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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 201 - 265 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
Sciential     Open Access  
Scientific African     Open Access  
Scientific American     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 508)
Scientific American Mind     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Scientific Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Data     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 83)
Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selforganizology     Open Access  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
Smart Science     Open Access  
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South American Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Springer Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Studies in Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Tanzania Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
TD : The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Open Access  
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Temas y Debates     Open Access  
The Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Trilogía     Open Access  
TÜBAV Bilim Dergisi     Open Access  
Türk Bilim ve Mühendislik Dergisi     Open Access  
Uluslararası Bilimsel Araştırmalar Dergisi (IBAD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Uni-pluriversidad     Open Access  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
Universitas Scientiarum     Open Access  
Vilnius University Proceedings     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Східно-Європейський журнал передових технологій : Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Sci
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2413-4155
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 37: The Effect of the Acquisition Rate on
           Post-Acquisition Innovation

    • Authors: Yingmei Li, Yona Kwon, Seungho Choi
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Technology acquisitions are one of the most common growth strategies for firms. Firms that have made multiple acquisitions in the past are more likely to make new ones. With previous M&A experience, firms are more likely to make acquisitions. The acquisition rate is the total number of acquisitions a firm has made at a given time. In technology acquisition, the acquisition rate affects innovative firm performance. The more frequent acquisitions a firm makes, the less innovative performance will occur. A high acquisition rate negatively affects post-acquisition performance by dominating the attention of decision-makers and overloading the firm. During the process, there needs to be structural integration between the acquirer and the target firm. This study empirically analyzes 380 cases of technology acquisitions of U.S. publicly traded companies from 1990 to 2005. The results show that a high acquisition rate is negatively related to the post-acquisition innovation performance of the acquirer. Although structural integration has no impact on the negative relationship between post-acquisition performance and acquisition rate, considering the acquisition rate when pursuing M&A allows acquiring firms to avoid detrimental consequences.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6030037
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 38: Promising Catalyst for Chlorosilane Dismutation

    • Authors: Olesya Zhuchok, Yegor Stolmakov, Alexandra Kalinina, Vitaly Medov, Darya Belousova, Nikita Maleev, Georgy Mochalov
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Currently, the most common method of silane synthesis for electronics and photovoltaics is trichlorosilane dismutation. Therefore, an experimental study of the kinetics of the dismutation reaction of chlorosilanes is of scientific and practical interest. A catalyst has been proposed that allows the dismutation reaction to be carried out in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Both kinetic and thermodynamic data on the dependence of the rate of the dismutation reactions of trichlorosilane, dichlorosilane, and monochlorosilane on pressure were experimentally obtained. In addition, the dependence of saturated vapor pressure on temperature for monochlorosilane and dichlorosilane were also experimentally determined. Using the example of TCS, it was experimentally established that increasing the pressure to six atmospheres makes it possible to increase the specific productivity of the reactor by at least an order of magnitude due to the acceleration of the chemical reaction and the increase in the molar concentration of chlorosilanes in the vapor mixture. Consequently, it becomes possible to multiply the reactor’s load on the substance and, accordingly, the performance of the chlorosilane dismutation apparatus in general.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6030038
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 18: Mood Profile Clusters among Greek Exercise
           Participants and Inactive Adults

    • Authors: Peter C. Terry, Renée L. Parsons-Smith, Symeon P. Vlachopoulos, Andrew M. Lane
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Mood profile clusters have previously been identified in several cultural contexts. In the present study, six mood profile clusters referred to as the iceberg, inverse Everest, inverse iceberg, shark fin, submerged, and surface profiles, were investigated in a Greek population. The names of the mood profiles reflect how they appear after raw scores for Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigor, Fatigue, and Confusion (in that order), are converted to T-scores and depicted graphically. A Greek translation of the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS-Greek) was completed by 1786 adults, comprising 1417 exercise participants and 369 physically inactive adults (male = 578, female = 1208) aged 18–64 years (M = 34.73 ± 11.81 years). Although the male–female ratio emphasized females, sample sizes of over 500 suggest some degree of representativeness. Seeded k-means cluster analysis clearly identified the six hypothesized mood profiles. Men were over-represented for the iceberg profile. For age, the 18–25 years group were under-represented for the iceberg profile, whereas the 46–55 and 56+ years groups were over-represented. The 56+ years group were under-represented for the inverse Everest, and the 18–25 years group were over-represented for the shark fin profile. For body mass index (BMI), participants in the obese weight category were over-represented for the inverse iceberg and shark fin profiles and under-represented for the submerged profile. Active participants were over-represented for the iceberg and submerged profiles, and under-represented for the inverse Everest, inverse iceberg, and surface profiles. Findings supported the cross-cultural equivalence of the mood profile clusters and confirmed the link between physical inactivity, obesity, and negative mood profiles.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 19: Extended Reality Therapies for Anxiety Disorders: A
           Systematic Review of Patients’ and Healthcare Professionals’
           Perspectives

    • Authors: Pranavsingh Dhunnoo, Lisa-Christin Wetzlmair, Veronica O’Carroll
      First page: 19
      Abstract: (1) Background: Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric conditions and have a rising prevalence. Patients with anxiety disorders can, however, be deterred from seeking treatment due to associated stigmas and medication side effects. Evidence indicates that promising digital health solutions to address those concerns reside in the growing field of extended reality (XR). The limited literature synthesis from the perspectives of patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) regarding the experiences and effectiveness of XR-based anxiety disorder therapies motivated the undertaking of this systematic review. (2) Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted according to the PRISMA 2020 guidelines on the following databases: CINAHL, APA PsycNet and PubMed. The search was completed on 23 January 2024 with no restriction on the time of publication. Studies were screened based on a predetermined selection criteria relevant to the research aims. (3) Results: Five studies fulfilled the inclusion requirements. The majority investigated the use of XR tools for individual therapy and indicated that they can be as effective for patients as traditional methods and can aid in HCPs’ therapeutic tasks. (4) Conclusions: XR-based anxiety disorder therapies are generally perceived as immersive and with minimal side effects by patients, while HCPs mostly consider XR tools as practical and assistive. However, refinements with the XR setup could further improve the experience. Such modalities represent potent drug-free alternatives or supplements to traditional therapy and could be considered for remote, individual care. The findings’ generalisability requires further research into more conditions within the anxiety disorder group, as well as larger sample sizes.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 20: Colorimetric Determination of Salivary Cortisol
           Levels in Artificial Saliva for the Development of a Portable Colorimetric
           Sensor (Salitrack)

    • Authors: Tashfia Ahmed, Michael B. Powner, Meha Qassem, Panayiotis A. Kyriacou
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Mental illnesses, such as clinical depression, have taken an unprecedented toll on society and the economy on a global scale. The relationship between stress management and mental health decline is of utmost significance, especially as most avenues of mental health management remain inaccessible for the majority of the general public, i.e., interview-based, and face-to-face interventions or costly drug-based therapies. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, regulates the stress response in the human body and, through persistent activation, can lead to chronic stress and mental health deterioration. Thereby, the measurement and evaluation of cortisol within saliva could harness potential developments in management and diagnostic tools to monitor physiological and psychological stress in simple point-of-care applications. The current study aims to determine the concentration of salivary cortisol in spiked artificial saliva samples using blue tetrazolium (BT) dye as a colorimetric indicator. The proposed method showcases the use of the BT dye as an effective method for the rapid measurement of salivary cortisol, with accuracy comparable to the gold-standard method for salivary cortisol analysis, enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs). Finally, a prototype colorimetric sensor has been developed for point-of-care applications of stress monitoring via salivary cortisol measurement.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 21: Performance Analysis of Deep Learning
           Model-Compression Techniques for Audio Classification on Edge Devices

    • Authors: Afsana Mou, Mariofanna Milanova
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Audio classification using deep learning models, which is essential for applications like voice assistants and music analysis, faces challenges when deployed on edge devices due to their limited computational resources and memory. Achieving a balance between performance, efficiency, and accuracy is a significant obstacle to optimizing these models for such constrained environments. In this investigation, we evaluate diverse deep learning architectures, including Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), for audio classification tasks on the ESC 50, UrbanSound8k, and Audio Set datasets. Our empirical findings indicate that Mel spectrograms outperform raw audio data, attributing this enhancement to their synergistic alignment with advanced image classification algorithms and their congruence with human auditory perception. To address the constraints of model size, we apply model-compression techniques, notably magnitude pruning, Taylor pruning, and 8-bit quantization. The research demonstrates that a hybrid pruned model achieves a commendable accuracy rate of 89 percent, which, although marginally lower than the 92 percent accuracy of the uncompressed CNN, strikingly illustrates an equilibrium between efficiency and performance. Subsequently, we deploy the optimized model on the Raspberry Pi 4 and NVIDIA Jetson Nano platforms for audio classification tasks. These findings highlight the significant potential of model-compression strategies in enabling effective deep learning applications on resource-limited devices, with minimal compromise on accuracy.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 22: Capacity Allocation in Cancer Centers Considering
           Demand Uncertainty

    • Authors: Maryam Keshtzari, Bryan A. Norman
      First page: 22
      Abstract: This paper introduces a model to aid decision-makers in answering many of the important questions regarding how best to operate a cancer center. This study aims to allocate the available cancer center capacity to different cancer types to minimize the deviation in patient demand satisfied from desired supply targets across multiple cancer types. A stochastic chance-constrained model is proposed to consider uncertainties in new and returning patient demand. The proposed model determines the optimal specialization mix for oncologists based on the distribution of demand by cancer type, preventing potential mismatches. Additionally, it aims to balance workloads among oncologists and individual clinics and indirectly reduce support service costs by limiting their clinic days. Numerical results are presented using historical data collected from our collaborating cancer center to demonstrate the usefulness of the model. The results confirm that the ability to satisfy patient demand increases as oncologists become more flexible. In addition, the results show that even having a small number of highly flexible oncologists is sufficient to achieve strong patient demand satisfaction. Moreover, restricting the allowable workload difference among oncologists achieves an acceptable trade-off between workload balance and satisfying patient demand.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 23: Giftedness and Twice-Exceptionality in Children
           Suspected of ADHD or Specific Learning Disorders: A Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Sara Romano, Dario Esposito, Miriam Aricò, Elena Arigliani, Gioia Cavalli, Miriam Vigliante, Roberta Penge, Carla Sogos, Francesco Pisani, Maria Romani
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The expression “twice-exceptionality” has been used to describe conditions in which giftedness and specific disorders coexist. Our study offers a retrospective analysis of clinical reports of gifted children evaluated for suspected specific learning disorders (SLD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The initial sample included 456 school-aged children referred to our clinic for suspected SLD and/or ADHD over a two-year interval. The inclusion criteria were: a General Ability Index score above 120 in the cognitive assessment; age 6–18 years; and not satisfying diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Forty children were selected for the study. We grouped patients according to the final diagnosis: neurodevelopmental disorder (SLD and/or ADHD) (n = 15), psychopathological disorder (n = 8), mixed neurodevelopmental and psychopathological (n = 13), no emerging disorder (n = 4). The study included 36 (90%) males. Mean age was 9.3 years (SD 1.62). Mean Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient was 121.7 (SD 7.77), mean General Ability Index was 130.2 (SD 6.79). Furthermore, the cognitive assessment of the different groups highlighted a non-homogeneous profile in all groups, with lower scores on working memory and processing speed indexes. Our results support the hypothesis that difficulties in gifted children’s adaptation to scholastic and social settings could be misinterpreted as a manifestation of a clear disease.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 24: Enhancing Surgical Tool Performance with
           Alumina-Based Coatings: An Engineering Analysis

    • Authors: Cristiano Fragassa, Giovanni Pappalettera, Vincenzo Moramarco, Ana Pavlovic, Marco Arru
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The present study investigates the utilization of ceramic coatings and insulation elements in the context of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) surgery tools, highlighting how precise engineering modifications can influence surgical precision. The adoption of cold plasma in surgery can be reinforced by material advancements withstanding several specific challenges, including electrical and thermal protection. We explore the potential of alumina (Al2O3), renowned for its high dielectric strength and resistance, as a promising material solution for insulating electrodes. We evaluated the thermal performance of surgical tools concerning different insulation thicknesses. Our findings suggest that Al2O3–based coatings, with their superior characteristics, significantly enhance the usability of cold plasma technology, thus fostering its application in minimally invasive surgery. We examine the implications of these findings for the design of next-generation surgical instruments and propose avenues for future research. This work contributes to the field of biomedical engineering by showcasing the pivotal role of material science in advancing surgical technologies.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 25: Evaluation of an App-Supported Intensive
           Interdisciplinary Treatment for Young People with Chronic Pain: A
           Mixed-Methods Study

    • Authors: Dunja Genent, Sabrina Schenk, Almut Hartenstein-Pinter, Boris Zernikow, Julia Wager
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Chronic pain in the vulnerable phase of emerging adulthood is associated with severe life impairments. The current healthcare system has no suitable treatments for young people. A new multimodal inpatient and app-supported treatment for young people with chronic pain counteracts this. The study examines the effectiveness of this new treatment. Our mixed-methods design combined qualitative and quantitative evaluations. The sample comprised N = 44 patients (18–25 years) who took part in the new treatment. The quantitative data showed a reduced degree of pain severity, pain-related and emotional impairments, and an improved quality of life. The qualitative data showed that several components of the new treatment were particularly important to the young adults: individuality and taking the patient seriously, group therapy with peers, individual therapies (psychological, medical), life counselling, and sports. Results support the individual and objective success of a new inpatient pain treatment applied during emerging adulthood.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 26: Can Citizens Do Science' Science in Common and
           Social Responsibility

    • Authors: Ainara Aberasturi Rodríguez, Ignacio Fierro Bandera, Jose Navarro-Pedreño
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Citizen science is an effective tool that unites ordinary citizens and scientists for a common cause. In particular, this tool enables ordinary citizens to participate in research and increases the likelihood of generating new knowledge. It is seen as the democratization of science. It is mainly applied in developed countries, and citizens usually help obtain environmental data with emerging technologies. However, training citizens to obtain good-quality data is one of the most significant challenges. It is also important to involve citizens in other phases, such as data analysis, discussion, and knowledge generation. Citizen science can be a tool for integrating different groups in science to promote social inclusion, including environmental, agricultural, earth, and life sciences. Thus, citizen science can contribute to education, sustainability, and climate change mitigation.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020026
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 27: Decision Making in Service Shops Supported by
           Mining Enterprise Resource Planning Data

    • Authors: Shaun West, Daryl Powell, Fabian Ille, Stefan Behringer
      First page: 27
      Abstract: This research examines the application of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems in service shops, focusing on the specific challenges unique to these environments compared to those in the manufacturing sector. Service shops, distinguished by their smaller scale and variable demands, often need different functionalities in ERP systems compared to manufacturing facilities. Our analysis is based on detailed billing records and monthly cash flow data to deliver critical insights into businesses’ performance for service shop managers. This study analyses ERP data from 27 service shops over 35 months. It is based on detailed billing records and monthly cash flow data to deliver critical insights into businesses’ performance for service shop managers that support managerial decision making. Our findings emphasise the importance of incorporating additional contextual information to augment the effectiveness of ERP systems in service contexts. Our analysis shows that simple, standardised data mining methods can significantly enhance operational management decision making when supported with visuals to support understanding and interpretation of the data. Moreover, this study suggests potential directions for future research aimed at improving business analytics and intelligence practices to optimise the use of ERP systems in service industries. This research contributes to the academic discourse by providing empirical evidence on utilising ERP data in service shops and offers practical recommendations for ongoing operational improvements.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020027
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 28: Power and Efficiency in Living Systems

    • Authors: Douglas S. Glazier
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Energy transformation powers change in the universe. In physical systems, maximal power (rate of energy input or output) may occur only at submaximal efficiency (output/input), or conversely, maximal efficiency may occur only at submaximal power. My review of power and efficiency in living systems at various levels of biological organization reveals that (1) trade-offs (negative correlations) between power and efficiency, as expected in physical systems, chiefly occur for resource-supply systems; (2) synergy (positive correlations) between power and efficiency chiefly occurs for resource use systems, which may result from (a) increasing energy allocation to production versus maintenance as production rate increases and (b) natural selection eliminating organisms that exceed a maximal power limit because of deleterious speed-related effects; (3) productive power indicates species-wide ‘fitness’, whereas efficiency of resource acquisition for production indicates local ‘adaptiveness’, as viewed along a body size spectrum and within clades of related species; (4) covariation of the power and efficiency of living systems occurs across space and time at many scales; (5) the energetic power/efficiency of living systems relates to the rates and efficiencies/effectiveness of nutrient/water uptake/use, the functional performance of various activities, and information acquisition/processing; and (6) a power/efficiency approach has many useful theoretical and practical applications deserving more study.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020028
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 29: ThermoBounce: Visualizing Chemical Kinetics via a
           Gravitational Potential Analogy

    • Authors: Nelson Max, Edward Max
      First page: 29
      Abstract: ThermoBounce is an interactive online visualization designed to help students understand how enthalpy, entropy, and temperature contribute to the reaction rate and equilibrium of a unimolecular chemical change between reactant and product states, for example, molecular isomerizations or phase transitions. At the start of the animation, reactant molecules are represented by spheres bouncing around in a reactant room, with an average kinetic energy proportional to the temperature. This room is connected to an adjacent product room by a window. When the user triggers the animation, spheres may convert to the product state by passing through the window into the product room, changing color as they do so. The difference between the floor heights of the reactant and product rooms represents the enthalpy change of the reaction, and the floor areas of the two rooms represent the entropies of the reactant and product states. The height of the bottom of the window above the floor of the reactant room represents the enthalpy of activation, and the width of the window represents the entropy of activation. Users can change the geometry of the rooms and window to adjust all these quantities and can modify the temperature before or during the reaction. They can then observe the resulting changes in the reaction rate and in the accumulation of product molecules, as shown on a reaction progress graph. The visualization and instructions for interacting with it are freely available on the Internet.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020029
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 30: Non-Flammable Epoxy Composition Based on Epoxy
           Resin DER-331 and
           4-(β-Carboxyethenyl)phenoxy-phenoxycyclotriphosphazenes with
           Increased Adhesion to Metals

    • Authors: Anastasia Konstantinova, Pavel Yudaev, Aleksey Shapagin, Darya Panfilova, Aleksandr Palamarchuk, Evgeniy Chistyakov
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Functional cyclophosphazenes have proven to be effective modifiers of polymer materials, significantly improving their performance properties, such as adhesive characteristics, mechanical strength, thermal stability, fire resistance, etc. In this study, 4-(β-carboxyethenyl)phenoxy-phenoxycyclotriphosphazenes (CPPP) were obtained by the condensation of 4-formylphenoxy-phenoxycyclotriphosphazene with malonic acid. Its structure was studied using 31P, 1H, and 13C NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and the thermal properties were determined by DSC and TGA methods. Molecular modeling using the MM2 method showed that CPPPs are nanosized with diameters of spheres described around the molecules in the range of 1.34–1.93 nm, which allows them to be classified as nanosized structures. The epoxy resin DER-331 was cured with CPPP, and the conversion of epoxy groups was assessed using IR spectroscopy. Using optical interferometry, it was shown that CPPPs are well compatible with epoxy resin in the temperature range from 80 to 130 °C. It was established that the cured epoxy composition was fire resistant, as it successfully passed the UL-94 vertical combustion test due to the formation of porous coke during the combustion process and also had high heat resistance and thermal stability (decomposition onset temperature about 300 °C, glass transition temperature 230 °C). The composition has low water absorption, high resistance to fresh and salt water, fire resistance, and adhesive strength to steel and aluminum (11 ± 0.2 MPa), which makes it promising for use as an adhesive composition for gluing parts in the shipbuilding and automotive industries, the aviation industry, and radio electronics.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020030
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 31: The General Theory of Scientific Variability for
           Technological Evolution

    • Authors: Mario Coccia
      First page: 31
      Abstract: The proposed general theory of scientific variability for technological evolution explains one of the drivers of technological change for economic progress in human society. Variability is the predisposition of the elements in systems to assume different values over time and space. In biology, the variability is basic to explaining differences and development in organisms. In economics of technical change, the effects of variability within research fields on evolutionary dynamics of related technologies are unknown. In a broad analogy with the principles of biology, suggested theoretical framework here can clarify a basic driver of technological evolution: the variability within research fields can explain the dynamics of scientific development and technological evolution. The study sees whether statistical evidence supports the hypothesis that the rate of growth of scientific and technological fields can be explained by the level of variability within scientific fields. The validation is based on emerging research fields in quantum technologies: quantum imaging, quantum meteorology, quantum sensing, and quantum optics. Statistical evidence seems in general to support the hypothesis stated that the rate of growth can be explained by the level of scientific variability within research fields, measured with the relative entropy (indicating the dispersion of scientific topics in a research field underlying a specific technology). Nonparametric correlation with Spearman’s rho shows a positive coefficient of 0.80 between entropy measures and rates of growth between scientific and technological fields. The linear model of the relation between rate of growth and scientific variability reveals a coefficient of regression equal to 1.63 (R2 = 0.60). The findings here suggest a general law that variability within research fields positively drives scientific development and technological evolution. In particular, a higher variability within research fields can support a high rate of growth in scientific development and technological evolution. The proposed general theory of scientific variability is especially relevant in turbulent environments of technology-based competition to clarify a basic determinant of technological development to design strategies of technological forecasting and management of promising innovations.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020031
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 32: Adapted Physical Activity Programs for Children
           with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurotypical Children: Differences
           between Online and Face-to-Face Training

    • Authors: Marta Zanghì, Federico Roggio, Alessandro Castorina, Piero Pavone, Giuseppe Musumeci
      First page: 32
      Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, physical activity was significantly decreased in all age groups. The purpose of this study is to investigate children’s motor skills by administering an adapted physical activity program for the development of coordination skills. The sample consisted of 28 children aged 8 to 12 years, 20 neurotypical children and 8 with ASD-HF. Data collection employed various methods, including a personal information form, a leisure time exercise questionnaire, a semi-structured interview, and the Harre Dexterity Circuit for assessing physical activity improvements. The results of the two-way analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) Tukey HSD test showed the differences between the specific groups, ASD-P vs. ASD-O (p < 0.001), ASD-O vs. AB-O (p < 0.001), ASD-O vs. AB-P (p < 0.001), ASD-O vs. AB-P (p = 0.136), ASD-P vs. AB-P (p < 0.0010, and AB-P vs. AB-O (p = 0.003). As result, both groups showed strong interest in practicing physical activity, and no statistical difference was found in doing so at home or in attendance, showing that physical activity practice is a tool for parent–child bonding and mutual enjoyment, emphasizing that the mixed approach yielded positive results in all participants.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020032
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 33: A Molecular Dynamics Perspective on the Impacts of
           Random Rough Surface, Film Thickness, and Substrate Temperature on the
           Adsorbed Film’s Liquid–Vapor Phase Transition Regime

    • Authors: Rasoul Fallahzadeh, Fabio Bozzoli, Luca Cattani, Luca Pagliarini, Niloofar Naeimabadi, Muhammad Waheed Azam
      First page: 33
      Abstract: While recent studies have proven an unexpected liquid–vapor phase transition of adsorbed liquid films, a comprehensive description of the mechanisms of different types of phase change regimes over realistic representations of random rough surfaces is absent in the literature. The current comprehensive study investigates the effects of a gold random rough surface, liquid film thickness, and substrate temperature on the liquid–vapor phase change regime of an adsorbed sodium liquid film, considering the evaporator section of a wicked heat pipe (WHP) using a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. At first, to generate a realistic random rough surface, a new and promising method is proposed that is entirely based on MD simulations. Then, to simulate the evaporator section of a WHP, a unique configuration for eliminating the vapor domain is developed. The simulation results reveal that three distinct regimes, namely, normal evaporation, cluster boiling, and film boiling, could be identified, which are presented on two-dimensional diagrams with the substrate temperature and liquid film thickness as coordinates for the ideally smooth and random rough surfaces. The results also manifest that even though using the random rough surface could lead to different phase transition regimes, the type of regime depends mainly on the substrate temperature and liquid film thickness. Furthermore, this study displays two different modes for normal evaporation. Also, it is shown that the impacts of the liquid film thickness and substrate temperature on the mode of normal evaporation are much more significant than the surface roughness.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020033
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 34: Cassia alata and Its Phytochemicals: A Promising
           Natural Strategy in Wound Recovery

    • Authors: Jing-Wen Keng, Sue-Kei Lee, Sze-Huey Sang, Kai-Bin Liew, Swee-Sen Teo, Wan Mastura Shaik Mohamed Mossadeq, Sek-Chuen Chow, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah, Siew-Keah Lee, Chun-Wai Mai, Yik-Ling Chew
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Cassia alata, a traditional herb with a global presence, is renowned for its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal properties, making it a go-to remedy for skin ailments. While it has demonstrated wound healing capabilities in both in vitro and in vivo studies, the precise mechanisms remain elusive. This review aims to highlight its key phytochemicals, their effects, and the mechanism of action. The compounds that have been reviewed and discussed include kaempferol, apigenin, quercetin, rhein, and rutin. These polyphenols play important roles in normal and impaired wound healing processes, encompassing hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and tissue remodeling.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020034
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 35: Genetic Relationships of Cultivated Flax and Its
           Wild Progenitor as Revealed by 454 Pyrosequencing, Sanger Resequencing and
           Microsatellite Data

    • Authors: Yong-Bi Fu
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), as the earliest oil and fiber crop, is a model plant for genetic inferences of plant domestication processes involving multiple domestication events. However, a puzzle has emerged from several genetic studies, as dehiscent cultivated flax is genetically more related to its progenitor pale flax (L. bienne Mill.), and winter cultivated flax is well mixed with oil or fiber cultivated flax, while capsular dehiscence and winter hardiness are the major characteristics of pale flax. For this, a comparative analysis was conducted with 16 Linum samples representing pale flax and four domestication groups of cultivated flax (oil, fiber, winter, and dehiscent) using 454 pyrosequencing, Sanger resequencing and microsatellite data. It was found that the genomic sampling of genetic variants from the three applied methods yielded similar genetic information on pale flax and four groups of cultivated flax. The revealed genetic relationships did not show significant departures from the previous findings, but instead supported an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage for oil use, followed by a subsequent flax domestication process with multiple domestication events for capsular dehiscence, oil, fiber and winter hardiness. Domestication on capsular dehiscence occurred earlier than domestication on winter hardiness. Domestication on winter hardiness was more complicated than domestication on capsular dehiscence.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020035
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 36: Anti-Aging Potential of Bioactive Phytoconstituents
           Found in Edible Medicinal Plants: A Review

    • Authors: Emeka Joshua Iweala, Oluwapelumi Eniola Adurosakin, Ugochukwu Innocent, Conrad A. Omonhinmin, Omoremime Elizabeth Dania, Eziuche Amadike Ugbogu
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Aging is a complex biological and physiological change that leads to a loss of function in all living organisms. Although the mechanism behind the aging process is still largely unknown, scientific studies have shown that oxidative stress and age-related low autophagy, which are associated with various chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases, promote aging. Interestingly, many medicinal plants and their biologically active compounds have the ability to extend lifespan as they can inhibit oxidative stress and promote autophagy. This review evaluates and provides up-to-date information on the anti-aging potential of bioactive compounds in edible medicinal plants. In this study, seventeen (17) biologically active compounds from edible medicinal plants with anti-aging effects were reviewed. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that these biologically active compounds exhibit anti-aging effects via various mechanisms such as the activation of autophagy, increases in antioxidant enzymes, reductions in reactive oxygen species, the inhibition of inflammatory markers, and the downregulation of senescence genes. This study suggests that edible medicinal plants containing these bioactive compounds may promote health and extend lifespan. However, the exact mechanisms, effective doses, clinical trials, and chronic and genotoxic effects of bioactive compounds as anti-aging agents should be further investigated.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6020036
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 5: Deep-Learning-Based Real-Time Visual Pollution
           Detection in Urban and Textile Environments

    • Authors: Md Fahim Shahoriar Titu, Abdul Aziz Chowdhury, S. M. Rezwanul Haque, Riasat Khan
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The environmental physiognomy of an area can significantly diminish its aesthetic appeal, rendering it susceptible to visual pollution, the unbeaten scourge of modern urbanization. In this study, we propose using a deep learning network and a robotic vision system integrated with Google Street View to identify streets and textile-based visual pollution in Dhaka, the megacity of Bangladesh. The issue of visual pollution extends to the global apparel and textile industry, as well as to various common urban elements such as billboards, bricks, construction materials, street litter, communication towers, and entangled electric wires. Our data collection encompasses a wide array of visual pollution elements, including images of towers, cables, construction materials, street litter, cloth dumps, dyeing materials, and bricks. We employ two open-source tools to prepare and label our dataset: LabelImg and Roboflow. We develop multiple neural network models to swiftly and accurately identify and classify visual pollutants in this work, including Faster SegFormer, YOLOv5, YOLOv7, and EfficientDet. The tuna swarm optimization technique has been used to select the applied models’ final layers and corresponding hyperparameters. In terms of hardware, our proposed system comprises a Xiaomi-CMSXJ22A web camera, a 3.5-inch touchscreen display, and a Raspberry Pi 4B microcontroller. Subsequently, we program the microcontroller with the YOLOv5 model. Rigorous testing and trials are conducted on these deep learning models to evaluate their performance against various metrics, including accuracy, recall, regularization and classification losses, mAP, precision, and more. The proposed system for detecting and categorizing visual pollution within the textile industry and urban environments has achieved notable results. Notably, the YOLOv5 and YOLOv7 models achieved 98% and 92% detection accuracies, respectively. Finally, the YOLOv5 technique has been deployed into the Raspberry Pi edge device for instantaneous visual pollution detection. The proposed visual pollutants detection device can be easily mounted on various platforms (like vehicles or drones) and deployed in different urban environments for on-site, real-time monitoring. This mobility is crucial for comprehensive street-level data collection, potentially engaging local communities, schools, and universities in understanding and participating in environmental monitoring efforts. The comprehensive dataset on visual pollution will be published in the journal following the acceptance of our manuscript.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 6: Microbial Insights into Biofortified Common Bean
           Cultivation

    • Authors: Alexander Machado Cardoso, Carlos Vinicius Ferreira da Silva, Vânia Lúcia de Pádua
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Microorganisms play a fundamental role in sustainable agriculture, and their importance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivation cannot be underestimated. This review article aims to comprehensively explore the diverse roles of microorganisms in sustainable biofortified common bean cultivation. Biofortification refers to the process of increasing the nutrient content in crops, which helps combat deficiencies in iron, zinc, and vitamins in the human body. Biofortified beans have better agronomic characteristics and offer higher micronutrient content compared to conventional crops. We examine the contribution of various microbial communities in nitrogen fixation, soil structure improvement, nutrient recycling, and disease suppression. Understanding the interaction between beneficial microorganisms and biofortified common bean plants enables us to develop ecologically sound and sustainable approaches to optimize crop productivity and improve nutrition and livelihoods for millions of people worldwide while reducing the environmental impact of agricultural practices.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 7: The Genus Bryonia L. (Cucurbitaceae): A Systematic
           Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses, and Biological
           Activities

    • Authors: Bachir Benarba, Khadidja Belhouala
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The Bryonia genus (Cucurbitaceae) is divided into 13 plants considered medicinal species with a significant pharmacological value fortreating as well as preventing various ailments. The current systematic review aims to present useful and updated findings published onthis genus inthe last two decades. Based on PubMed, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Google Scholar, 42 of the available previous studies on Bryonia have been selected from 2000 to 2022. Thereafter, these studies were analyzed, summarized, and separately recorded according to the topic or section, adding some comments foreach. Our review provided a botanical description of the genus, followed by itsindigenous uses. Furthermore, more than 150 reported phytochemical compounds were grouped into families such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and volatile oils. Hereby, thebiological activities part of this genus wereexposed, including itsantimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory functions, along with an interesting anticancer efficiency. Overall, our findings could contribute to forthcoming investigations that may lead to determining the responsible phytoconstituents for Bryonia’s efficiency.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 8: Sci Reloaded: Introducing the New Aims and Scope

    • Authors: Ahmad Yaman Abdin, Claus Jacob
      First page: 8
      Abstract: We are excited to share with you a crucial moment in the journey of Sci (ISSN 2413-4155) as we are announcing its new Aims and Scope [...]
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 9: Evolving Paradigms of Recombinant Protein Production
           in Pharmaceutical Industry: A Rigorous Review

    • Authors: Achuth Jayakrishnan, Wan Rosalina Wan Rosli, Ahmad Rashidi Mohd Tahir, Fashli Syafiq Abd Razak, Phei Er Kee, Hui Suan Ng, Yik-Ling Chew, Siew-Keah Lee, Mahenthiran Ramasamy, Ching Siang Tan, Kai Bin Liew
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Many beneficial proteins have limited natural availability, which often restricts their supply and thereby reduces their potential for therapeutic or industrial usage. The advent of recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology enables the utilization of different microbes as surrogate hosts to facilitate the production of these proteins. This microbial technology continues to evolve and integrate with modern innovations to develop more effective approaches for increasing the production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals. These strategies encompass fermentation technology, metabolic engineering, the deployment of strong promoters, novel vector elements such as inducers and enhancers, protein tags, secretion signals, synthetic biology, high-throughput devices for cloning, and process screening. This appraisal commences with a general overview regarding the manufacture of recombinant proteins by microbes and the production of biopharmaceuticals, their trends towards the development of biopharmaceuticals, and then discusses the approaches adopted for accomplishing this. The design of the upstream process, which also involves host selection, vector design, and promoter design, is a crucial component of production strategies. On the other hand, the downstream process focuses on extraction and purification techniques. Additionally, the review covers the most modern tools and resources, methods for overcoming low expression, the cost of producing biopharmaceuticals in microbes, and readily available recombinant protein products.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 10: Multimodal and Multidomain Feature Fusion for
           Emotion Classification Based on Electrocardiogram and Galvanic Skin
           Response Signals

    • Authors: Amita Dessai, Hassanali Virani
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Emotion classification using physiological signals is a promising approach that is likely to become the most prevalent method. Bio-signals such as those derived from Electrocardiograms (ECGs) and the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) are more reliable than facial and voice recognition signals because they are not influenced by the participant’s subjective perception. However, the precision of emotion classification with ECG and GSR signals is not satisfactory, and new methods need to be developed to improve it. In addition, the fusion of the time and frequency features of ECG and GSR signals should be explored to increase classification accuracy. Therefore, we propose a novel technique for emotion classification that exploits the early fusion of ECG and GSR features extracted from data in the AMIGOS database. To validate the performance of the model, we used various machine learning classifiers, such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Tree, Random Forest (RF), and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) classifiers. The KNN classifier gives the highest accuracy for Valence and Arousal, with 69% and 70% for ECG and 96% and 94% for GSR, respectively. The mutual information technique of feature selection and KNN for classification outperformed the performance of other classifiers. Interestingly, the classification accuracy for the GSR was higher than for the ECG, indicating that the GSR is the preferred modality for emotion detection. Moreover, the fusion of features significantly enhances the accuracy of classification in comparison to the ECG. Overall, our findings demonstrate that the proposed model based on the multiple modalities is suitable for classifying emotions.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 11: A Review of Catalyst Modification and Process
           Factors in the Production of Light Olefins from Direct Crude Oil Catalytic
           Cracking

    • Authors: Ruth Eniyepade Emberru, Raj Patel, Iqbal Mohammed Mujtaba, Yakubu Mandafiya John
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Petrochemical feedstocks are experiencing a fast growth in demand, which will further expand their market in the coming years. This is due to an increase in the demand for petrochemical-based materials that are used in households, hospitals, transportation, electronics, and telecommunications. Consequently, petrochemical industries rely heavily on olefins, namely propylene, ethylene, and butene, as fundamental components for their manufacturing processes. Presently, there is a growing interest among refineries in prioritising their operations towards the production of fuels, specifically gasoline, diesel, and light olefins. The cost-effectiveness and availability of petrochemical primary feedstocks, such as propylene and butene, can be enhanced through the direct conversion of crude oil into light olefins using fluid catalytic cracking (FCC). To achieve this objective, the FCC technology, process optimisation, and catalyst modifications may need to be redesigned. It is helpful to know that there are several documented methods of modifying traditional FCC catalysts’ physicochemical characteristics to enhance their selectivity toward light olefins’ production, since the direct cracking of crude oil to olefins is still in its infancy. Based on a review of the existing zeolite catalysts, this work focuses on the factors that need to be optimized and the approaches to modifying FCC catalysts to maximize light olefin production from crude oil conversion via FCC. Several viewpoints have been combined as a result of this research, and recommendations have been made for future work in the areas of optimising the yield of light olefins by engineering the pore structure of zeolite catalysts, reducing deactivation by adding dopants, and conducting technoeconomic analyses of direct crude oil cracking to produce light olefins.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 12: Alternative Evacuation Procedures and Smart
           Devices’ Impact Assessment for Large Passenger Vessels under Severe
           Weather Conditions

    • Authors: Evangelos Stefanou, Panagiotis Louvros, Fotios Stefanidis, Evangelos Boulougouris
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Within the expansive domain of maritime safety, optimizing evacuation procedures stands as a critical endeavour. After all, evacuation is literally the last and fundamental safety level afforded to mariners and passengers. Recent incidents have rekindled interest in assessing the performance of this ultimate safety barrier. However, addressing evacuability requires a holistic approach. The authors present herein the setup, simulation, and ultimately evaluation of a novel approach and its ability to rigorously assess multiple innovative risk-control options in a challenging, realistic setting. Moreover, its benchmarking against conventional regulation-dictated evacuation processes is captured distinctively along with the relative effectiveness of each proposed measure. Such measures include smart technologies and procedural changes that can result in substantial improvements to the current procedures. These will impact the ongoing discourse on maritime safety by providing insights for policymakers, vessel operators, emergency planners, etc., and emphasize the need for further research and development efforts to fortify the industry against evolving safety challenges.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 13: Impact of Combined Action of Chloride and
           Carbonation on Cement-Based Materials with Fly Ash

    • Authors: Raphaele Malheiro, Aires Camões, Gibson Meira, Rui Reis, Aline Nóbrega
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Integrating waste and industrial by-products into concrete is an alternative way to reduce global cement consumption, enhancing its eco-friendliness. In this context, residues with fly ash have been increasingly utilised. Considering the vulnerability of concrete with fly ash to carbonation and, at the same time, its high resistance to chlorides, it is important to investigate the behaviour of these concretes under their combined actions. For this purpose, an experimental investigation was conducted, studying mortar and concrete specimens with 40% replacement of cement with fly ash. These specimens were subjected to a combination of actions (Cl− and CO2) in two phases: initially through immersion and drying tests, and subsequently through a combination of accelerated tests. Concerning the chloride impact study, free and total chloride profiles were studied. Concerning the impact of carbonation, colourimetric and chemical tests were used. The results demonstrate a significant influence of combined action not only on chloride penetration in cement-based materials with fly ash but also on the development of a carbonation front. Exposure of cement-based materials with fly ash to environments with high Cl− and CO2 content sequentially may lead, on the one hand, to an increase in carbonation resistance. However, on the other hand, it may result in a substantial reduction in chloride penetration resistance.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 14: The Impacts of the African Growth Opportunity Act
           on the Economic Performances of Sub-Saharan African Countries: A
           Comprehensive Review

    • Authors: Bedassa Tadesse
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The African Growth Opportunity Act (AGOA) has been a crucial trade and development initiative, offering preferential access to qualified Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries to the United States market since its enactment in 2000. This paper presents a comprehensive review of scholarly articles and policy reports that analyze the impact of AGOA on the economic performance of SSA countries. Employing various econometric methods and data analysis techniques, researchers have investigated the effects of AGOA on trade flows, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, employment, economic growth, and poverty levels. The findings reveal that AGOA has positively affected the region’s trade, particularly in apparel, textiles, and agriculture. However, its influence on promoting export diversification and attracting FDI is nuanced, with substantial heterogeneity among the beneficiary countries and industries within each country. While some SSA countries have experienced substantial export growth and FDI inflows, others have not fully leveraged the benefits of AGOA due to absorptive capacity constraints and governance challenges. AGOA’s effectiveness in promoting broad-based employment, GDP growth, and poverty reduction remains an active area of inquiry, necessitating further research to understand the policy’s sustained impact and inform future trade policy designs for SSA countries.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 15: Cyclic Voltammetric Behaviour and High-Performance
           Liquid Chromatography Amperometric Determination of Levamisole

    • Authors: Tsz Yan Joyce Chan, Kevin C. Honeychurch
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The electrochemical oxidation of levamisole, a glassy carbon electrode, was investigated over the pH range 2.0–10.0. Cyclic voltammetric investigations showed a single oxidation process was recorded, with a peak potential (Ep) shown to be pH-dependent in the range 5.0–8.0; between pH 2.0 and pH 5.0, and above pH 8.0, the Ep was found to be independent of pH, indicating apparent pKa values of 5.0 and 8.0. Peak currents were found to increase with increasing pH values. This voltammetric oxidation process was found to be consistent with a two-electron, two-proton oxidation to the corresponding sulfoxide. Based on these findings, the development of a of method based on the high-performance liquid chromatography separation of levamisole, with electrochemical detection being used for its determination, was explored. The chromatographic conditions required for the separation of levamisole were first investigated and optimized using UV detection. The conditions were identified as a 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of 50% methanol, and 50%, 50 mM, pH 8.0 phosphate buffer. The technique of hydrodynamic voltammetry was applied to optimize the applied potential required for the determination of levamisole, identified as +2.3 V versus a stainless-steel pseudo-reference counter-electrode. Under the optimized conditions, levamisole exhibited a linear response of 1.00–20 mg/L (R2 = 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.27 mg/L. The possibility of determining levamisole in artificial urine was shown to be possible via simple dilution in the mobile phase. Mean recoveries of 99.7%, and 94.6%, with associated coefficients of variation of 8.2% and 10.2%, respectively, were obtained for 1.25 µg/mL (n = 5) and 2.50 µg/mL (n = 5).
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 16: Intensified Selection, Elevated Mutations, and
           Reduced Adaptation Potential in Wild Barley in Response to 28 Years of
           Global Warming

    • Authors: Yong-Bi Fu, Gregory W. Peterson, Eviatar Nevo, Ana Badea
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Many studies have investigated the threat of climate change on wild plants, but few have investigated the genetic responses of crop wild relative populations under threat. We characterized the genetic responses of 10 wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum K. Koch) populations in Israel, sampling them in 1980 and again in 2008, through exome capture and RNA-Seq analyses. Sequencing 48 wild barley samples of these populations representing two collection years generated six million SNPs, and SNP annotations identified 12,926 and 13,361 deleterious SNPs for 1980 and 2008 samples, respectively. The assayed wild barley samples displayed intensified selective sweeps and elevated deleterious mutations across seven chromosomes in response to 28 years of global warming. On average, the 2008 samples had lower individual and population mutational burdens, but the population adaptation potential was estimated to be lower in samples from 2008 than in 1980. These findings highlight the genetic risks of losing wild barley under global warming and support the need to conserve crop wild relatives.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Sci, Vol. 6, Pages 17: Net Isotopic Signature of Atmospheric CO₂
           Sources and Sinks: No Change since the Little Ice Age

    • Authors: Demetris Koutsoyiannis
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Recent studies have provided evidence, based on analyses of instrumental measurements of the last seven decades, for a unidirectional, potentially causal link between temperature as the cause and carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) as the effect. In the most recent study, this finding was supported by analysing the carbon cycle and showing that the natural [CO2] changes due to temperature rise are far larger (by a factor > 3) than human emissions, while the latter are no larger than 4% of the total. Here, we provide additional support for these findings by examining the signatures of the stable carbon isotopes, 12 and 13. Examining isotopic data in four important observation sites, we show that the standard metric δ13C is consistent with an input isotopic signature that is stable over the entire period of observations (>40 years), i.e., not affected by increases in human CO2 emissions. In addition, proxy data covering the period after 1500 AD also show stable behaviour. These findings confirm the major role of the biosphere in the carbon cycle and a non-discernible signature of humans.
      Citation: Sci
      PubDate: 2024-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sci6010017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Scientific American     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 508)
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Scientific Data     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 83)
Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selforganizology     Open Access  
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Smart Science     Open Access  
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Springer Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Studies in Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Tanzania Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
TD : The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Open Access  
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Temas y Debates     Open Access  
The Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Uluslararası Bilimsel Araştırmalar Dergisi (IBAD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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