Authors:Eugene Stephane Mananga Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 07, Issue , 2023. Floquet–Magnus and Fer expansion (FE) schemes are used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the calculation of effective Hamiltonians and propagators. This work focuses on applying the Floquet–Magnus and FE approaches to control the spin system evolution during the phase modulate Lee–Goldburg radiation experiment. Until now, the Frequency switched Lee–Goldburg and its variant called the Phase module Lee–Goldburg have been treated by only the average Hamiltonian theory and the bimodal Floquet approach. In this paper, we use the two developing expansion schemes in solid-state NMR for the calculation of the effective Hamiltonian and propagator during the spin dynamics. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results of the Floquet–Magnus and FEs and delivers illustrations of novel springs that boost previous applications that are based on the classical information. The generality of this work points to potential applications in problems related to solid-state NMR and theoretical developments of spectroscopy as well as interdisciplinary research areas whenever they include spin dynamics concepts. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2023-08-31T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S242494242350010X Issue No:Vol. 07 (2023)

Authors:Christopher N. Watson Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 07, Issue , 2023. Gravitational redshift decreases the resolution of measurements, causing entropy by increasing the possible microstates of position and momentum for objects within a gravitational field. This is the first paper with a quantitative equation for gravitational entropy, which extends the concept of black hole entropy to any object within a gravitational field. It also provides the first calculation of “inertial entropy,” the entropy of moving objects, by correlating changes in the scale of spacetime due to gravity with those of special relativity. The entropy scale factor (ESF) combines gravitational entropy and inertial entropy to propose that all changes in the scale of spacetime are due to entropy. In the ESF, gravity is due to entropy, not the mass of Newtonian gravity or the energy and momentum of general relativity. The key difference between Newtonian gravity and the ESF is that mass is a property of an object, while gravitational entropy is a property of a field. This means that in the ESF the entropy of objects can be increased by the gravitational fields of nearby objects. This increase in entropy results in the ESF predicting more gravitational force than Newtonian gravity does for complicated systems. This increase in force may be able to explain the phenomena attributed to dark matter, like galaxy rotation dynamics, without the need for dark matter. The same changes in scale predicted by the ESF may be able to explain the expansion of the universe, both in the inflationary epoch and the accelerating universe, without the need for an inflaton field or dark energy. The similarity of the ESF to Newtonian gravity for systems with one or two gravitational bodies explains why it has not been ruled out by prior tests of gravity. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2023-07-19T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942423500068 Issue No:Vol. 07 (2023)

Authors:Shigeto Nagao Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 07, Issue , 2023. The existing electromagnetism (EM) expects isolated elementary electric charges [math] or [math], and allows their clusters [math]. If such isolated charges were possible, a notable force should have worked between electrodes of batteries. However, we practically cannot detect a force between electrodes of adjacent two cells or those of a capacitor. This is critical and requests a drastic correction of key concepts in EM. According to our proposed energy circulation theory, the electric charge is the momentum in the hidden dimension of the 4D space. The electric force is a presentation of the fundamental force that works based on momentums. The elementary charge [math] of an electron is not a point charge but spreads even until its counter such as a proton. Plus and minus charges align alternately with the interval [math] same as the diameter of a quantum particle. The elementary charge e is not the minimum charge but the maximum charge. The force within a prolonged electric charge pair is same as that expected by the standard EM. However, the charges at the two ends are as small as about [math], and hardly affect an electrostatic force with an outside charge. This is the reason why an electrostatic force does not work between an electrode of a cell and that of another cell. Here in this paper, we claim to express the electric current by the energy of electric polarization instead of the electric charge. As a unit of polarization energy, we newly define the polar charge, by which we express the electric current. We further define the magnetic charge as a momentum in space dimensions of a hidden–space-dimensional energy circulation. It is a vector charge in the 3D space while the electric charge is a scalar charge. We demonstrate how a rotation of magnetic charges is induced and derive the equation of magnetic charge density around the electric current. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2023-07-19T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942423500081 Issue No:Vol. 07 (2023)

Authors:Xiaodong Yang, Yuchen Yang, Zhen Luo, Yuanbo Bi Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 07, Issue , 2023. In this paper, we introduce the Dirac equation and the hole theory of antiparticle generation, and the history of antiparticle discover. We study of the physical properties of the antiparticles; we point out that antigravity does not exist. We introduce the ideas of two talented physicists and Cabibbo theory which have important influence on the research of origin of the matter–antimatter asymmetry, we propose that the “Dirac energy sea” is compatible with Feynman’s idea that antiparticles are “time reversals” of particles and be used to analyze some cosmological problems. In this paper, we review and analyze a lot of literatures about the asymmetry research on matter and antimatter generation, the available data from astronomical observations, and we can conclude that: everything around us within [math] light-years is made of matter the present-day observable universe most likely does not contain significant amounts of antimatter. We provide extensive analysis and introduce observation of antimatter from space, review massive literature on related research, it shows that the present theory cannot give a reasonable explanation for this problem, the origin of matter–antimatter asymmetry remains unknown, although continuing advances in theory and improved experiment limits have ruled out some scenarios, for example, sphaleron-leptogenesis at the electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model and so on. Based on Huang’s theory of the creating of cosmic matter and my idea of the existence of energy basic state field (EBSF) in the universe, we point out the quantum turbulence generated by quantum super-fluidity in the initial period of the formation of the universe, a large number of high-energy solitons (matter) are formed after the Big Bang, it is called Huang-yang mechanism, which is different from the mechanism of antimatter creation and annihilation. In this paper, we also research that the production and annihilation of positive and negative matter promote to further evolving nuclear synthesis to form nucleons. It is absolutely not a perfect mirror symmetry between matter and antimatter when universe creations primordial matter. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2023-07-12T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942423300015 Issue No:Vol. 07 (2023)

Authors:Hollis Williams Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 07, Issue , 2023. We suggest that it might be possible to resolve the vacuum energy problem by assuming the reality of a many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. The suggested resolution is that the enormous theoretical prediction for the vacuum energy density is actually the value distributed across all the parallel universes in a superposition. It is assumed that branching of all the universes into a larger superposition is a physical process which is extremely rare, but which has occurred sufficiently often since the Big Bang that the discrepancy for the experimentally measured value of the energy density can be explained. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2023-06-09T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942423500044 Issue No:Vol. 07 (2023)

Authors:Amrit Srečko Šorli, Niko Gorjup, Rado Gorjup Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 07, Issue , 2023. Although it has been approximately 80 years since the graviton was theoretically predicted, it has not yet been discovered. To resolve this puzzle, this study developed a model wherein the gravitational force is incorporated into the fundamental structure of the universal space. A physical object diminishes the energy density of space exactly by the amount of energy it contains. The resulting area of space with a diminished energy density is pushed in the direction of the closest area with the lowest energy density. A physical object situated in the corresponding space with a lower energy density follows the motion of this area towards the closest area with the lowest energy density. Therefore, there is no direct gravitational force between the physical objects and gravity is incorporated into the variable energy density of the space. This model of gravity has advanced Newton’s ether model with the extension of the mass-energy equivalence principle to space and works without the hypothetical graviton. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2023-06-07T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942423500056 Issue No:Vol. 07 (2023)

Authors:Michel Canac Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 07, Issue , 2023. Birkhoff’s theorem (1923) states that in the framework of General Relativity the only solution to the central symmetric gravitational field in vacuum is the Schwarzschild metric. This result has crucial consequences in the resolution of the dark matter problem. This problem can only be solved through the discovery of a new type of matter particles, or by the introduction of a new theory of gravitation which supplants General Relativity. After reviewing Birkhoff’s theorem, it was discovered that by starting the calculation of the metric from an indeterminate metric whose coefficients are locally defined, we obtain a solution containing two arbitrary functions. In general, these functions do not induce any difference between this solution and the Schwarzschild metric. However, it can be seen that if we choose a triangular signal for these functions, the situation changes dramatically: (1) the metric is broken down into four distinct metrics that replace each other cyclically over time, (2) for two of these four metrics, the coordinate differentials dr and dt switch their spatial/temporal role cyclically, (3) the four metrics are not separable: they form a single logical set that we call a 4-metric and (4) this 4-metric cannot be transformed into the Schwarzschild metric by any coordinate change. According to these findings, there is a second solution in the spherical space, in addition to the Schwarzschild metric, and thus, Birkhoff’s theorem is incomplete. In the 4-metric, the orbital velocity of a massive particle does not depend on the radial distance. This 4-metric is thus in agreement with the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation (BTFR), (consequently BTFR is in agreement with a solution of General Relativity without presence of dark matter and without hypothesis on the distribution of stars in galaxies). By combining the 4-metric with the Schwarzschild metric, another 4-metric in agreement with the observed galaxy rotation curve can been obtained. The calculation of the light deflection in this space is also exposed in this paper. According to these findings: (1) it is not necessary to introduce the notion of dark matter or the notion of distribution of stars in galaxies in order to find the observed galaxy rotation curve in the framework of General Relativity, (2) the modification of the metric with respect to the Schwarzschild metric appears to be due to the existence of a lower bound of the space-time curvature in galaxies (without external field effect), this phenomenon leading to a temporal oscillation of the space-time curvature, (3) an analysis of the external field effect for the Milky Way-Andromeda couple allows to model the rotation curve of the two galaxies beyond the plateau zone. The validation of these findings would be the first step toward challenging the standard model of cosmology ([math]CDM), as the [math]CDM model cannot be in agreement with the observed galaxy rotation curve without presence of dark matter. The second step would be the demonstration that there is no dark matter in intergalactic spaces (not included in this paper). Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2023-04-28T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942423500020 Issue No:Vol. 07 (2023)

Authors:Dale. R. Koehler Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 07, Issue , 2023. It is shown in this paper that the distorted space model of matter can describe a universe transitioning between conception and an open-ended finality. We use the verbiage “distorted” to communicate the concept of “energetic-manifold-warping” and to distinguish “spatial-warping” from “classical matter-warping”, although the concept of “matter” is in fact, in the present “distorted-geometry” context, the “geometric distortion energy” of the spatial manifold itself without a classical “matter stress-energy source”. An energy conserving alternative to black-body radiation-emission structural-modeling is manifest as an energetically unstable Universe (an originally stable but subsequently collapsing state, followed by an explosive expansion, thereby exhibiting an energy-creation process of one day!). The energy transition dynamics are described for a spherical, gravitational, and electromagnetic, geometrically-based mimic of matter existing at quantitative measures of a size challenging observation, that is, at a calculated Universe (gravitational body) [math] m and [math] J. The Universe (electromagnetic body) radius is calculated [math] m. We have modeled the structure with a composite, two-component, geometric-coupling_constant and initial structural conditions representing Friedmann’s critical density, [math]_critical energy-density (8.898[math] J/m3) for the gravitational energy-density and [math]_electron (8.7[math] J/m3) [math] the [math]_critical energy-density for the geometric-electromagnetic extremum; the geometric extrema are curvature and energy-density extrema. A collapsing initial-phase-1 state, posited as a Friedmann-defined, distorted-geometry (DG) configuration with two equal-energy species or energy-density states, transitions electromagnetically, via an intermediate “mediator or force carrier” state (a W-boson structure in beta-decay), to a final 3-component state (ala a mimic of the beta decay transition process). Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2023-04-28T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942423500032 Issue No:Vol. 07 (2023)

Authors:P. D. Morley Abstract: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Volume 07, Issue , 2023. The scalar curvature [math] is invariant under isometric symmetries (distance invariance) associated with metric spaces. Gravitational Riemannian manifolds are metric spaces. For Minkowski Space, the distance invariant is [math], where [math], [math] are arbitrary 4-vectors. Thus the isometry symmetry associated with Minkowski Space is the Poincaré Group. The Standard Model Lagrangian density [math] is also invariant under the Poincaré Group, so for Minkowski Space, the scalar curvature and the Standard Model Lagrangian density are proportional to each other. We show that this proportionality extends to general gravitational Riemannian manifolds, not just for Minkowski Space. This predicts that Black Holes have non-zero scalar curvatures [math]. For Schwarzschild Black Holes, [math] is predicted to be [math], where [math] is the Schwarzschild radius. The existence of [math] means that Black Holes cannot evaporate. Citation: Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences PubDate: 2023-04-22T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S2424942423500019 Issue No:Vol. 07 (2023)