Authors:P. D. Morley Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 08, Issue , 2024. One of the great mysteries of physics is why neutron stars, which are timelike matter, have a maximum mass, but Black Holes, which are spacelike matter, have no maximum mass. Indeed, Black Holes have been observed having masses of billions of solar masses. The answer ultimately is related to the stability of Black Holes (BH) against their own gravity, which is the key to understanding General Relativity. We show that the answer to these two related questions is the existence of a fundamental Black Hole constant: [math] Newtons, independent of Black Hole mass. This constant allows us to derive the correct area law for Black Hole coalesce. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2024-07-31T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S242494242450004X Issue No:Vol. 08 (2024)

Authors:Xiaodong Yang, Yuchen Yang, Luo Zhen, Yuanbo Bi Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 08, Issue , 2024. In this paper, we review the history research on the principles of “3 generations” structure of elementary particles, including Steven Weinberg’s basic physical ideas on the Standard Model of elementary particles, and Barr and Zee’s research and so on. We propose a physical view on the “Dual-production” of quarks and leptons in the evolution of the universe, according to our exiting physical views on the systematic evolution of cosmic and the fundamental theory of EBSF. As for the three generation structure of elementary particles, we propose that the three-generation structure of particle correspond to the evolution of the universe from the plasma quantum state (for the exiting physical phase states of matter formed by the early cosmic evolution, see Y. Xiaodong, Y. Yuchen, L. Zhen and Y. Bi, Rep. Adv. Phys. Sci. 2 (2023) 2250007) to today’s celestial matter, which has undergone three (only three) important physical phase changes in the composition of material structures; that is, each generation of elementary particle structure is the physical elementary phase structure of every stage on condense and sedimentary physical celestial phase. These three stages of condense and sedimentary celestial phase can be simply likened to the three stages of gas, liquid and solid in condensed matter physics, which are essentially formed by the interweaving of cosmic matter formed in the early evolution and the exciters of current-cosmic-evolution EBSF, of course, there is also the complex role of the differentiation inherent time of universe evolution. We analyze that these views not only do not contradict our existing physical theories, but also better understand the nature of its physics and science. The three-generation structure of elementary particles corresponds to a historical epoch in the evolution of the universe, and called the one Mini-era of the domino mechanism before Weinberg’s famous picture . Although our analysis is somewhat phenomenological, it is still necessary to establish the evolution equation from the plasma state of the early universe to the current physical phase of cosmic celestial matter. More cosmic observation and more experiment data are needed in order to establish the precise quantification of the mathematical physics equations on the evolution process. But we believe that it has a major breakthrough in physical thought, and for the first time, human beings were able to rationally explain the three-generation structure of elementary particles, able to reveal the mystery of the generations of elementary particles in physics. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2024-07-22T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942423500159 Issue No:Vol. 08 (2024)

Authors:Ophir Flomenbom Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 08, Issue , 2024. In this work, we suggest that an imaginary mass field (or the orthogonal field) is what creates gravity, through a process similar to that which appeared in our previous works [O. Flomenbom, The process of gravity, Rep. Adv. Phys. Sci. 6 (2022) 2250003; Quantum mechanics and gravity resonance together, Rep. Adv. Phys. Sci. 8 (2024) 2471001]. The imaginary mass has a signal faster than light speed c, scaling numerically as ∼ [math], influencing the real space through the creation of gravitational waves; surrounding real mass or real energy as photons, giving photons their velocity of the speed light, and giving mass to all other particles. The gravitational waves propagate faster than the speed of light, yet the digesting velocity of the real matter “above” is the speed of light (meaning for example that all the planets in the solar system feel changes in the sun’s gravity at the same instant, and this is a fraction of a second after it occurred). When there are no particles or energy “above” this field, it can generate real gravitational sieves, that upon colliding create a cascade resulting in a big bang; therefore this description can also answer what will happen at the end, in addition to the beginning. The imaginary field particles vibrate in the imaginary mass space, and therefore do not absorb radiation photons of the real space, so do not cool down the real environment. The field is like a fluid and can change density depending on the real mass “above” it, where its particles’ size scales are 10[math] m. Einstein spacetime equations represent the dynamics of this fluid like imaginary mass field, in particular when interacting with real mass or energy through the gravitational waves. Among the extraordinaire capabilities of this simple description: (1) replacing the Higgs field and mechanism; (2) generating dark energy and dark matter, (3) explaining spacetime microscopically and connecting spacetime to quantum mechanics; therefore forming the theory of everything. (4) creating a big bang, therefore also the origin of matter (the dynamics before the big bang), (5) connecting the speed of light to the gravity constant and other constants, (6) solving questions about time travel: within this approach, we can view the past and visit the present time of distant planets, (7) designing anti-gravity technologies and others. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2024-06-21T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942424500038 Issue No:Vol. 08 (2024)

Authors:Xiaodong Yang, Yuchen Yang, Zhen Luo, Yuanbo Bi Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 08, Issue , 2024. In this paper, we introduce Dirac equation, the hole theory of positive and negative matter, and Anderson localization theory briefly. We analyze physical conditions of localization: [math] inequality relation. On this basis, we try to put forward the physical mode of production of free positron and electron. In this model, when [math] rays travel through a vacuum, due to the action in which quantum superfluid rushes to the heat source ([math] ray), the quantum superfluid polymerization, local disorder, two-model quantum superfluid shunt, quantum superfluid in a vacuum is localized by the electro-vector and magnetic-vector in the electromagnetic field of the [math] ray to form electrons and positrons; in essence, the electro-vector and magnetic-vector are components of [math] quantum in the electromagnetic field ([math] ray); and the spin of the [math] ray is composed of two components. After localization, positive and negative polarities whose phases are opposite are formed. The positron and electron charges produced in this model have the same quantum numbers such as the mass, spin and average lifetime, and the additive quantum numbers such as charge, baryon number, lepton number, and singularity number should be equal but opposite, the magnetic moment direction of the positive and negative particles are opposite when their spin directions are the same. We can take experimental verification of this model. Once verified, the localization theory also seems to open a door for us to study the structure of sub-quarks and lepton, and also provides a theoretical basis for harnessing the enormous energy generated by the annihilation of positive and negative matter. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2024-06-12T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942424500026 Issue No:Vol. 08 (2024)

Authors:Ophir Flomenbom Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 08, Issue , 2024. In a recent paper, “The process of gravity” (2022), we developed the theory to explain gravity, stating that gravity waves are created through a process involving quantum fluctuations of all the molecules of the celestial body. The local fluctuations of adjacent molecules interact, and this process on the macroscopic scale creates the gravitational waves: at steady state, these fluctuations are structured as layers of the onion, generating a force toward the body center of mass. Here, we further develop the theory microscopically, stating that all elementary particles vibrate at their own particular frequency of gravity, generating radiant energy, where their mass determines the radiant pulses strength. These quantum fluctuations are not photons; the fluctuations are connected to the mass. These might be defined as electromagnetic radiant phonons. Yet also, the frequency of gravity might reach 10[math]–10[math][math]Hz, whereas these are not photons, the energy is not high at all. This description is valid also for black holes. There, gravity waves made of electromagnetic fluctuations engulf the singularity. As these fluctuations are connected to the mass, the waves can escape the black hole, within our layering description of gravity. An anti-gravity device should create a fluctuating magnetic field and electric field, in the adequate direction, at the required frequency and strength. The signal should annihilate the Earth’s gravitation waves. In this work, an anti-gravity device is designed and developed. It is based on a Tesla coil circuit of high voltage, and high frequency, connected to a coil on a rotating board, at a condensation temperature, yet all the ingredients are replaced and improved, including the rotation feature. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2024-03-19T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942424710014 Issue No:Vol. 08 (2024)

Authors:Christopher N. Watson Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 07, Issue , 2023. Quantum entropy measures the number of possible microstates of position and momentum due to quantum uncertainty. Black hole entropy is an example of quantum entropy. Classical entropy, like the Gibbs entropy of a gas, does not depend on quantum uncertainty. This paper is the first to define the quantum entropy of ordinary matter, termed “atomic entropy”. The atomic entropy at the surface of a spherical object depends on its mass and is inversely proportional to its surface area. The entropy scale factor (ESF) is a theory that all changes in the scale of spacetime are due to differences in entropy. Defining atomic entropy allows the ESF to make predictions for systems including ordinary matter. In the ESF, gravitational objects are attracted to one another because gravitational entropy, a form of quantum entropy, increases as the distance between these objects decreases. The increase in gravitational entropy increases the total entropy of the system, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. This paper is also the first to use the gradients in the scale of space and time predicted by the ESF to derive Newtonian gravity. Explaining the mechanism of gravity in this way provides a link between quantum physics and gravity. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2024-02-05T08:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942424500014 Issue No:Vol. 07 (2024)