Quality Assessment for Cloud Gaming

    • Authors: Abdul Wahab, Nafi Ahmad, Maria G. Martini, John Schormans
      First page: 404
      Abstract: Using subjective testing, we study the effect of the network parameters, delay and packet loss ratio, on the QoE of cloud gaming. We studied three different games, selected based on genre, popularity, content complexity and pace, and tested them in a controlled network environment, using a novel emulator to create realistic lognormal delay distributions instead of relying on a static mean delay, as used previously; we also used Parsec as a good representative of the state of the art. We captured user ratings on an ordinal Absolute Category Rating scale for three quality dimensions: Video QoE, Game-Playability QoE, and Overall QoE. We show that Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) for the game with the highest levels of content complexity and pace are most severely affected by network impairments. We also show that the QoE of interactive cloud applications rely more on the game playability than the video quality of the game. Unlike earlier studies, the differences in MOS are validated using the distributions of the underlying dimensions. A Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test showed that the distributions of Video QoE and Game Playability QoE are not significantly different.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030031
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 420-429: Effect of Land Surface Temperature on Urban Heat
           Island in Varanasi City, India

    • Authors: Amit Kumar, Vivek Agarwal, Lalit Pal, Surendra Kumar Chandniha, Vishal Mishra
      First page: 420
      Abstract: Crucial changes in urban climate can be witnessed due to rapid urbanisation of cities across the world. It is important to find a balance between urban expansion and thermal environment quality to guarantee sustainable urban development. Thus, it is a major research priority to study the urban heat island (UHI) in various fields, i.e., climate change urban ecology, urban climatology, urban planning, mitigation and management, urban geography, etc. The present study highlighted the interrelationship between land surface temperature (LST) and the abundance of impervious cover and green cover in the Varanasi city of Uttar Pradesh, India. For this purpose, we used various GIS and remote-sensing techniques. Landsat 8 images, land-use–land-cover pattern including urban/rural gradients, and grid- and metric-based multi-resolution techniques were used for the analysis. From the study, it was noticed that LST, density of impervious cover, and density of green cover were correlated significantly, and an urban gradient existed over the entire city, depicting a typical UHI profile. It was also concluded that the orientation, randomness, and aggregation of impervious cover and green cover have a strong correlation with LST. From this study, it is recommended that, when planning urban extension, spatial variation of impervious cover and green cover are designed properly to ensure the comfort of all living beings as per the ecological point of view.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030032
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 430-443: Nutritional, Textural, and Sensory Quality of
           Aloe Vera Leaf Gel Powder Fortified Plain Cake

    • Authors: Dhrubajyoti Singha, Md. Fahad Jubayer, Kumkum Devnath, Delara Akhter, Thottiam Vasudevan Ranganathan, Md. Towhidur Rahman, Md. Anisur Rahman Mazumder
      First page: 430
      Abstract: Aloe Vera leaves have great potential as an economic supplement with an adequate nutritional profile. The current study aimed to fortify plain (loaf) cakes with Aloe Vera leaf gel (AVG) powder. AVG was freeze-dried to produce Aloe Vera powder (ALP), and four plain (loaf) cakes were prepared with different proportions of ALP (0, 4, 6, and 8%). ALP contained significantly (p < 0.05) more protein (22.23 vs. 12.24), ash (19.83 vs. 0.64), and iron (175 vs. 3.05) than refined wheat flour (RWF). Along with total polyphenols and total flavonoids, ALP demonstrated good antioxidant activity. ALP-cakes and RWF-cakes were also evaluated for their nutritional and functional properties. The addition of 6 and 8% ALP to the formulation increased total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity in plain (loaf) cakes. Hardness and chewiness increased in ALP-cakes but decreased in RWF-cakes, while cohesiveness and springiness decreased in ALP-cakes. In conclusion, the best formulation was a 4% ALP incorporated cake, and ALP can be supplemented in plain cakes at a rate of up to 8% to improve nutrient value. This is the first study to evaluate the quality characteristics of fortified plain (loaf) cakes using ALP.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030033
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 444-451: Rethinking Figure-of-Merits of Liquid Crystals
           Shielded Coplanar Waveguide Phase Shifters at 60 GHz

    • Authors: Jinfeng Li
      First page: 444
      Abstract: The demand for reconfigurable millimetre-wave (mm-Wave) components based on highly anisotropic liquid crystals (LC) is higher than ever before for the UK and worldwide. In this work, 60 GHz investigation on a bespoke shielded coplanar waveguide (SCPW) phase shifter structure filled with 16 types of microwave-enabled nematic LCs respectively indicates that the patterns of the device’s figure-of-merit (FoM, defined as the ratio of maximum differential phase shift to maximum insertion loss) reshuffle from those of the characterised LC materials’ FoM (defined as the ratio of tunability to maximum dissipation factor). To be more specific, GT7-29001- and MDA-03-2838-based phase shifters exhibit the highest FoM for devices, outperforming phase shifters based on GT5-28004 and TUD-566 with the highest FoM for materials. Such a mismatch between the device’s FoM and LC’s FoM implies a nonlinearly perturbed wave-occupied volume ratio effect. Furthermore, the relationship between insertion loss and the effective delay line length is nonlinear, as evidenced by measurement results of two phase shifters (0–π and 0–2π, respectively). Such nonlinearities complicate the established FoM metrics and potentially lead to a renewed interest in the selection and material synthesis of LCs to optimise reconfigurable mmWave devices, and promote their technological exploitation in phased array systems targeting demanding applications such as inter-satellite links and satellite internet.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030034
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 452-475: The Question of Algorithmic Personhood and Being
           (Or: On the Tenuous Nature of Human Status and Humanity Tests in Virtual
           Spaces—Why All Souls Are ‘Necessarily’ Equal When Considered as
           Energy)

    • Authors: Tyler Lance Jaynes
      First page: 452
      Abstract: What separates the unique nature of human consciousness and that of an entity that can only perceive the world via strict logic-based structures' Rather than assume that there is some potential way in which logic-only existence is non-feasible, our species would be better served by assuming that such sentient existence is feasible. Under this assumption, artificial intelligence systems (AIS), which are creations that run solely upon logic to process data, even with self-learning architectures, should therefore not face the opposition they have to gaining some legal duties and protections insofar as they are sophisticated enough to display consciousness akin to humans. Should our species enable AIS to gain a digital body to inhabit (if we have not already done so), it is more pressing than ever that solid arguments be made as to how humanity can accept AIS as being cognizant of the same degree as we ourselves claim to be. By accepting the notion that AIS can and will be able to fool our senses into believing in their claim to possessing a will or ego, we may yet have a chance to address them as equals before some unforgivable travesty occurs betwixt ourselves and these super-computing beings.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030035
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 476-485: Thromboembolism and Bleeding in COVID-19

    • Authors: Koray Durak
      First page: 476
      Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by a coagulation dysfunction which has different underlying mechanisms and factors. Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have an increased risk for thromboembolic and bleeding complications. Incidences are high, and mainly consist of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended in all hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Therapeutic doses of antithrombotic agents are only beneficial in noncritically ill patients, and usual care thromboprophylaxis is sufficient in critically ill patients at the ICU. Regarding screening for VTE, high quality evidence is warranted to investigate the significance of asymptomatic DVT in the ICU setting and its influence on PE and mortality.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030036
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 486-499: Artificial Intelligence ante portas: Reactions
           of Law

    • Authors: Rolf H. Weber
      First page: 486
      Abstract: Artificial intelligence and algorithmic decision-making causes new (technological) challenges for the normative environment around the globe. Fundamental legal principles (such as non-discrimination, human rights, transparency) need to be strengthened by regulatory interventions. The contribution pleads for a combination of regulatory models (hard law and soft law); based on this assessment, the recent European legislative initiatives are analyzed.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030037
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 500-530: Photocatalysis and Li-Ion Battery Applications
           of {001} Faceted Anatase TiO2-Based Composites

    • Authors: Anuja Bokare, Folarin Erogbogbo
      First page: 500
      Abstract: Anatase TiO2 are the most widely used photocatalysts because of their unique electronic, optical and catalytic properties. Surface chemistry plays a very important role in the various applications of anatase TiO2 especially in the catalysis, photocatalysis, energy conversion and energy storage. Control of the surface structure by crystal facet engineering has become an important strategy for tuning and optimizing the physicochemical properties of TiO2. For anatase TiO2, the {001} crystal facets are the most reactive because they exhibit unique surface characteristics such as visible light responsiveness, dissociative adsorption, efficient charge separation capabilities and photocatalytic selectivity. In this review, a concise survey of the literature in the field of {001} dominated anatase TiO2 crystals and their composites is presented. To begin, the existing strategies for the synthesis of {001} dominated anatase TiO2 and their composites are discussed. These synthesis strategies include both fluorine-mediated and fluorine-free synthesis routes. Then, a detailed account of the effect of {001} facets on the physicochemical properties of TiO2 and their composites are reviewed, with a particular focus on photocatalysis and Li-ion batteries applications. Finally, an outlook is given on future strategies discussing the remaining challenges for the development of {001} dominated TiO2 nanomaterials and their potential applications.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030038
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 531-543: Food Service Inspection Capacity: Needs
           Assessment in a Philippine Local Government Unit

    • Authors: Wessam M. Atif, Craig MacDonald
      First page: 531
      Abstract: Applying scientific evidence through risk analysis is an important orientation for the international frameworks that have informed the Philippines’ current food-safety legislation. When implementing this legislation, local government units (LGUs) in the Philippines deal with manifold critical responsibilities using various product-based inspection procedures. This qualitative study was conducted at the end of 2017 with a focus on exploring one LGU’s food service inspection practices. The twofold aim was to find needs in the current food inspection capacity, and to illuminate how risk-based legislation is enacted among LGUs in the Philippines. Taking a discursive approach to help explain and describe the LGU’s practices and needs, the methods included an analysis of administrative documents, focus-group discussions, and observational research. This study explains the LGU’s role in carrying out food agencies’ national responsibilities; it also describes how, if adequate resources were available, new roles could exist for food safety officers and food inspectors. In conclusion, fulfilling the LGU’s needs with respect to national and regional standards would require implementation of a risk-based approach for food inspection.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/j4030039
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 82-83: Applied Superconductivity and Magnetism

    • Authors: Vladimir R. Romanovskii, Igor A. Rudnev
      First page: 82
      Abstract: A magnetic field, which is one of the more important physical parameters, allows the properties of materials to change [...]
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/j4020006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 84-85: Advance in Molecular Thermodynamics

    • Authors: Fumio Hirata
      First page: 84
      Abstract: “Thermodynamics” is one of the oldest but the most fundamental concepts of modern science and technology [...]
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/j4020007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 86-100: Fractional SIR-Model for Estimating Transmission
           Dynamics of COVID-19 in India

    • Authors: Nita H. Shah, Ankush H. Suthar, Ekta N. Jayswal, Ankit Sikarwar
      First page: 86
      Abstract: In this article, a time-dependent susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model is constructed to investigate the transmission rate of COVID-19 in various regions of India. The model included the fundamental parameters on which the transmission rate of the infection is dependent, like the population density, contact rate, recovery rate, and intensity of the infection in the respective region. Looking at the great diversity in different geographic locations in India, we determined to calculate the basic reproduction number for all Indian districts based on the COVID-19 data till 7 July 2020. By preparing district-wise spatial distribution maps with the help of ArcGIS 10.2, the model was employed to show the effect of complete lockdown on the transmission rate of the COVID-19 infection in Indian districts. Moreover, with the model’s transformation to the fractional ordered dynamical system, we found that the nature of the proposed SIR model is different for the different order of the systems. The sensitivity analysis of the basic reproduction number is done graphically which forecasts the change in the transmission rate of COVID-19 infection with change in different parameters. In the numerical simulation section, oscillations and variations in the model compartments are shown for two different situations, with and without lockdown.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/j4020008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 101-115: Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel
           Lignin-Based Biopolymer from Ulex europaeus: A Preliminary Study

    • Authors: Andrés F. Bonilla, Diego A. Bonilla
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Invasive plant species are a global environmental threat since they affect native species and can modify ecosystems, which negatively impacts human health and world economics. The aim of this preliminary study was to synthesize and characterize a new lignin-based biopolymer from gorse (Ulex europaeus), a globally widespread invasive plant. The lignin extraction was carried out through base/acid and solvent-based methodologies to compare the reaction yield. Subsequent polymerization of the extracted lignin was performed by glycine condensation in a 70% 1,4-dioxane solution with H2O2 and CaCl2 as catalysts. The extraction and polymerization products were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermal and stability properties of the new biopolymer were determined by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and a soil burial test. The alkaline extraction process of lignin resulted in a higher yield than the process using an organic solvent. In comparison to the extracted lignin, the novel biopolymer showed different absorption bands that are characteristic of tensions and flexions of alkenes, amine, and amide groups. Additionally, thermal properties revealed peaks corresponding to decomposition and dehydration reactions, endothermic processes and a glass transition temperature of ≈259 °C. Potential biodegradation was observed. A new polymeric, possibly cross-linked, thermally stable material with a potentially high degree of crystallinity was synthesized from a renewable raw material, which might contribute to the gorse management according to the concept of novel ecosystem, as well as the reduction in contamination by other polymeric materials.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/j4020009
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 116-130: Potential Use of Indoor Living Walls in Canadian
           Dwellings

    • Authors: Daria Smolova, Avi Friedman
      First page: 116
      Abstract: Current social and environmental challenges have led to the rethinking of residential designs. Global warming, food insecurity, and, as a result, costly fresh produce are some of the causes of the reconsideration. Moreover, with obligatory isolation following the global COVID-19 pandemic, some are realizing the importance of nature and air quality in homes. This paper explores the potential integration of indoor living walls (ILWs) in Canadian homes for agricultural and air purification purposes. By reviewing a number of case studies, this paper investigates how the development of such walls can alter the traditional food production chain, while reducing environmental threats. The findings show that current indoor living wall practices can be transformed into a useful source of fresh food, and, to some degree, alter traditional food supply. They can also help in creating inexpensive methods of air purification.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/j4020010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 131-146: COVID-19 Mortality in English Neighborhoods: The
           Relative Role of Socioeconomic and Environmental Factors

    • Authors: Peter Congdon
      First page: 131
      Abstract: Factors underlying neighborhood variation in COVID-19 mortality are important to assess in order to prioritize resourcing and policy intervention. As well as characteristics of area populations, such as health status and ethnic mix, it is important to assess the role of more specifically environmental variables (e.g., air quality, green space access). The analysis of this study focuses on neighborhood mortality variations during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in England against a range of postulated area risk factors, both socio-demographic and environmental. We assess mortality gradients across levels of each risk factor and use regression methods to control for multicollinearity and spatially correlated unobserved risks. An analysis of spatial clustering is based on relative mortality risks estimated from the regression. We find mortality gradients in most risk factors showing appreciable differences in COVID mortality risk between English neighborhoods. A regression analysis shows that after allowing for health deprivation, ethnic mix, and ethnic segregation, environment (especially air quality) is an important influence on COVID mortality. Hence, environmental influences on COVID mortality risk in the UK first wave are substantial, after allowing for socio-demographic factors. Spatial clustering of high mortality shows a pronounced metropolitan-rural contrast, reflecting especially ethnic composition and air quality.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/j4020011
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 147-153: The Importance of Implementing Cyber Physical
           Systems to Acquire Real-Time Data and Indicators

    • Authors: Paula Morella, María Pilar Lambán, Jesús Antonio Royo, Juan Carlos Sánchez
      First page: 147
      Abstract: Among the new trends in technology that have emerged through the Industry 4.0, Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) and Internet of Things (IoT) are crucial for the real-time data acquisition. This data acquisition, together with its transformation in valuable information, are indispensable for the development of real-time indicators. Moreover, real-time indicators provide companies with a competitive advantage over the competition since they enhance the calculus and speed up the decision-making and failure detection. Our research highlights the advantages of real-time data acquisition for supply chains, developing indicators that would be impossible to achieve with traditional systems, improving the accuracy of the existing ones and enhancing the real-time decision-making. Moreover, it brings out the importance of integrating technologies 4.0 in industry, in this case, CPS and IoT, and establishes the main points for a future research agenda of this topic.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/j4020012
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 154-168: Ce2O3/BiVO4 Embedded in rGO as Photocatalyst for
           the Degradation of Methyl Orange under Visible Light Irradiation

    • Authors: Damian C. Onwudiwe, Boitumelo M. Phadi, Opeyemi A. Oyewo
      First page: 154
      Abstract: A p–n heterojunction semiconductor structure composed of Ce3O4 and BiVO4 has been synthesized and then incorporated into reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by the hydrothermal method. The ternary composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS), and UV–vis spectroscopy. The efficiency of the composites as photocatalysts was determined by studying the oxidative degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The effect of parameters such as pH, catalyst loading, and concentration of the dye solution was examined in order to determine their influence on the photocatalytic activity of the composites. The composite incorporated into reduced graphene oxide presented the highest percentage (above 90%) in 2 h time, attributed to the effect of the increased surface area. The process of the enhanced photocatalytic activity has been discussed based on the energy band positions of the nanoparticles within the composite.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/j4020013
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 169-181: Prevalence and Factors Associated with Hygiene
           Behaviours among In-School Adolescents in Ghana

    • Authors: Abdul-Aziz Seidu, Hubert Amu, Tarif Salihu, John Elvis Hagan, Ebenezer Agbaglo, Abigail Amoah, Eric Abodey, Margaret Abokoma Boateng, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah
      First page: 169
      Abstract: (1) Background: Despite a global call to act to resolve communicable diseases caused by lack of clean water, sanitation, and hygiene, many people in low- and middle-income countries continue to die each year. In this study, we looked at in-school adolescents’ oral and hand hygiene activities in Ghana, as well as the factors that influence them. (2) Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that utilised data on 1348 in-school adolescents from the 2012 global school-based health survey. Using Stata software version 14.2, descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. All statistical analyses were considered significant at p-value < 0.05. (3) Results: The prevalence of good hygiene behaviour was 62.6% and 79.9% for good oral hygiene and good hand hygiene, respectively. In-school adolescents who were truant were 31% (AOR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.51–0.92) and 28% (AOR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54–0.87), respectively, less likely to practise good hand and oral hygiene compared to those who were not. Adolescents whose parents supervised their homework, however, had higher probabilities of practising good hand (AOR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.64–2.31) and oral (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.80–3.04) hygiene respectively. Adolescents aged 18 years and above were 1.33 times more likely to practice good oral hygiene than younger adolescents (AOR=1.33, 95% CI = 1.07–1.66). Adolescents who were bullied had lower odds of practicing good hand hygiene (AOR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.52–0.94). (4) Conclusions: While good hygiene behaviour remains a major strategy in decreasing the prevalence of communicable diseases, the less than 65% prevalence of hand hygiene we observed in the current study is indicative of the country’s inability to achieve water, hygiene and sanitation for all by the year 2030. To accelerate progress towards meeting the Sustainable Development Goal 6.2, there is a need for the implementation of innovative interventions which seek to promote good hygiene behaviours among adolescents and the expansion of existing interventions, such as the WASH initiative, in schools. Such interventions should focus more on younger adolescents, those who are truant, and adolescents who suffer from bullying in school.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/j4020014
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 182-192: Estimating Health over Space and Time: A Review
           of Spatial Microsimulation Applied to Public Health

    • Authors: Dianna M. Smith, Alison Heppenstall, Monique Campbell
      First page: 182
      Abstract: There is an ongoing demand for data on population health, for reasons of resource allocation, future planning and crucially to address inequalities in health between people and between populations. Although there are regular sources of data at coarse spatial scales, such as countries or large sub-national units such as states, there is often a lack of good quality health data at the local level. One method to develop reliable estimates of population health outcomes is spatial microsimulation, an approach that has its roots in economic studies. Here, we share a review of this method for estimating health in populations, explaining the different approaches available and examples where the method is applied successfully for creating both static and dynamic populations. Recent notable advances in the method that allow uncertainty to be represented are highlighted, along with the evolving approaches to validation that are an ongoing challenge in small-area estimation. The summary serves as a primer for academics new to the area of research as well as an overview for non-academic researchers who consider using these models for policy evaluations.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/j4020015
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 193-205: Adsorptive and Coagulative Removal of Trace
           Metals from Water Using Surface Modified Sawdust-Based Cellulose
           Nanocrystals

    • Authors: Opeyemi A. Oyewo, Sam Ramaila, Lydia Mavuru, Taile Leswifi, Maurice S. Onyango
      First page: 193
      Abstract: The presence of toxic metals in surface and natural waters, even at trace levels, poses a great danger to humans and the ecosystem. Although the combination of adsorption and coagulation techniques has the potential to eradicate this problem, the use of inappropriate media remains a major drawback. This study reports on the application of NaNO2/NaHCO3 modified sawdust-based cellulose nanocrystals (MCNC) as both coagulant and adsorbent for the removal of Cu, Fe and Pb from aqueous solution. The surface modified coagulants, prepared by electrostatic interactions, were characterized using Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS). The amount of coagulated/adsorbed trace metals was then analysed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). SEM analysis revealed the patchy and distributed floccules on Fe-flocs, which was an indication of multiple mechanisms responsible for Fe removal onto MCNC. A shift in the peak position attributed to C2H192N64O16 from 2θ = 30 to 24.5° occurred in the XRD pattern of both Pb- and Cu-flocs. Different process variables, including initial metal ions concentration (10–200 mg/L), solution pH (2–10), and temperature (25–45 °C) were studied in order to investigate how they affect the reaction process. Both Cu and Pb adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 111.1 and 2.82 mg/g, respectively, whereas the adsorption of Fe was suggestive of a multilayer adsorption process; however, Fe Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 81.96 mg/g. The sequence of trace metals removal followed the order: Cu > Fe > Pb. The utilization of this product in different water matrices is an effective way to establish their robustness.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/j4020016
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 206-222: Medical Device Regulation Efforts for mHealth
           Apps during the COVID-19 Pandemic—An Experience Report of Corona Check
           and Corona Health

    • Authors: Marc Holfelder, Lena Mulansky, Winfried Schlee, Harald Baumeister, Johannes Schobel, Helmut Greger, Andreas Hoff, Rüdiger Pryss
      First page: 206
      Abstract: Within the healthcare environment, mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) are becoming more and more important. The number of new mHealth apps has risen steadily in the last years. Especially the COVID-19 pandemic has led to an enormous amount of app releases. In most countries, mHealth applications have to be compliant with several regulatory aspects to be declared a “medical app”. However, the latest applicable medical device regulation (MDR) does not provide more details on the requirements for mHealth applications. When developing a medical app, it is essential that all contributors in an interdisciplinary team—especially software engineers—are aware of the specific regulatory requirements beforehand. The development process, however, should not be stalled due to integration of the MDR. Therefore, a developing framework that includes these aspects is required to facilitate a reliable and quick development process. The paper at hand introduces the creation of such a framework on the basis of the Corona Health and Corona Check apps. The relevant regulatory guidelines are listed and summarized as a guidance for medical app developments during the pandemic and beyond. In particular, the important stages and challenges faced that emerged during the entire development process are highlighted.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/j4020017
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 22-48: Time- and Frequency-Domain Steady-State Solutions
           of Nonlinear Motional Eddy Currents Problems

    • Authors: Léo A.J. Friedrich
      First page: 22
      Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of different time- and frequency-domain solvers for the steady-state simulation of the eddy current phenomena, due to the motion of a permanent magnet array, occurring in the soft-magnetic stator core of electrical machines that exhibits nonlinear material characteristics. Three different dynamic solvers are implemented in the framework of the isogeometric analysis, namely the traditional time-stepping backward-Euler technique, the space-time Galerkin approach, and the harmonic balance method, which operates in the frequency domain. Two-dimensional electrical machine benchmarks, consisting of both slotless and slotted stator core, are considered to establish the accuracy, convergence, and computational efficiency of the presented solvers.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/j4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 49-50: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of J in 2020

    • Authors: J Editorial Office J Editorial Office
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that J maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...]
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/j4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 51-61: Wastewater Refinery: Producing Multiple Valuable
           Outputs from Wastewater

    • Authors: Sigrid Kusch-Brandt, Mohammad A. T. Alsheyab
      First page: 51
      Abstract: A wastewater refinery is a multifunctional solution that combines different technologies and processing schemes to recover a spectrum of valuable materials from municipal or industrial wastewater. The concept of wastewater refinery introduces a new perspective on wastewater treatment and management. It aims at making the most of wastewater constituents by co-producing different worthful outputs, such as water, energy, nitrogen, sulfide, and phosphorous. This can turn the treatment of wastewater from a major cost into a source of profit. The wastewater refinery approach is well aligned with the concept of the circular economy. A case study on Qatar’s wastewater revealed the potential recovery of significant quantities of valuable resources embodied in the country’s wastewater. Valorization of organic constituents and the recovery of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfide should be given priority. To facilitate the adoption of the wastewater refinery concept, research is required to explore technical and economic bottlenecks.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/j4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • J, Vol. 4, Pages 62-81: Antihypertensives’ Rock around the Clock

    • Authors: Ognjenka Rahić, Amina Tucak, Merima Sirbubalo, Lamija Hindija, Jasmina Hadžiabdić
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Although homeostasis is a commonly accepted concept, there is incontrovertible evidence that biological processes and functions are variable and that variability occurs in cycles. In order to explain and understand dysregulation, which has not been embraced by homeostatic principles, the allostatic model has emerged as the first serious challenge to homeostasis, going beyond its homeostatic roots. Circadian rhythm is the predominant variation in the body, and it is a pattern according to which many physiological and pathological events occur. As there is strong experimental and clinical evidence that blood pressure fluctuations undergo circadian rhythm, there is equally strong evidence that targeted time therapy for hypertension provides a better outcome of the disease. The research has gone even further throughout the development and approval process for the use of pulsatile drug release systems, which can be considered as an option for an even more convenient dosage regimen of the medicines needed.
      Citation: J
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/j4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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