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Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2424-9424 - ISSN (Online) 2529-752X
Published by World Scientific Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Crucial Events and Biology

    • Authors: Paolo Grigolini
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.
      In the last years of the 20th century, the attention of physicists working in statistical physics moved from equilibrium processes characterized by stationary correlation functions and Poisson dynamics to biological processes exhibiting ergodicity breaking. The discovery of these processes raised a debate on whether basic properties such as the Onsager principle had to be abandoned or properly revisited. The discovery of Levy processes led many researchers to replace the conventional central limit theorem with the generalized central limit theorem, responsible for a striking departure from the ordinary Gaussian statistics. The discovery of the processes of self-organization made the study of avalanches become very popular. The observation of turbulent processes led to the discovery of new waiting time distribution densities, characterized by inverse power laws and a new stochastic central limit theorem was invented to explain the emergence of Mittag-Leffler function, which is now widely used for the foundation of fractional derivatives. The traditional Linear Response Theory of Kubo was replaced by a new form of linear response, compatible with the ergodic breakdown of complex systems, and this new form of linear response was used for the foundation of Complexity Matching (CM). I plan to prove that crucial events are responsible for ergodicity breaking and that the CM phenomenon is a manifestation of crucial events. One problem still open in this field of research is the origin of [math] noise that is traditionally interpreted as a manifestation of the Mandelbrot Fractional Brownian Motion (FBM). I plan to show that the [math] noise proposed in for the foundation of the CM phenomenon has a completely different nature, involving crucial events rather than the FBM infinite memory. A recent result of my research group proved that the progress of autonomic neuropathy makes the heartbeats of healthy individuals, dominated by crucial events, turn into FBM. Quite surprisingly, the same phenomenon of transition from the crucial event to the FBM regime was observed in the germination process of lentils in the absence of light. The transition from Levy to Gauss statistics is supposed to be generated by environmental fluctuations and I will illustrate the experimental and theoretical research works that will shed light into their nature.
      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400011
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
  • Quantum Entanglement Effects in Biomolecules

    • Authors: Preet Sharma
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.
      Biomolecules exhibit very complex dynamical properties and are constantly exchanging energy. These systems also behave very much like non-equilibrium systems. For example, there exist systems like proteins and their dynamics, cancer tumor progression, biophotonics and many more. These principles can also be used to understand the information processing in the DNA. There have been various studies which clearly indicate that classical physics is not enough to explain these systems. The two fundamental aspects of physics which can be applied to all systems are Quantum Mechanics and Electrodynamics. Every process or interaction has inbuilt in it these two fundamental properties. In general, the field of biomolecules is studied as a macroscopic phenomenon and the focus is mostly on the results which we detect or measure in laboratory experiments. Quantum physics concepts have been an extremely interesting tool to see the deeper aspects of such complex systems. There has always been an interest in complex systems from the Quantum Mechanics point of view. Early researchers such as Erwin Schrödinger was also said to have an interest in the quantum aspects of life. Quantum Mechanics deals with microscopic systems at the fundamental level and gives an insight into the phenomena from the lens of the dynamics of the process. Since the early days of the formulation of Quantum Mechanics, it has expressed itself as a robust theory which can describe systems such as molecular physics and chemistry, atomic physics and even systems such as proteins. This conjunction of biomolecules and quantum physics has gained immense interest recently. In this research, we make an attempt to describe the dynamics of biomolecules from two aspects, namely: (1)Fermi’s Golden Rule; (2)Quantum Entanglement in Biomolecules. In this study, we will present a new idea based on an extension in Fermi’s Golden Rule and how Quantum Entanglement plays a part in explaining Fermi’s Golden Rule further. Further, we will explain how these concepts can be applied to specific complex systems in biology.
      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400023
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
  • Entropic Analysis of Protein Aggregation using Langevin Equations and
           Fokker–Planck Equations

    • Authors: Leslie Cook, Preet Sharma
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.
      Protein aggregation is a sophisticated biological mechanism that can have detrimental consequences. It is recognized as the hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, suffered by millions of people each year reported by World Health Organization, [math]. Abnormal deposits of amyloid fibrils and/or oligomers accumulate in and around neurons causing irreparable damage that leads to severe deterioration of the surrounding brain tissue and cognitive function. As of now, early detection, therapeutic intervention and treatment options are extremely limited. Protein aggregation is known to be highly dynamic, irreversible process which is source of its difficulty to fully understand and remedy the problem. The design of our study is to interpret the mechanics of intrinsically disordered proteins that self-assemble into highly structured fibrils. The aim is to gain a deeper understanding of protein–protein interactions, environmental conditions and chaperone failure that attribute to the aggregation process. The complexity of the aggregation process cannot be modeled using statistical physics and statistical thermodynamics of equilibrium processes. There are numerous studies that suggest protein aggregation which is a non-equilibrium process. Based on non-equilibrium physics, one of the best ways to understand it is through the Langevin and Fokker–Planck equations. Langevin equations describe stochastic dynamics of non-equilibrium processes. The Fokker–Planck equation is used to calculate the probability distribution and explain the trend in entropy of a model independent protein aggregation process.
      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400035
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
  • Understanding Structural and Molecular Properties of Liquid Crystal
           Dimers: A Density Functional Approach

    • Authors: Anant Kumar
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.
      Liquid crystals are molecular systems that exhibit partial ordering of molecules similar to solids while maintaining the ability to flow like liquids. Depending upon the amount of ordering in the material, there are many types of liquid crystalline phases. The nematic phase is the most common and technologically most important one due to its use in display applications. In the nematic phase, the molecules tend to have the same alignment, but their positions are not correlated. In part due to fundamental scientific interest and driven by new technological motivations apart from displays, the existence of new stable nematics has been continuously searched. The continuing search led to a recent discovery of a new type of nematic phase,, known as the twist-bend nematic (Ntb), in certain bent-shaped liquid crystal dimers that have been supported by various independent experimental studies. Since the Ntb phase has been discovered recently, its properties have not been fully explored and a detailed description and understanding at the molecular level are still far from complete. The Ntb phase’s formation is highly sensitive to any slight changes in the molecular shape arising from the chemical makeup of the linking spacer, terminal moieties and mesogenic units., Such structural features are not accessible directly through experiments. Thus, in this work, we present a set of DFT calculations on a series of liquid crystal dimers. This work aims to probe the role of certain structural features in driving the formation of the Ntb phase. This study also reveals why this phase occurs in certain bent molecules, but not in all. Since the constituent molecules are flexible and exist in a range of conformers, comparing the conformational landscapes of the dimers-exhibiting-the-Ntb-phase against those-do-not would identify the molecular conformations promoting the formation of the Ntb phase. Overall, this study evaluates ideal molecular structural features and conformational ensembles potentially responsible for the appearance of the Ntb phase.
      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400047
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
  • Characterization and Identification of Fungal Conidia via Shifted
           Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Zehua Han, Benjamin D. Strycker, Blake Commer, Kai Wang, Brain D. Shaw, Marlan O. Scully, Alexei V. Sokolov
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.
      Fungi can be found everywhere, and their impacts on human beings are numerous and varied. Fungi have been widely used in the food, biofuel, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. However, uncontrolled fungal growth can be costly to agriculture, forestry and livestock. If they feed on humans, diseases can be induced such as ringworm, athlete’s foot and lung infections. Some effects on human health may last over years and even lifetimes. It requires timely and accurate identification of mold species to evaluate and/or prevent damage from mold growth, and minimize the consequences of mold exposure. Raman spectroscopy studies on mold spores have been proposed and implemented as a method to identify fungal species. However, the presence of fluorescence emission always hinders Raman signal detection and is virtually impossible to avoid, especially in biological specimens. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) is a very powerful technique to separate Raman contribution from fluorescence contribution. Herein, we adopt the SERDS modality to extract pure Raman signals from fungal conidia of different species and find that Raman signatures of spores generated from pigment molecules bounded within the cell walls. A further study of conidia of different mold species indicates that the major features of the Raman spectrum correlate with the melanin biosynthesis pathway: species that produce the same melanin exhibit similar Raman spectra.,
      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400059
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
  • Studying the Logistic Model

    • Authors: Jacob Baxley, David Lambert, Paolo Grigolini
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.
      Several studies have used the logistic equation to model the growth of cancer cell populations as seen in Eq. (). This has included correlated multiplicative, [math] and additive, [math], noise terms. These noise terms can affect the growth rate, [math], and death rate, [math], of tumor cells and can be induced from factors such as radiotherapy or other cancer treatments. Depending on the intensity of the noise the terms, the fluctuations can induce a phase transition. Noise-induced transitions of nonlinear stochastic systems have applications in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. (1)dxdt=ax−bx2+xϵ(x)−Γ(t). We study the logistic differential equation with a multiplicative noise term before and at phase transition. Computational methods used to investigate this cancer cell model include a Diffusion Entropy Analysis method and a waiting time distribution method.,, DEA will establish the scaling of a simulated series without altering the data through detrending. We hypothesize the treatment that causes a phase transition in the logistic model will induce tumor extinction and management. Understanding how to better evaluate and study cancer cell growth models will assist in assessing the efficacy of cancer treatments. Future work will include running simulations with a modified DEA method that includes the use of stripes. For better statistics, the code will be adopted to run ensembles of simulated data instead of a single series. Generating and analyzing these large datasets can be computationally expensive. Through multiprocessing and the use of a supercomputer, we believe these computational limitations can be overcome.
      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400060
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
  • From Social to Epidemic Criticality and Back

    • Authors: David Lambert, Korosh Mahmoodi, Nicola Piccinini, Paolo Grigolini
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.
      In this paper, we study the spreading of epidemic in a network of individuals who may either contract a disease through contact with infected nearest neighbors or be vaccinated under the influence of neighbors who are already vaccinated. We show that both interaction between susceptible S and infected individuals I and the imitation of vaccination, a form of sociological interaction between susceptible S and vaccinated V individuals, may lead to a phase transition. If the spreading of epidemic is in the supercritical condition, corresponding to an unlimited growth of infection, the interaction between S and V must reach the supercritical condition to generate control of the spreading of infection, and bring the system to criticality. By adopting a theoretical perspective like that of multilayer complex networks, we study the case where the epidemiological network is under the influence of a sociological debate on whether to be vaccinated. We show that at criticality this debate generates clusters of individuals in favor of vaccination and clusters of individuals opposing it., We study the influence of this debate on the spread of infection. We show that because of this debate in the epidemic network, a pattern emerges mirroring the structures of the sociological network. Finally, we introduce feedback of the epidemic network on the sociological network, and we prove that because of this feedback the sociological system undergoes a process of self-organization maintaining it at criticality. This system exhibits temporal complexity and critical slowing down. We hope that these results may have an important effect of giving interesting suggestions to behavioral psychologists and information scientists actively involved in the analysis of the social debate on the moral issues connected to sexual activities.
      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400072
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
  • Entropy in Biochemical Failure

    • Authors: Randal Hallford
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.
      The ab-initio determination of the thermodynamic properties of the hydrolysis of the GTP gamma-phosphate in normal and abnormal cell functions of the RAS protein mutant Thr (Q61) leads to a description of energy cycle deviations in the abnormal mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. A predictive non-equilibrium probability statement describing the nonlinear changes for these open and finite-lifetime systems follows from reasonable enthalpy and entropy values between the normal and mutated forms based on structures of the GTPase states at the allosteric site. Recent advances in understanding entropy in terms of asymmetric and highly entropic catalysis lead to an investigation of the GTPase entropy, specifically with regard to a failure in catalysis of the phosphate fragment by a water hydrogen positioned by the enzyme. Utilizing a simple atomic metal catalyst surface displacement model, a paradigm that reduces noise from the quantum entanglement plus atomic displacement terms results in the process entropy. The evaluation of entropies within the mixed ionic, covalent and entangled system requires a nonlinear Markovian approach utilizing von Neumann entropies achieved by a systematic accumulation of entangled potentials in a step-wise method., Determination of the Hamiltonian for the entangled atomic state includes pure and mixed quantum states solved within the Araki–Leib triangle boundary resulting in only hard-entangled states, and the entanglement of Coulombic and Laughlin-like states can be evaluated by slicing the Hilbert spaces and solving the pure states, or mixed states separately, and then summing them. Incorporating the resulting entanglement potentials as well as the Coulombic atomic displacement states into a derivative of the Fokker–Planck equation results in generated and produced entropy.
      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400084
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
  • Diagnosing Disease with Multifractality

    • Authors: Sage Copling
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.
      The resting activity of the heart, without external sensory input, has provided novel information on the interactions that occur between biological and entropic systems in the body. The intersection between multifractality and disease diagnosis has been extensively worked on in the biophysical field, and yet, it is one that still has a lot of potential for new discoveries. In this paper, I will attempt to briefly describe the current literature on the use of multifractality on disease diagnosis, in addition to briefly comment on the future of this diagnostic methodology in the fight against cancer. A fractal is described as a never-ending pattern, one that is infinitely complex and seems to repeat a process over and over in a loop. Fractals exhibit self-similarity, meaning they are patterns that are identical or near-identical on many scales, including time scales. In the context of this paper, fractals are visible patterns in the heartbeat 1[math]s into a time series that will also be visible 1 day into a time series. This self-similarity is described by exponents. For example, monofractal processes only scale fractally in one manner, meaning that one exponent will help define them mathematically. On a graph of a power law over time, a monofractal state would present as a linear curve, as one exponent is defining it. Multifractality, on the other hand, is a term defining a spectrum of exponents used to help mathematically define a natural state. It would present as a nonlinear curve on the graph of a power law, as multiple exponents of multiple orders are describing its self-similarity over time. A heartbeat time series, in this paper, will be defined as 1800 evenly-spaced measurements of heart rate from one patient.5 In addition, the term crucial renewal events, also called crucial events, will be defined as events in a heartbeat time series that store the long-term memory of the heartbeat, therefore impacting the future patterns of the heartbeat. Crucial events build upon each other, meaning that the occurrence of earlier crucial events will correlate to the occurrence of subsequent crucial events. Over time, a decrease in the correlation between crucial events would indicate the presence of Poisson-like events, which in this paper will be defined as a disturbance in the healthy physiological process of a heartbeat. The concept that multifractality and crucial events may play a role in disease diagnosis has been presented in different ways in the past. The first method was through broad multifractal spectrum analysis, in which Ivanov et al. determined that a loss of multifractality occurs in a non-healthy state, specifically when they analyzed congestive heart failure. This finding suggested that the presence of pathology moved the heartbeat closer to a monofractal state, making the difference between healthy and pathological individuals easy to identify. The second method, presented later on, presented evidence that healthy patients were less likely to have unrelated Poisson-like events than diseased or unhealthy patients. Crucially, West and Grigolini in 2017 were able to find an intersection between these two methods by proving that increasing the percentage of unrelated Poisson-like events occurring in a system would directly correlate to a narrower multifractal spectrum, connecting the two diagnostic methods and providing a view of multifractality such that it could have a drastic impact on potential diagnosis methodologies in the future.,
      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400096
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
  • Exploration of New Sensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy Targeting Deep
           Cancer Treatment

    • Authors: Wei Chen
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.
      Despite its advantages, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has one major drawback: penetration depth. This limits the use of conventional PDT methods to skin (surface) tumors only, making it ineffective for deep tumors. There are four possible solutions for the light delivery for deep tumor treatment: particles activated by near-infrared (NIR) light, up-conversion of nanoparticles that absorb NIR light and emit visible light for other photosensitizers (PSs), fiber optics and ionizing X-rays. Of these options, the best is X-rays. Near-infrared light can penetrate only 5[math]mm in tissue while retaining enough energy to activate the PSs. The use of fiber optics is neither convenient nor efficient as it cannot effectively and evenly activate the photosensitizers. It is also almost impossible for the treatment of metastatic sites or lymph nodes involved with this disease, unless they are located in the region where light delivery is feasible. In contrast with the other methods, X-rays can easily penetrate as deeply as necessary into the patients, and are convenient as they are commonly used in cancer therapy. The use of novel copper–cysteamine (Cu–Cy) nanoparticles is a good solution for overcoming these issues because Cu–Cy nanoparticles can be effectively activated by X-rays to produce singlet oxygen, which makes it very efficient for deep cancer treatment. Here, I will discuss the use of copper–cysteamine nanoparticles to enhance radiation therapy in combination with PDT and targeting therapies.
      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400102
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
  • Laser Spectroscopic Tools for Nano-Biophotonics

    • Authors: A. V. Sokolov
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.
      Biophotonics is a vibrant interdisciplinary field exploring the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and biological materials such as sub-cellular structures and molecules in living organisms. Biophotonics research leads to applications in agriculture and life sciences and produces tools for medical diagnostics and therapies. Working in this general field, we have recently made advances toward ultrasensitive Raman-spectroscopic probing of viruses. Our approach is based on laser spectroscopy aided by plasmonic nanoantennas, as in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). An additional enhancement in sensitivity and speed is obtained by employing the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic technique (FAST) for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The combined approach shows promise for non-destructive label-free bioimaging with molecular-level sensitivity and with spatial resolution down to a fraction of a nanometer.
      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400114
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
  • Molecular Motors–Nature’s Efficiency at Work

    • Authors: Winfried Teizer
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.
      Nature has generated sophisticated and very efficient molecular motors, employed for nanoscale transport at the intracellular level. As a complementary tool to nanofluidics, these motors have been envisioned for nanotechnological devices. In order to pave the way for such applications, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms governing these motors is needed. Because of the complexity of their in vivo functions, this understanding is best acquired in vitro, where functional parameters can independently be controlled. I will report on work in my group that studies and harnesses the transport properties of molecular motors on functionalized structures of reduced dimensionality such as carbon nanotubes, lithographically designed electrodes, microwires, loops and swarms. In addition, I will show results that demonstrate the potential of this work for biomedical advances.
      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400126
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
  • Workshop on Latex

    • Authors: Jackie Dunn
      Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 06, Issue , March 2022.

      Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1142/S2424942422400138
      Issue No: Vol. 06 (2022)
       
 
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