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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ABC Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AZimuth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Scientific Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
BIBECHANA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BibNum     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bistua : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Básicas     Open Access  
BJHS Themes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Central European Journal of Clinical Research     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencia, Docencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Dharmakarya     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ergo     Open Access  
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Extensionismo, Innovación y Transferencia Tecnológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 377)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Iberoamerican Journal of Science Measurement and Communication     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science & Emerging Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Review of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science     Open Access  
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Interaction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Research     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Facets
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2371-1671
Published by Canadian Science Publishing Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Review of plastic pollution policies of Arctic countries in relation to
           seabirds

    • Authors: Jannie F. Linnebjerg, Julia E. Baak, Tom Barry, Maria V. Gavrilo, Mark L. Mallory, Flemming R. Merkel, Courtney Price, Jakob Strand, Tony R. Walker, Jennifer F. Provencher
      Pages: 1 - 25
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 1-25, January 2021.
      Marine plastic is a ubiquitous environmental problem that can have an impact on a variety of marine biota, such as seabirds, making it an important concern for scientists and policy makers. Although research on plastic ingestion by seabirds is increasing, few studies have examined policies and long-term monitoring programs to reduce marine plastic in the Arctic. This paper provides a review of international, national, and regional policies and long-term monitoring programs that address marine plastic in relation to seabirds in the Arctic countries: Canada, the Kingdom of Denmark (Greenland and the Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, Norway, the Russian Federation, Sweden, and the United States of America. Results show that a broad range of international, national, regional and local policies address marine debris, specifically through waste management and the prevention of pollution from ships. However, few policies directly address seabirds and other marine biota. Further, policies are implemented inconsistently across regions, making it difficult to enforce and monitor the efficacy of these policies given the long-range transport of plastic pollution globally. To reduce marine plastic pollution in the Arctic environment, pan-Arctic and international collaboration is needed to implement standardized policies and long-term monitoring programs for marine plastic in the Arctic and worldwide.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0052
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Characterization of microplastics and anthropogenic fibers in surface
           waters of the North Saskatchewan River, Alberta, Canada

    • Authors: Taylor Bujaczek, Sheldon Kolter, David Locky, Matthew S. Ross
      Pages: 26 - 43
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 26-43, January 2021.
      Microplastics are globally ubiquitous contaminants, but quantitative data on their presence in freshwater environments are sparse. This study investigates the occurrence, composition, and spatial trends of microplastic contamination in the North Saskatchewan River flowing through Edmonton, Alberta, the fifth largest city in Canada. Surface water samples were collected from seven sites throughout the city, upstream and downstream of the city, and near potential point sources (i.e., a wastewater treatment plant). Samples were spiked with fluorescent microbeads as internal standards and extracted by wet peroxide oxidation and density floatation. Microplastics were found in all samples, ranging in concentration from 4.6 to 88.3 particles·m−3 (mean = 26.2 ± 18.4 particles·m−3). Fibers were the dominant morphology recovered, and most were of anthropogenic origin and chemically identified as dyed cotton or polyester by Raman microspectroscopy. The majority of fragments were identified as polyethylene or polypropylene. No upstream to downstream differences were found in concentration, size distribution, or morphological composition suggesting nonpoint sources of microplastics to the river. This study represents one of the first investigations into the occurrence of microplastics in the freshwater environment in western Canada and will provide a baseline for future studies.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-01-14T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0057
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Ten years of ranavirus research (2010–2019): an analysis of global
           research trends

    • Authors: Wytamma Wirth, David Lesbarrères, Ellen Ariel
      Pages: 44 - 57
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 44-57, January 2021.
      Ranaviruses are large nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses that infect ectothermic vertebrates. Here we report the results of a scientometric analysis of the field of ranavirology for the last 10 years. Using bibliometric tools we analyse trends, identify top publications and journals, and visualise the ranavirus collaboration landscape. The Web of Science core collection contains 545 ranavirus-related publications from 2010 to 2019, with more publications produced every year and a total of 6830 citations. Research output is primarily driven by the United States and People’s Republic of China, who together account for more than 60% of ranavirus publications. We also observed a positive correlation between the average number of co-authors on ranavirus publications and the year of publication, indicating that overall collaboration is increasing. A keyword analysis of ranavirus publications from 2010 to 2019 reveals several areas of research interest including; ecology, immunology, virology/molecular biology, genetics, ichthyology, and herpetology. While ranavirus research is conducted globally, relatively few publications have co-authors from both European and Asian countries, possibly because closer countries (geographical distance) are more likely to share co-authors. To this end, efforts should be made to foster collaborations across geopolitical and cultural boundaries, especially between countries with shared research interests as ultimately, understanding global pathogens, like ranaviruses, will require global collaboration.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-01-21T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0030
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Academic criteria for promotion and tenure in faculties of medicine: a
           cross-sectional study of the Canadian U15 universities

    • Authors: Danielle B. Rice, Hana Raffoul, John P.A. Ioannidis, David Moher
      Pages: 58 - 70
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 58-70, January 2021.
      Background: The objective of this study was to determine the presence of a set of prespecified criteria used to assess scientists for promotion and tenure within faculties of medicine among the U15 Group of Canadian Research Universities. Methods: Each faculty guideline for assessing promotion and tenure was reviewed and the presence of five traditional (peer-reviewed publications, authorship order, journal impact factor, grant funding, and national/international reputation) and seven nontraditional (citations, data sharing, publishing in open access mediums, accommodating leaves, alternative ways for sharing research, registering research, using reporting guidelines) criteria were collected by two reviewers. Results: Among the U15 institutions, four of five traditional criteria (80.0%) were present in at least one promotion guideline, whereas only three of seven nontraditional incentives (42.9%) were present in any promotion guidelines. When assessing full professors, there were a median of three traditional criteria listed, versus one nontraditional criterion. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that faculties of medicine among the U15 Group of Canadian Research Universities base assessments for promotion and tenure on traditional criteria. Some of these metrics may reinforce problematic practices in medical research. These faculties should consider incentivizing criteria that can enhance the quality of medical research.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-01-21T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0044
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Thermal sensitivity and flow-mediated migratory delays drive climate risk
           for coastal sockeye salmon

    • Authors: William I. Atlas, Karl M. Seitz, Jeremy W.N. Jorgenson, Ben Millard-Martin, William G. Housty, Daniel Ramos-Espinoza, Nicholas J. Burnett, Mike Reid, Jonathan W. Moore
      Pages: 71 - 89
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 71-89, January 2021.
      Climate change is subjecting aquatic species to increasing temperatures and shifting hydrologic conditions. Understanding how these changes affect individual survival can help guide conservation and management actions. Anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in some large river systems are acutely impacted by the river temperatures and flows encountered during their spawning migrations. However, comparatively little is known about drivers of en route mortality for salmon in smaller coastal watersheds, and climate impacts may differ across watersheds and locally adapted salmon populations. To understand the effects of climate on the survival of coastal sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka; hísn in Haíɫzaqv), we tagged 1785 individual fish with passive integrated transponders across four migration seasons in the Koeye River—a low-elevation watershed in coastal British Columbia—and tracked them during their relatively short migration (∼13 km) from river entry to spawning grounds. Overall, 64.7% of sockeye survived to enter the spawning grounds, and survival decreased rapidly when water temperatures exceeded 15 °C. The best-fitting model included an interaction between river flow and temperature, such that temperature effects were worse when flows were low, and river entry ceased at the lowest flows. Results revealed temperature-mediated mortality and migration delays from low water that may synergistically reduce survival among sockeye salmon returning to coastal watersheds.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0027
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Freshwater conservation planning in the far north of Ontario, Canada:
           identifying priority watersheds for the conservation of fish biodiversity
           in an intact boreal landscape

    • Authors: F. Meg Southee, Brie A. Edwards, Cheryl-Lesley B. Chetkiewicz, Constance M. O’Connor
      Pages: 90 - 117
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 90-117, January 2021.
      Freshwater ecosystems show more biodiversity loss than terrestrial or marine systems. We present a systematic conservation planning analysis in the Arctic Ocean drainage basin in Ontario, Canada, to identify key watersheds for the conservation of 30 native freshwater fish, including four focal species: lake sturgeon, lake whitefish, brook trout, and walleye. We created species distribution models for 30 native fish species and accounted for anthropogenic impacts. We used the “prioritizr” package in R to select watersheds that maximize species targets, minimize impacts, and meet area-based targets based on the Convention on Biological Diversity commitment to protect 17% of terrestrial and freshwater areas by 2020 and the proposed target to protect 30% by 2030. We found that, on average, 17.4% and 29.8% of predicted species distributions were represented for each of the 30 species in the 17% and 30% area-based solutions, respectively. The outcomes were more efficient when we prioritized for individual species, particularly brook trout, where 24% and 36% of its predicted distribution was represented in the 17% and 30% solutions, respectively. Future conservation planning should consider climate change, culturally significant species and areas, and the importance of First Nations as guardians and stewards of the land in northern Ontario.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Relaxin peptides reduce cellular damage in cultured brain slices exposed
           to transient oxygen–glucose deprivation: an effect mediated by nitric
           oxide

    • Authors: Nicholas P. DeAdder, Hannah J. Gillam, Brian C. Wilson
      Pages: 118 - 130
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 118-130, January 2021.
      The effect of treatment with human relaxins on cell death was studied in oxygen- and glucose-deprived brain slices. In addition, involvement of nitric oxide and the relaxin receptor, RXFP3, was studied. Brain slices (n = 12–18/group) were cultured under standard conditions for two weeks and then exposed to: (i) an oxygenated balanced salt solution, (ii) a deoxygenated, glucose-free balanced salt solution (OGD media), or (iii) OGD media containing 10−7 mol/L H2 relaxin, 10−7 mol/L H2 relaxin with 50 μmol/L L-NIL, 10−7 mol/L H3 relaxin, or 10−7 mol/L H3 relaxin with 50 μmol/L L-NIL. Cell death was assessed using propidium iodide fluorescence. In a separate experiment, 10−5 mol/L R3 B1-22R (an antagonist of RXFP3) was added to both H2 and H3 relaxin treatments. H2 and H3 relaxin treatment reduced cell damage or death in OGD slices and L-NIL partially attenuated the effect of H3 relaxin. Antagonism of RXFP3 blocked the effect of H3 but not H2 relaxin. These data increase our understanding of the role of relaxin ligands and their receptors in protecting tissues throughout the body from ischemia and reperfusion injury.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-02-04T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0029
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • So, you want to host an inclusive and accessible conference'

    • Authors: Ana Sofia Barrows, Mahadeo A. Sukhai, Imogen R. Coe
      Pages: 131 - 138
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 131-138, January 2021.

      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-02-04T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • From coast to coast to coast: ecology and management of seagrass
           ecosystems across Canada

    • Authors: Grace E.P. Murphy, Jillian C. Dunic, Emily M. Adamczyk, Sarah J. Bittick, Isabelle M. Côté, John Cristiani, Emilie A. Geissinger, Robert S. Gregory, Heike K. Lotze, Mary I. O’Connor, Carlos A.S. Araújo, Emily M. Rubidge, Nadine D. Templeman, Melisa C. Wong
      Pages: 139 - 179
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 139-179, January 2021.
      Seagrass meadows are among the most productive and diverse marine ecosystems, providing essential structure, functions, and services. They are also among the most impacted by human activities and in urgent need of better management and protection. In Canada, eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows are found along the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic coasts, and thus occur across a wide range of biogeographic conditions. Here, we synthesize knowledge of eelgrass ecosystems across Canada’s coasts, highlighting commonalities and differences in environmental conditions, plant, habitat, and community structure, as well as current trends and human impacts. Across regions, eelgrass life history, phenology, and general species assemblages are similar. However, distinct regional differences occur in environmental conditions, particularly with water temperature and nutrient availability. There is considerable variation in the types and strengths of human activities among regions. The impacts of coastal development are prevalent in all regions, while other impacts are of concern for specific regions, e.g., nutrient loading in the Atlantic and impacts from the logging industry in the Pacific. In addition, climate change represents a growing threat to eelgrass meadows. We review current management and conservation efforts and discuss the implications of observed differences from coast to coast to coast.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Establishment, contagiousness, and initial spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Canada

    • Authors: Martin Krkošek, Madeline Jarvis-Cross, Kiran Wadhawan, Isha Berry, Jean-Paul R. Soucy, Korryn Bodner, Ariel Greiner, Leila Krichel, Stephanie Penk, Dylan Shea, Juan S. Vargas Soto, Ed W. Tekwa, Nicole Mideo, Péter K. Molnár
      Pages: 180 - 194
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 180-194, January 2021.
      This study empirically quantifies dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 establishment and early spread in Canada. We developed a transmission model that was simulation tested and fitted in a Bayesian framework to timeseries of new cases per day prior to physical distancing interventions. A hierarchical version was fitted to all provinces simultaneously to obtain average estimates for Canada. Across scenarios of a latent period of 2–4 d and an infectious period of 5–9 d, the R0 estimate for Canada ranges from a minimum of 3.0 (95% CI: 2.3–3.9) to a maximum of 5.3 (95% CI: 3.9–7.1). Among provinces, the estimated commencement of community transmission ranged from 3 d before to 50 d after the first reported case and from 2 to 25 d before the first reports of community transmission. Among parameter scenarios and provinces, the median reduction in transmission needed to obtain R0 < 1 ranged from 46% (95% CI: 43%–48%) to 89% (95% CI: 88%–90%). Our results indicate that local epidemics of SARS-CoV-2 in Canada entail high levels of stochasticity, contagiousness, and observation delay, which facilitates rapid undetected spread and requires comprehensive testing and contact tracing for its containment.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0055
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The tragedy of conservation

    • Authors: Raymond A. Rogers
      Pages: 195 - 214
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 195-214, January 2021.
      A central contention of this paper is that conservation strategies are failing because they have become increasingly integrated into, and share the assumptions of, the structures of capitalism. As a result, conservation is becoming a strategic specialty within capitalism, rather than an ethical challenge to its basic assumptions. The paper examines this integration by analysing the way Hardin’s argument in the “tragedy of the commons” metaphor was taken up by policy makers in Canada’s East Coast fishery and a case is made that, as seen in the case of the fishery, this strategic integration limited the analytical capability of conservation to highlight the causes of environmental degradation. The critical literature on Hardin’s model points to the failure to recognize the importance of social relations and local institutional arrangements in combatting environmental failure. This paper contributes to the importance of “the social” in conservation debates by emphasizing Polanyi’s contrasting definitions of formal and substantive economics and the way they relate to contrasting conceptions of tragedy, as set out by Hardin (formal tragedy from above) and Goldmann’s conception of a historically specific tragedy that can be described as substantive tragedy from below. The analytical failure associated with Hardin’s metaphor can serve as a cautionary tale for current strategic and specific conservation strategies that tend to downplay the importance of ethical and social issues.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-02-18T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0072
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Mobilizing values: using perceptions of barachois ponds in Nova Scotia to
           advance informed management

    • Authors: Lydia Ross, Lucia Fanning
      Pages: 215 - 239
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 215-239, January 2021.
      Meaningful engagement is increasingly used as a management tool for understanding the multitude of complex values and potential conflicts around marine conservation and the production of conservation strategies deemed acceptable by local communities. Barachois ponds, akin to coastal lagoons, are recognized coastal wetlands in Nova Scotia, Canada, given their distinct ecosystem services, including provisioning, regulating, and cultural services. This study examines the current discourses around the management of barachois ponds and how an increased understanding of these perceptions held by stakeholders and managers might be used to better inform integrated management of these wetland ecosystems. A mixed-methods research design using Q methodology was employed to acquire data on social perceptions surrounding the management of barachois ponds fringing the Bras d’Or Lake in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada. Four dominant perspectives were identified: the leave-them-be conservationists, the sustainable developers, the management reformists, and the science-based conservationists. Six key issue themes emerged based on an in-depth examination of these different perspectives and Q sort data. This study found that an increased awareness of the ecological, social, and cultural values attributed to barachois ponds by key stakeholders could play a critical role in better informing wetland management decision-making in Nova Scotia and elsewhere.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-02-18T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0060
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Visualizations as a tool to increase community engagement in climate
           change adaptation decision-making

    • Authors: Meredith DeCock-Caspell, Liette Vasseur
      Pages: 240 - 251
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 240-251, January 2021.
      Many barriers to behavioural change exist when it comes to climate change action. A key element to overcoming some of these barriers is effective communication of complex scientific information. The use of visualizations, such as photographs or interactive maps, can increase knowledge dissemination, helping community members understand climatic and environmental changes. These techniques have been utilized in many disciplines but have not been widely embraced by climate change scholars. This paper discusses the utility of climate change data visualization as a tool for climate change knowledge mobilization. This paper draws on the case studying drivers of coastline change of Lake Ontario in the Town of Lincoln, Ontario, Canada. Historical aerial photographs were used to measure the rate of coastline change and visualize vulnerable sections of the coast. To better visualize the changes that occurred over time from a resident viewpoint, selected land-based historical photographs were replicated by taking new photographs at the same locations. These visualization tools can be useful to support the community in developing strategies to adapt to climate change by increasing understanding of the changes and knowledge through social learning. These tools can be generalized to other case studies dealing with community engagement in coastal adaptation efforts.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0032
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Understanding and avoiding misplaced efforts in conservation

    • Authors: Adam T. Ford, Abdullahi H. Ali, Sheila R. Colla, Steven J. Cooke, Clayton T. Lamb, Jeremy Pittman, David S. Shiffman, Navinder J. Singh
      Pages: 252 - 271
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 252-271, January 2021.
      Conservation relies on cooperation among different interest groups and appropriate use of evidence to make decisions that benefit people and biodiversity. However, misplaced conservation occurs when cooperation and evidence are impeded by polarization and misinformation. This impedance influences actions that directly harm biodiversity, alienate partners and disrupt partnerships, waste resources, misinform the public, and (or) delegitimize evidence. As a result of these actions, misplaced conservation outcomes emerge, making it more difficult to have positive outcomes for biodiversity. Here we describe cases where a failed appreciation for cooperation, evidence, or both have eroded efforts to conserve biodiversity. Generally, these case studies illustrate that averting misplaced conservation requires greater adherence to processes that elevate the role of evidence in decision-making and that place collective, long-term benefits for biodiversity over the short-term gains of individuals or groups. Efforts to integrate human dimensions, cooperation, and evidence into conservation will increase the efficacy and success of efforts to conserve global biodiversity while benefiting humanity.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0058
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Time to refine mercury mass balance models for fish

    • Authors: Charles P. Madenjian, Steven R. Chipps, Paul J. Blanchfield
      Pages: 272 - 286
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 272-286, January 2021.
      Mercury mass balance models (MMBMs) for fish are powerful tools for understanding factors affecting growth and food consumption by free-ranging fish in rivers, lakes, and oceans. Moreover, MMBMs can be used to predict the consequences of global mercury reductions, overfishing, and climate change on mercury (Hg) concentration in commercially and recreationally valuable species of fish. Such predictions are useful in decision-making by resource managers and public health policy makers, because mercury is a neurotoxin and the primary route of exposure of mercury to humans is via consumption of fish. Recent evidence has emerged to indicate that the current-day version of MMBMs overestimates the rate at which fish eliminate mercury from their bodies. Consequently, MMBMs overestimate food consumption by fish and underestimate Hg concentration in fish. In this perspective, we explore underlying reasons for this overestimation of Hg-elimination rate, as well as consequences and implications of this overestimation. We highlight emerging studies that distinguish species and sex as contributing factors, in addition to body weight and water temperature, that can play an important role in how quickly Hg is eliminated from fish. Future research directions for refining MMBMs are discussed.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0034
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Communicating complexity: interactive model explorers and immersive
           visualizations as tools for local planning and community engagement

    • Authors: Robert Newell, Nate McCarthy, Ian Picketts, Fynn Davis, Grace Hovem, Stefan Navarrete
      Pages: 287 - 316
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 287-316, January 2021.
      Models that capture relationships between a variety of social, economic, and environmental factors are useful tools for community planning; however, they are often complex and difficult for diverse audiences to understand. This creates challenges for participatory planning and community engagement. Conducted in the community of Squamish (British Columbia, Canada), this study develops and examines tools for communicating outcomes of a community scenario modelling exercise to diverse stakeholders. These tools are (i) a “model explorer” and (ii) realistic, immersive visualizations. The model explorer is an online, HTML5-based tool that can be used to learn about the model, view community scenario maps, and explore potential outcomes of the scenarios. The visualizations are virtual environments that are navigated from the first-person perspective, and they were developed using a combination of ArcGIS, Trimble SketchUp, Adobe Photoshop, and the Unity3D game engine. A local government and community stakeholder focus group and public open house event were held to solicit feedback on the scenarios and tools. Findings of the research suggest that the two types of tools can be used in a complementary fashion, and tool integration can better harness their respective strengths in a manner that comprehensively communicates the implications of different development pathways to diverse community members.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0045
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Salty summertime streams—road salt contaminated watersheds and estimates
           of the proportion of impacted species

    • Authors: Lauren Lawson, Donald A. Jackson
      Pages: 317 - 333
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 317-333, January 2021.
      Road salt runoff is a leading cause of secondary freshwater salinization in north temperate climates. Increased chloride concentrations in freshwater can be toxic and lead to changes in organismal behavior, lethality, biotic homogenization, and altered food webs. High chloride concentrations have been reported for winter months in urban centers, as road density is highest in cities. However, summer chloride conditions are not typically studied as road salt is not actively applied outside of winter months, yet summer is when many taxa reproduce and are most sensitive to chloride. In our study, we test the spatial variability of summer chloride conditions across four watersheds in Toronto, Canada. We find 89% of 214 sampled sites exceeded the federal chronic exposure guidelines for chloride, and 13% exceeded the federal acute guidelines. Through a model linking concentration to cumulative proportion of impacted species, we estimate 34% of sites show in excess of one-quarter of all species may be impacted by their site-specific chloride concentrations, with up to two-thirds of species impacted at some sites. Our results suggest that even presumed low seasons for chloride show concentrations sufficient to cause significant negative impacts to aquatic communities.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0068
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Hydroponic fodder and greenhouse gas emissions: a potential avenue for
           climate mitigation strategy and policy development

    • Authors: Robert Newell, Lenore Newman, Mathew Dickson, Bill Vanderkooi, Tim Fernback, Charmaine White
      Pages: 334 - 357
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 334-357, January 2021.
      This research explores the potential hydroponic systems have for contributing to climate mitigation in fodder agriculture. Using British Columbia (BC) and Alberta as case studies, the study compares greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and carbon sequestration potential of hydroponically grown sprouted barley fodder to conventional barley grain fodder. GHG emissions were examined through scenarios that assumed Alberta to be the main barley producer, while exploring different situations of BC and Alberta as consumers, distributed/centralized hydroponic systems, and renewable/nonrenewable energy. Carbon sequestration opportunities were examined through scenarios that explored the land sparing potential of transitioning from conventional to hydroponic barley and shifts from tillage to no-tillage practices. Sensitivity analyses were done to examine how changes in hydroponic seed-to-fodder output and energy consumption affect the systems’ climate mitigation potential. The results indicated that incorporating hydroponic systems into barley production has the potential to reduce GHG emissions, given seed-to-fodder output and energy consumption are maintained at certain levels and the systems are powered by renewable energy. Results also showed that hydroponic farming can provide greater carbon sequestration opportunities than simply shifting to no-tillage farming. The research indicates that hydroponic fodder farming could contribute to climate mitigation objectives if complemented with effective energy and land use policies.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0066
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Perspectives from landscape ecology can improve environmental impact
           assessment

    • Authors: Karly J. Harker, Lauren Arnold, Ira J. Sutherland, Sarah E. Gergel
      Pages: 358 - 378
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 358-378, January 2021.
      The outcomes of environmental impact assessment (EIA) influence millions of hectares of land and can be a contentious process. A vital aspect of an EIA process is consideration of the accumulation of impacts from multiple activities and stressors through a cumulative effects assessment (CEA). An opportunity exists to improve the rigor and utility of CEA and EIA by incorporating core scientific principles of landscape ecology into EIA. With examples from a Canadian context, we explore realistic hypothetical situations demonstrating how integration of core scientific principles could impact EIA outcomes. First, we demonstrate how changing the spatial extent of EIA boundaries can misrepresent cumulative impacts via the exclusion or inclusion of surrounding natural resource development projects. Second, we use network analysis to show how even a seemingly small, localized development project can disrupt regional habitat connectivity. Lastly, we explore the benefits of using long-term historical remote sensing products. Because these approaches are straightforward to implement using publicly available data, they provide sensible opportunities to improve EIA and enhance the monitoring of natural resource development activities in Canada and elsewhere.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-03-18T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0049
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Grizzly and polar bears as nonconsumptive cultural keystone species

    • Authors: Douglas Clark, Kyle Artelle, Chris Darimont, William Housty, Clyde Tallio, Douglas Neasloss, Aimee Schmidt, Andrew Wiget, Nancy Turner
      Pages: 379 - 393
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 379-393, January 2021.
      Grizzly bears and polar bears often serve as ecological “flagship species” in conservation efforts, but although consumptively used in some areas and cultures they can also be important cultural keystone species even where not hunted. We extend the application of established criteria for defining cultural keystone species to also encompass species with which cultures have a primarily nonconsumptive relationship but that are nonetheless disproportionately important to well-being and identity. Grizzly bears in coastal British Columbia are closely linked to many Indigenous Peoples (including the Haíɫzaqv (Heiltsuk), Kitasoo/Xai’xais, and Nuxalk First Nations), where they are central to the identity, culture, and livelihoods of individuals, families, Chiefs, and Nations. Polar bears in Churchill, Manitoba, provide another example as a cultural keystone species for a mixed Indigenous and non-Indigenous community in which many of the livelihood benefits from the species are mediated by economic transactions in a globalized tourism market. We discuss context specificity and questions of equity in sharing of benefits from cultural keystone species. Our expanded definition of cultural keystone species gives broader recognition of the beyond-ecological importance of these species to Indigenous Peoples, which highlights the societal and ecological importance of Indigenous sovereignty and could facilitate the increased cross-cultural understanding critical to reconciliation.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-03-18T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0089
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The need for a federal Basic Income feature within any coherent
           post-COVID-19 economic recovery plan

    • Authors: Hugh Segal, Keith Banting, Evelyn Forget
      Pages: 394 - 402
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 394-402, January 2021.
      COVID-19 has shone a harsh light on the extent of poverty in Canada. When normal economic activity was interrupted by the exigencies of public health driven lockdowns, the shutdown disproportionately affected people who, before the pandemic, were living on incomes beneath the poverty line or dependent upon low-paying hourly remunerated jobs, usually part time and without appropriate benefits. Those living beneath the poverty line in Canada, three million of welfare poor and working poor, include a disproportionately large population of Black and Indigenous people and people of colour. This paper addresses the challenge of inclusive economic recovery. In particular, we propose that the federal government introduce a Basic Income guarantee for all residents of Canada as part of a comprehensive social safety net that includes access to housing, child care, mental and physical health care, disability supports, education, and the many other public services essential to life in a high-income country. Residents with no other income would receive the full benefit that would be sufficient to ensure that no one lives in poverty, while those with low incomes would receive a reduced amount.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-03-25T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2021-0015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Let’s do better: public representations of COVID-19 science

    • Authors: Timothy Caulfield, Tania Bubela, Jonathan Kimmelman, Vardit Ravitsky
      Pages: 403 - 423
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 403-423, January 2021.
      COVID science is being both done and circulated at a furious pace. While it is inspiring to see the research community responding so vigorously to the pandemic crisis, all this activity has also created a churning sea of bad data, conflicting results, and exaggerated headlines. With representations of science becoming increasingly polarized, twisted, and hyped, there is growing concern that the relevant science is being represented to the public in a manner that may cause confusion, inappropriate expectations, and the erosion of public trust. Here we explore some of the key issues associated with the representations of science in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many of these issues are not new. But the COVID-19 pandemic has placed a spotlight on the biomedical research process and amplified the adverse ramifications of poor public communication. We need to do better. As such, we conclude with 10 recommendations aimed at key actors involved in the communication of COVID-19 science, including government, funders, universities, publishers, media, and the research communities.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-03-25T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2021-0018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The limits of our knowledge: tracking the size and scope of police
           involvement with persons with mental illness

    • Authors: Laura Huey, Lorna Ferguson, Adam D. Vaughan
      Pages: 424 - 448
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 424-448, January 2021.
      Significant public discourse has focused recently on police–civilian interactions involving with persons with mental illness (PMI). Despite increasing public attention, and growing demands for policy change, little is actually known about the myriad of ways in which Canadian police encounter PMI in the context of routine police work. To assist policymakers in developing evidence-informed policy, this paper attempts to shed light on present difficulties associated with addressing fundamental questions, such as the prevalence of mental health related issues in police calls for service. To do this, we attempt to map the size and scope of police calls for service involving PMI, drawing on both the available scientific data and the limited knowledge to be gleaned from available police reports. Our focus is on two broad categories of police interactions with citizens: public safety concerns (wellness checks, suicide threats, missing persons, mental health apprehensions) and crime prevention and response (encountering PMI as victims–complainants and (or) as potential suspects). We also explore the challenges policy-makers face in relying on police data and the importance of overcoming weaknesses in data collection and sharing in relation to the policing of uniquely vulnerable groups. This paper concludes with some key recommendations for addressing gaps highlighted.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-03-25T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2021-0005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Clinical translation of mitochondrial replacement therapy in Canada: a
           qualitative study of stakeholders’ attitudes

    • Authors: Forough Noohi, Miranda Li, Yann Joly
      Pages: 449 - 464
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 449-464, January 2021.
      Mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT) in Canada is considered a criminal offense according to article 5(1)(f) of the Assisted Human Reproduction Act (AHRA) (2004). The Act prohibits any practice that modifies the genome of “a human being or in vitro embryo such that the alteration is capable of being transmitted to descendants.” We carried out 32 semi-structured interviews with clinicians, researchers, patient groups, egg donors, and members of the public to explore their attitudes toward the clinical implementation of MRT in Canada. Our interview guide was informed by the socio-ethical, legal, and scientific literature of MRT. We used a thematic analysis to identify and analyze emerging themes and sub-themes. Our findings were divided into five broad themes: (i) an outdated criminal ban, (ii) motives for using MRT, (iii) terminology, (iv) practical and theoretical risks and benefits, and (v) the feasibility of clinical translation in Canada. Although the public and stakeholders’ views on the feasibility of foreseeable translation of MRT in Canadian clinics varied, there was consensus on conducting an overdue review of the current AHRA ban on MRT.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-04-01T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0062
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Combining high-resolution remotely sensed data with local and Indigenous
           Knowledge to model the landscape suitability of culturally modified trees:
           biocultural stewardship in Kitasoo/Xai’xais Territory

    • Authors: Bryant C. DeRoy, Vernon Brown, Christina N. Service, Martin Leclerc, Christopher Bone, Iain McKechnie, Chris T. Darimont
      Pages: 465 - 489
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 465-489, January 2021.
      Environmental management and monitoring must reconcile social and cultural objectives with biodiversity stewardship to overcome political barriers to conservation. Suitability modelling offers a powerful tool for such “biocultural” approaches, but examples remain rare. Led by the Stewardship Authority of the Kitasoo/Xai’xais First Nation in coastal British Columbia, Canada, we developed a locally informed suitability model for a key biocultural indicator, culturally modified trees (CMTs). CMTs are trees bearing evidence of past cultural use that are valued as tangible markers of Indigenous heritage and protected under provincial law. Using a spatial multi-criteria evaluation framework to predict CMT suitability, we developed two cultural predictor variables informed by Kitasoo/Xai’xais cultural expertise and ethnographic data in addition to six biophysical variables derived from LiDAR and photo interpretation data. Both cultural predictor variables were highly influential in our model, revealing that proximity to known habitation sites and accessibility to harvesters (by canoe and foot) more strongly influenced suitability for CMTs compared with site-level conditions. Applying our model to commercial forestry governance, we found that high CMT suitability areas are 51% greater inside the timber harvesting land base than outside. This work highlights how locally led suitability modelling can improve the social and evidentiary dimensions of environmental management.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-04-06T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0047
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Correctional services during and beyond COVID-19

    • Authors: Rosemary Ricciardelli, Sandra Bucerius, Justin Tetrault, Ben Crewe, David Pyrooz
      Pages: 490 - 516
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 490-516, January 2021.
      Correctional services, both institutional and within the community, are impacted by COVID-19. In the current paper, we focus on the current situation and examine the tensions around how COVID-19 has introduced new challenges while also exacerbating strains on the correctional system. Here, we make recommendations that are directly aimed at how correctional systems manage COVID-19 and address the nature and structure of correctional systems that should be continued after the pandemic. In addition, we highlight and make recommendations for the needs of those who remain incarcerated in general, and for Indigenous people in particular, as well as for those who are serving their sentences in the community. Further, we make recommendations for those working in closed-custody institutions and employed to support the re-entry experiences of formerly incarcerated persons. We are at a critical juncture—where reflection and change are possible—and we put forth recommendations toward supporting those working and living in correctional services as a way forward during the pandemic and beyond.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2021-0023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The value of paleolimnology in reconstructing and managing ecosystem
           vulnerability: a systematic map

    • Authors: Victoria Theresa Watson, Andrew Scott Medeiros
      Pages: 517 - 536
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 517-536, January 2021.
      Vulnerability can measure an ecosystem’s susceptibility to change as a result of pressure or disturbance, but can be difficult to quantify. Reconstructions of past climate using paleolimnological methods can create a baseline to calibrate future projections of vulnerability, which can improve ecosystem management and conservation plans. Here, we conduct a systematic map to analyze the range and extent that paleolimnological published studies incorporated the concept of vulnerability. Additional themes of monitoring, management, conservation, restoration, or ecological integrity were also included. A total of 52 relevant unique articles were found, a majority of which were conducted in Europe or North America since 2011. Common themes identified included management and adaptation, with the latter heavily focussed on climate change or disturbance. From this, we can infer that the use of paleolimnology to discuss the concept of vulnerability is an emerging field. We argue that paleolimnology plays a valid role in the reconstruction of ecosystem vulnerability due to its capacity to broaden the scope of long-term monitoring, as well as its potential to help establish management and restoration plans. The use of paleolimnology in vulnerability analysis will provide a clearer lens of changes over time; therefore, it should be frequently implemented as a tool for vulnerability assessment.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0067
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Are we paying-to-play' A quantitative assessment of Canadian open
           access research in ecology and evolution

    • Authors: Aaron B.A. Shafer
      Pages: 537 - 544
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 537-544, January 2021.
      Open access (OA) allows for peer-reviewed research to be freely accessed and there has been a collective shift from both researchers and publishers towards more OA publishing. OA typically occurs either through article-processing charges (the gold road) or via self-archiving (the green road); the former can be expensive, while the latter has seen minimal uptake. The gold road of OA has led to predatory publishers and, to some, questionable publications. Here, I used publicly available grant information in Canada and combined this with individual publishing statistics to test a variety of factors and their influence on OA publishing. I showed that an individual’s award amount, H-index, and gender did not influence the proportion of OA articles they published, but an individual’s H-index scaled with the number of OA publications. Institute size influenced OA publishing patterns, with researchers at large universities (i.e.,>20 000 full-time students) publishing proportionately more OA articles than medium and small institutes. I discuss the potential for this pattern to build on pre-existing systemic biases when it comes to funding and publishing.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0040
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Remembering is a form of honouring: preserving the COVID-19 archival
           record

    • Authors: Esyllt W. Jones, Shelley Sweeney, Ian Milligan, Greg Bak, Jo-Anne McCutcheon
      Pages: 545 - 568
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 545-568, January 2021.
      COVID-19 presents an opportunity to preserve a rich and diverse historical record—one intended to honour all experiences and voices and in recognition of ongoing systemic inequalities shaping the pandemic. But policy changes are necessary in three key areas: how memory institutions are funded and supported, the gaps in our capacity to preserve the digital records that reflect how we communicate with one another today, and how to preserve and make accessible valuable scholarly research into the societal impact of COVID-19. Our goal is to begin a conversation about priorities for archival preservation, the need for greater equity and justice in our preservation practices, and ways to safeguard the existence of historical records that will allow us in future to bear witness, with fairness and truth and in a spirit of reconciliation, to our society’s response to COVID-19.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0115
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Detection of carbapenem-resistance genes in bacteria isolated from
           wastewater in Ontario

    • Authors: Ashley L. Cooper, Cassandra Carter, Hana McLeod, Marie Wright, Prithika Sritharan, Sandeep Tamber, Alex Wong, Catherine D. Carrillo, Burton W. Blais
      Pages: 569 - 591
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 569-591, January 2021.
      Bacterial carbapenem resistance is a major public health concern since these antimicrobials are often the last resort to treat serious human infections. To evaluate methodologies for detection of carbapenem resistance, carbapenem-tolerant bacteria were isolated from wastewater treatment plants in Toronto, Ottawa, and Arnprior, Ontario. A total of 135 carbapenem-tolerant bacteria were recovered. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated the presence of carbapenem hydrolysing enzymes KPC (n = 10), GES (n = 5), VIM (n = 7), and IMP (n = 1), and β-lactamases TEM (n = 7), PER (n = 1), and OXA-variants (n = 16). A subset of 46 isolates were sequenced and analysed using ResFinder and CARD-RGI. Both programs detected carbapenem resistance genes in 35 sequenced isolates and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) conferring resistance to multiple class of other antibiotics. Where β-lactamase resistance genes were not initially identified, lowering the thresholds for ARG detection enabled identification of closely related β-lactamases. However, no known carbapenem resistance genes were found in seven sequenced Pseudomonas spp. isolates. Also of note was a multi-drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from Ottawa, which harboured resistance to seven antimicrobial classes including β-lactams. These results highlight the diversity of genes encoding carbapenem resistance in Ontario and the utility of whole genome sequencing over PCR for ARG detection where resistance may result from an assortment of genes.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0101
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Understanding barriers, access, and management of marine mixed-stock
           fisheries in an era of reconciliation: Indigenous-led salmon monitoring in
           British Columbia

    • Authors: Jade R. Steel, William I. Atlas, Natalie C. Ban, Kyle Wilson, Jayda Wilson, William G. Housty, Jonathan W. Moore
      Pages: 592 - 613
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 592-613, January 2021.
      Wild salmon are central to food security, cultural identity, and livelihoods of coastal Indigenous communities. Yet ongoing inequities in governance, declining fish populations, and mixed-stock ocean fisheries may pose challenges for equitable access between Indigenous fishers and other non-Indigenous fishers. We sought to understand current perceptions among Haíłzaqv (Heiltsuk) fishers towards salmon fisheries and their management. We conducted dockside surveys with both Haíłzaqv fishers and sport fishers, and in-depth interviews with Haíłzaqv fishers, community members, and natural resource managers. From these surveys and interviews we quantified satisfaction among both food, social, and ceremonial fishers and visiting recreational fishers with the current salmon fishery and associated social-ecological drivers, and characterized perceptions among Haíłzaqv people of salmon fisheries and management. Second, we synthesized community perceptions of the revitalization of terminal, communally run salmon fisheries within Haíłzaqv territory as a tool for their future salmon management. Finally, we elicited information from Haíłzaqv fishers about the barriers people in their community currently face in accessing salmon fisheries. Our findings suggest that low salmon abundance, increased fishing competition, and high costs associated with participation in marine mixed-stock fisheries currently hinder access and equity for Haíłzaqv fishers. This community-based research can help strengthen local, Indigenous-led management of salmon into the future.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0080
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Beyond the COVID-19 crisis: building on lost opportunities in the history
           of public health

    • Authors: Esyllt Jones, Heather MacDougall, Laurence Monnais, James Hanley, Catherine Carstairs
      Pages: 614 - 639
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 614-639, January 2021.
      The influenza pandemic of 1918–1920, which killed 50 000 Canadians, spurred the creation of a federal department of public health. But in the intervening century, public health at all levels has remained, as Marc Lalonde put it in 1988, the “poor cousin” in the health care system (Lalonde 1988, p. 77). Punctuated by sporadic investment during infectious disease crises, such as polio in the early 1950s, public health is less of a priority as the cost of tertiary health interventions rises. While public health potentially involves a broad range of interventions, this paper focuses on the history of public health interventions around infectious disease. COVID-19 has forced us to relearn the importance of maintaining basic infectious/communicable disease control capacity and revealed the cost of our failure to do so. It has also drawn our attention to the intersection between social inequality, racism, and colonialism and vulnerability to disease. In addition to investing in our capacity to contain disease outbreaks as they occur, we must plan now for how to achieve greater health equity in the future by addressing underlying economic and social conditions and providing meaningful access to preventive care for all. This is how we build a truly resilient society. Governments at all levels have recognized the importance of social factors in shaping health and illness for decades. But greater health equity will result only from genuine action on this knowledge. Action will arise from public advocacy in support of prevention, and a new level of engagement and collaboration between affected individuals and communities, public health experts, and governments.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-04-29T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2021-0002
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Free Fallin’' The decline in evidence-based decision-making by
           Canada’s protected areas managers

    • Authors: Christopher J. Lemieux, Elizabeth A. Halpenny, Trevor Swerdfager, Mu He, A. Joyce Gould, Don Carruthers Den Hoed, Jill Bueddefeld, Glen T. Hvenegaard, Brian Joubert, Rick Rollins
      Pages: 640 - 664
      Abstract: FACETS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 640-664, January 2021.
      The conservation of biodiversity requires various forms of evidence to ensure effective outcomes. In this study, we provide an updated assessment of the state of evidence-based decision-making in Canada’s protected areas organizations by examining practitioner perceptions of: (i) the value and use of various forms of evidence, (ii) the availability of evidence to support decisions, and (iii) the extent to which various institutional and behavioural barriers influence the use of evidence. Our results compare national surveys conducted in 2019 and 2013, revealing a significant and concerning decline in the use of all forms of evidence. We found significant declines in the use of peer-reviewed literature, local knowledge, and Indigenous knowledge. Our results correspondingly demonstrate a host of systemic barriers to the effective use of evidence, including a lack of trust, how to deal with uncertainty, and limited training. These challenges persist at a time when the quantity of information is greater than ever, and recognition of the value of Indigenous knowledge is relatively high (and increasing). Leadership is required to cultivate more relevant evidence, to embed scientists and Indigenous Knowledge-Holders in conservation organizations, to (re)establishing knowledge sharing forums, and to establish accountability and reporting measures to support efforts aimed at effectively achieving Canada’s biodiversity conservation goals.
      Citation: FACETS
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0085
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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