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Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2619-8991
Published by DergiPark Homepage  [185 journals]
  • Seasonal Variation of Natural Habitat Characteristics of Suoku (Sagittaria
           sagittifolia L.)

    • Authors: Sedat KARADAVUT; Elif BOZDOĞAN SERT, Gülden SANDAL ERZURUMLU, Bahadır ALTUN
      Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the seasonal changes in the natural habitat (water and mud) characteristics of the suoku (Sagittaria sagittifolia L.) plant. For this purpose, it was determined that the plant naturally grows in Gölbaba Lake and the samples required for analysis were taken from this lake in 2022 in 3 replications in June, August and September. In water samples: pH, Conductivity (dS/m), Carbonate (mg/l), Bicarbonate (mg/l), Chlorine (mg/l), Sulfate (mg/l), Nitrate (mg/l), Nitrite (mg /l), Ammonium (mg/l), Magnesium (mg/l), Potassium (mg/l), Sodium (mg/l), Calcium (mg/l), Sodium Adsorption Rate (SAR), Hardness and Salinity parameters were examined. In soil samples, pH, Conductivity (dS/m), Organic Matter (%), Phosphorus (kg/da), Magnesium (mg/l), Potassium (kg/da), Sodium (mg/l), Calcium (mg/l) l), Lime (%) and Saturation (Constituent) parameters were examined. As a result of the research, it was determined that the lake water was high salty, medium sodium water quality according to the Water Pollution Control Regulation, and the lake soil was heavy textured, salt-free, medium limy, and slightly alkaline. It was determined that all parameter values examined in both water and soil samples changed according to the sampling time.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Investigating the Effect of Nozzle Diameter on Tensile Strength in
           3D-Printed Printed Polylactic Acid Parts

    • Authors: Fuat KARTAL; Arslan KAPTAN
      Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a rapidly evolving manufacturing technology that enables the production of intricate, customizable parts with a wide range of applications. The quality and mechanical properties of printed parts are heavily influenced by the process parameters, such as nozzle size. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the effect of nozzle diameter on the tensile strength of 3D-printed polylactic acid (PLA) parts, focusing on six nozzle sizes: 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8 mm. PLA, a commonly used thermoplastic in 3D printing, was employed as the material of choice. Using an open-source Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) 3D printer, dog bone-shaped specimens were printed according to the ASTM D638-Type IV standard for tensile testing. The results reveal a strong correlation between nozzle size and tensile strength, with smaller nozzles producing parts with higher tensile strength due to finer layers and improved interlayer adhesion. However, the trade-off between tensile strength and printing time associated with smaller nozzle sizes must be considered when optimizing the 3D printing process for specific applications. This study provides essential insights into the influence of nozzle diameter on tensile strength, offering valuable guidance for achieving desired mechanical properties in 3D-printed parts.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Agricultural Residues in
           Azerbaijan

    • Authors: Ehsan FARTASH NAEİMİ; Gürkan A. K. GÜRDİL, Bahadır DEMİREL
      Abstract: The geographical conditions of Azerbaijan have provided a favorable environment for planting all kinds of agricultural products. Therefore, in recent years, paying attention to the potential of biomass resources has been the subject of increasing research and discussions in this country. This study aimed to estimate the amount of biomass energy that can be acquired from agricultural residues in Azerbaijan. The energy potential of the residues was obtained by considering the calorific value and amount of available residues. For the year 2021, the total amount of available agricultural residues for the ten studied products was estimated at 1,099,346 tons. Cotton and barley had the highest amounts of waste with 47% and 14.47%, respectively. Also, the total heating value of residues was obtained 19610.4566 GJ. Therefore, according to the obtained results, part of the country's energy consumption can be supplied in this way.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Syllogism of Li-FePO4 Battery Cell Voltage Parameter Guess Under Aperiodic
           Dynamic Current Profile by Some Data-Driven Techniques: A Error-Based
           Statistical Comparison Between Decision Tree, Support Vector, Bee Colony,
           and Neural Network

    • Authors: Taner ÇARKIT; Sümeyye ÇARKIT
      Abstract: The various procedures are used in the literature for defining battery parameter change such as direct measurement methods, model-based methods, and data-driven methods, which contain the algorithms used in this paper also. The main aim of this study is to present a powerful and highly correct way of parameter forecasting of the A123 Systems 26650 cylindrical type Li-FePO4 battery cell. A few of the goal of this paper is to show the guessing performance of the artificial bee colony algorithm, which has a very limited number of applications on the battery parameter of literature, under the non-periodic dynamic charge/ discharge current profile. Then, a comparison has been made between artificial bee colony, artificial neural networks, support vector machine, and decision tree algorithms used in the paper. The load-connected terminal voltage is defined by considering the 100%-60% state of charge range in the primary usage areas of the batteries. A statistical comparison has been made by considering the absolute errors, squared errors, and the regression values information regarding the results presented by the methods. Consequently, the regression values that give information about the consistency of the confidence interval and results, of the bee colony, neural network, support vector, and decision tree methods have been determined as 99.92%, 99.75%, 96.00% and 95.79%, respectively. Moreover, mean squared errors of the methods has been calculated as 0.00202%, 0.00648%, 0.00998%, and 0.11%, respectively. As a new generation algorithm, artificial bee colony, which gave the most successful results according to the results obtained in the study, has been compared with two different methods selected from the existing literature, eXtreme Gradient Boosting and Smoothed eXtreme Gradient Boosting.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Investigation of the Effect of a Clay Equivalent Material and Fly Ash
           Additive on Soil Strength

    • Authors: Serkan ÖREN; Sefa KOCABAŞ
      Abstract: In our country and in the world, researches are carried out on the evaluation of waste materials that occur as a result of industrial production as a by-product rather than being disposed of by storage. In this study, the strength properties of the mixtures prepared in certain proportions of fly ash (UK) generated as waste from Eren Energy's ZETES I thermal power plant operating in Zonguldak and silica sand residue (SCM) formed as a result of production in Borcam Madencilik were investigated in the laboratory environment. Samples were prepared in the form of siliceous sand waste material, mixtures of 10%, 20% and 30% by mass fly ash. The prepared samples were tested for consistency limit, compaction and free (uniaxial) pressure. According to the results obtained, the liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index values for the siliceous sand waste material show that the material has CL low plasticity clay properties. It was concluded that the mixtures obtained by adding fly ash (UK) to siliceous sand waste (SCM) have CI medium plasticity clay properties at all mixing ratios (10%, 20% and 30%). In addition, in the free (uniaxial) compressive strength test, it was concluded that as the addition of fly ash to the material increased, the unconfined compressive strength increased depending on time.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Effect of Morphing on Octorotor Longitudinal Flight

    • Authors: Oguz KOSE
      Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have attracted attention in industrial and scientific environment as air vehicles that have increased in popularity in recent years. UAVs are named according to the number of rotors on them. In this study, an octorotor in the rotary wing category with eight rotors is analysed. Within the scope of the study, morphing was applied by changing (lengthening or shortening) the octorotor arm lengths. In recent years, morphing has been the method preferred by researchers to examine the effect on flight in UAVs. Morphing is most commonly performed by changing the arm lengths collectively or differentially in rotary wing UAVs. Effect of morphing on longitudinal flight was analysed by controlling parameters such as rise time, settling time and overshoot. The full model of the octorotor and four models of the morphing state were drawn in Solidworks drawing program in accordance with the reality. Then, with the mass and inertia moments values obtained from here, longitudinal flight simulations following a 1ᵒ trajectory in Matlab/Simulink environment with the state space model approach were performed with the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm. Newton Euler method was used for the mathematical model of the octorotor. In this method, equations of motion with nonlinear structure are transformed into linear equations. In the simulations, the given trajectory was successfully followed and evaluated according to the design performance criteria.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Bending Performance of Hot Press
           GFRP Composite Panels

    • Authors: Erkan BAHÇE; Burak ÖZDEMİR, Tuğberk ÖNAL
      Abstract: In this study, the bending performances of GFRP (glass fiber reinforced plastic) composite panels produced by the hot press method were investigated. For this purpose, composite plates prepared with glass fiber and resin were pressed under a certain temperature and pressure and turned into panels. The panels produced were subjected to bending test since they are materials that operate under variable loads. Three-point bending test was applied by taking samples of 14x150x6 mm3 size from the panels. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to verify the experiment and to visually examine the stress distribution. At the end of the study, experimental and theoretical results were compared, and the effects of applied loads were discussed. The highest bending stress was 150.39 MPa in the experiments, and 164.31 MPa in the SE analysis. The displacement of the material before damage is 4.92 mm and 5.46 mm for the test and FEA, respectively. It was observed that the results of the experiment and FEA gave close results. The results obtained will support the studies of determining the size and mechanical properties of GFRP composite materials before their use in different areas.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Clustering of Precipitation in the Black Sea Region with by Fuzzy C-Means
           and Silhouette Index Analysis

    • Authors: Gürkan KIR; Aslı ÜLKE KESKİN, Utku ZEYBEKOĞLU
      Abstract: In recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in the number of disasters caused by the effects of global climate change. In this context, various studies are carried out in our country and in the world in order to reduce the effects of climate change. The classification of regions affected by climate change into similar classes in terms of climate parameters is important in terms of applying similar methods in studies to be carried out in these regions. Thus, a correct strategy will be determined in the studies to be carried out in order to reduce the effects of climate change. The observation records evaluated within the scope of the study were used from 31 stations in the Black Sea Region of the Turkish State Meteorological Service, covering the period between 1982 and 2020. Cluster analysis was carried out using the Fuzzy C-Means. As a result of the study, the optimum cluster among the clusters formed by Fuzzy C-Means was determined by Silhouette index analysis. The optimal number of clusters is suggested as 4.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Evaluation of Cytotoxic, Apoptotic, and Necrotic Efficiency of Hispidulin
           in Healthy Cell Lines

    • Authors: Ferhunde AYSİN
      Abstract: Since hispidulin has various pharmacological properties, its use in cancer research has been increasing for a long time, but there are very limited studies on its cytotoxic effect in healthy cells. In this study, for the first time, the safety of hispidulin in a wide dose range (0-800 μM) was evaluated on healthy cell lines by MTT and Flow cytometry assays. For this purpose, Human lung fibroblast (MRC-5), Rat Primary Lung Fibroblast (RA-6013), and Rat Primary Tracheal Fibroblast (RA-6217) cells were treated with hispidulin for 48 hours. Hispidulin did not show significant effects on cell viability at low doses; however, caused a statistically significant reduction in cell viability, especially at doses of 400 and 800 μM. The IC50 value of hispidulin was determined as 563.63 µM for MRC-5 cells, 194.30 µM for RA-6013 cells, and 311.98 µM for RA-6217 cells. Moreover, 800 μM hispidulin showed a strong apoptotic and necrotic effect on all healthy cells. Our results show that hispidulin is anticytotoxic in healthy cells at low doses (0-200 μM) and has the potential to be a safe natural compound for future treatment of cancer and respiratory diseases.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Waste to Energy: Review on the Development of Land Fill Gas for Power
           Generation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Authors: Dıckson Davıd OLODU; Andrew ERAMEH
      Abstract: This study focused on the development of land fill gas for power generation in Sub-Saharan Africa. In rapidly expanding cities in developing and emerging nations, it has been observed that municipal solid waste (MSW) has increased dramatically, raising public concern about the effects on the environment and public health. In Sub-Saharan Africa today, the garbage of people within this region especially in Nigeria is carelessly disposed. Environmental pollution and its effects on people's quality of life have become more sensitive topics among residents and decision-makers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is becoming a more important topic on the local political agenda. Local decision-makers routinely debate whether to invest in waste-to-energy technologies as part of their effort to modernize waste management systems. Waste-to-Energy technologies are being promoted more and more as an alluring solution to a number of problems, including the urgent issue of waste disposal. These issues include inadequate power production, a shortage of landfill space, and greenhouse gas emissions from improper waste management. As an alternative to waste burning and composting, landfilling is one of the municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal techniques that are most frequently used. Due to its financial benefits, the sanitary landfill method is still often employed in various nations for the final disposal of solid waste. Landfill gas (LFG) is mostly produced by the anaerobic breakdown of the biodegradable component of municipal solid waste (MSW), specifically kitchen and yard trash, which is disposed of in landfills. Due to the anaerobic breakdown of the organic portion of solid waste, landfill gas is continuously produced. As a result, if an extraction system is not constructed in a landfill, there will be an overpressure that will force the biogas to be released into the atmosphere, which will have an adverse effect on the environment. Methane and carbon dioxide make up the majority of the gases that make up landfill gas, which is a mixture of other gases. Many landfill sites include an operational gas collection system that draws gas from both horizontal and vertical gas wells using a blower. The gas from the landfill was thought to only include carbon dioxide and methane. Methane's typical volume composition is 49%, hence it was believed that carbon dioxide would have a volume composition of 51%. Reviewing the information gathered by numerous studies regarding the volume of waste being dumped in landfills reveals that the waste produced in sub-Saharan Africa is sufficient to power the area with electricity. It was discovered that the quantity of electricity generated will fluctuate over time based on the flow rate of landfill gas. It will initially rise until a peak is attained. A million tons of landfill waste typically emits 434,000 cubic feet of LFG each day, which is sufficient to generate 0.80 MW of power. About 70% of LFG projects use internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and micro-turbines to produce power.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Determination of Encounter Norms and Social Carrying Capacity of Yozgat
           Ă‡amlik National Park Using Simulation Modeling Technique

    • Authors: Aykut RÜZGAR; Metin DEMİR
      Abstract: National parks are at the forefront where city people can satisfy their longing for nature. While the increase in the demands for green and soul has caused some questions for these areas, it has also prepared the ground for local governments to take protective-preventive measures. Yozgat Çamlık National Park has the title of being the first national park of Türkiye and is characterized as a rare piece of nature. This study calculated the carrying capacities of the scenic cruise route and picnic roads, the most intensive-use areas of Yozgat Çamlık National Park. To make the calculations, the National Park was visited frequently between January and December 2021-2022, and the most intense usage points were determined. Photographs of the determined points were taken, and six simulation images were created. The visitors using the National Park were asked to score between 1-6 on the simulation images that they felt comfortable and uncomfortable within the simulation images created by a survey study. The National Park's Social Carrying Capacity and Social Norm levels were calculated according to the scoring status. When the findings are evaluated, the Social carrying capacity of the Picnic area is 524 people, the Social Norms level is nine people, the Social Capacity is 84 people on the Scenic cruise route, and the Social Norms level is determined as ten people.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Temperature-Dependent Debonding Resistance of 316 Stainless Steel, Inconel
           625, and Ti-6AL-4V Alloys

    • Authors: Volkan ARIKAN
      Abstract: This study investigates the temperature-dependent debonding properties of 316 Stainless Steel (SS), Inconel 625, and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in additive manufacturing using the finite element method. The analysis reveals notable relations between in mechanical properties and debonding resistance among these materials. Inconel 625 demonstrates superior performance at elevated temperatures, while SS and Ti-6Al-4V alloys show earlier degradation. Regarding debonding resistance, Inconel 625 performs comparably to SS and Ti-6Al-4V alloys, with Ti-6Al-4V exhibiting consistent resistance below 500 °C. SS, however, experiences a rapid loss of debonding resistance at lower temperatures. These findings provide valuable insights for material selection and design optimization in additive manufacturing. Further research can expand our understanding of these materials' behavior under different temperature regimes using the finite element method, enhancing their application potential.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Preparation of Naringenin Imprinted Cryogel Membranes and Investigation of
           Adsorption Behaviors

    • Authors: Emel DEMİRTAŞ; Mehmet ODABAŞI
      Abstract: Naringenin is a flavanone of the flavonoid class with significant therapeutic effects. It is thought that naringenin, a compound that has been studied extensively abroad, has not received much attention in our country. Naringenin imprinted cryogels were synthesized using a new method, molecular imprinting, to draw attention to this molecule of naringenin, which is commonly found in plants. Along with characterization studies such as elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and swelling tests, adsorption and selectivity tests were also carried out. Some of the findings are summarized below: The degradation temperature of naringenin in imprinted polymers increased by 1.7 °C. The amount of naringenin in MIP was found to be 16.36% higher than in the NIP. Swelling values for MIP and NIP were calculated as 850% 967%, respectively.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Determination of the Average Shear Velociy with Different Methods and
           Evaluation of Edirne Province

    • Authors: Erdinç KESKİN; Kanat Burak BOZDOĞAN
      Abstract: It is very important to determine the soil class correctly in the building design process. One of the most important parameters determining the earthquake loads acting on the buildings in the soil -structure interaction is the fundamental soil period. The fundamental soil period is related to the average shear wave velocity. It is seen that one of the important parameters used in the determination of soil classes in many earthquake codes is the average shear wave velocity. There are many correlations proposed in the literature and different earthquake codes for the determination of average shear wave velocity and fundamental soil period. Within the scope of the study, firstly, the approximate relations currently used in the literature were examined and compared with the solution that can be described as the exact solution. In the study, the fundamental soil period was taken as an exact solution. For the exact solution, the modified finite element transfer matrix method in the literature was used. In addition, to verify this method, transfer functions were obtained using the Transfer Function Tool program, and fundamental soil periods were found. It has been observed that the exact period values obtained by the two methods are exactly the same. In this context, 6 different methods, one of which is the exact solution, have been determined for the calculation of the fundamental soil period. In the second stage of the study, soil surveys taken from 10 different site within the borders of Edirne province were examined. Soil profiles of these sites were determined by using the soil survey results. Then, using the determined soil profiles, the performances of the relations suggested in the literature were examined. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the closest result to the final solution among earthquake regulations was realized in the correlation suggested by the Japanese Earthquake Code.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • A Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Model Application for Risk Assessment Process in
           Food Packaging: DEMATEL and CODAS

    • Authors: Semra BAYHUN; Tuğçe ORAL, Mehmet ÖZDEMİR
      Abstract: The necessity of detecting the hazards originating from machinery in packaged food production; It appears as a multi-criteria decision-making problem in terms of eliminating uncertainties against the subjective approaches of decision makers, prioritizing risks arising from hazards, and then ordering corrective actions. The main research question we encounter in this study is whether there is a need for a method to rank the safety measures to be taken regarding machinery in food production activities based on quantitative and qualitative decision criteria, including the preferences of the decision-making expert team. This study consists of two stages: the evaluation of the occupational hazards of the application area and the prioritization of the safety measures to be taken as a result of these hazards. In the first stage, the factor weights of the criteria were calculated with Fuzzy DEMATEL (Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory). Occupational hazards and risks arising from hazards were prioritized with Fuzzy CODAS (Combinable Distance Based Assessment) using the weights obtained in the second stage. Thus, it was ensured that the corrective and preventive actions to be carried out were formed in a healthy way. As an approach that strengthens the operability of the occupational health and safety management system, risks and precautions are analyzed together. The proposed application model was applied in a factory operating in the food production industry, and the first of three most important source of risk was determined as "Manipulation of the Protectors of the Packaging Machine". By evaluating all the following sub-criteria together, it was determined as 'Intervention of Persons without Machine Operator Training to the Machine and Manually Intervention in the Hazardous Zone of the Packaging Machine'. These obtained data reveal that the importance of the operator business in terms of machine use in the food industry is an effective factor in ensuring occupational health and safety and preventing occupational accidents.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Open Data and Blockchain

    • Authors: Arif Furkan MENDİ
      Abstract: Open data is data that can be accessed, reused and distributed free of charge by any person/institution. It is critical that public institutions and organizations make their big data available to the public in order to increase the number and quality of scientific research. In this study, the issues of analyzing the data to be obtained using open data source and keeping it with the blockchain infrastructure are discussed. The study was carried out to collect and classify the road, structure, water, sewerage repair maintenance spatial data in the “Seffaf Ankara” portal, which was opened to the world in 2022 by the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality, and to report the data received from all parties in a safe way. At the same time, an infrastructure has been created for the data received from this platform to be structured for social media sharing and for sharing at specified intervals. This infrastructure was established using blockchain technology, thus ensuring the security of the system and preventing data manipulation. In addition to the healthy establishment of this structure, two alternative systems were obtained by using the features offered by two different infrastructure providers using both Ethereum and Hyperledger, so performance comparisons were made with the results obtained from these two different infrastructure providers. It has been experienced that Hyperledger has 6 times more capacity than Ethereum in terms of transaction capacity per second, and that Hyperledger allows transactions with 33% less latency than Ethereum. Comparative and concrete analyzes have been obtained for those who want to develop similar applications in the future.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Obtaining the Electricity Need in the Farabi Campus of Zonguldak Bulent
           Ecevit University by Establishing Solar Power Plants and Its Economic
           Analysis

    • Authors: Engin AY; Nihat PAMUK
      Abstract: Nowadays, due to the increasing energy costs, it is of great importance to meet the electrical energy needs from cheap and clean sources. Along with the developing technology, energy expenditures, which constitute a very high cost for consumers, must be obtained from clean and cheap energy sources. For these reasons, the use of photovoltaic energy systems in electrical energy production has become quite common. With the development of semiconductor technology in solar panels, efficient systems are created that are inexpensive and can pay off installation costs in a shorter time. Considering the very high unit cost prices of electrical energy produced using fossil fuels and the additional damage it causes to the environment, the situation of obtaining energy from such sources is far from sustainable. In this study, the electrical energy consumption amounts of the Farabi campus of Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University were determined. In providing this energy needs, it is aimed to install photovoltaic energy systems that do not harm the environment, can provide the installation costs in a short time, and can produce energy with long-lasting and new technological equipment. In this context, existing laws and regulations were taken into consideration and roof type photovoltaic energy systems were designed with the aim of using the roofs of the campus buildings. The equipment selection of the energy system designed using the PV-SOL simulation program has been carried out. As a result of the study, it was determined that it would be appropriate to install a photovoltaic energy facility with a total installed power of 1,917.44 kWp on the roof of 14 buildings located in the Farabi campus of Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University. It has been shown that 2,354,885 kWh electrical energy can be produced annually from these established facilities.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Taxonomic importance of Anatomical, Ecological and Trichome Features of
           Marrubium astracanicum subsp. astracanicum Jacq. (Lamiaceae)

    • Authors: Kamer Volkan KOÇAK; Nezahat KANDEMİR
      Abstract: In this study, taxonomic importance of anatomical, ecological and trichome features of Marrubium astracanicum subsp. astracanicum were determined. In anatomical examinations, cross sections were taken from the root, stem, petiole and leaf, and surface sections were taken from the lower and upper surfaces of the leaves. When the anatomical findings were examined, it was seen that the taxon had a secondary root structure and a quadrangular stem structure. A prominent lamellar collenchyma layer was encountered at the corners of the stem. The taxon has bifacial leaves in terms of mesophyll structure. Anomocytic stomata were seen on both the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves. The margins of the adjacent cells of the stoma are undulate. Stellate, dendroid, marrubioid and simple trichomes, capitate glandular trichomes with different stalk and head cell numbers, and peltate glandular trichomes were observed on the vegetative organs of this taxon. Soil samples were taken during flowering period of taxon, and their physical and chemical features were determined. According to the results of physical and chemical analysis of soil samples, taxon is distributed in soils slightly acidic and slightly basic, moderately saline and very salty, moderately calcareous, rich and very rich in organic matter, moderate in nitrogen and rich in nitrogen, rich in potassium and phosphorus, sandy and sandy-salty. The number of periderma layers in the root, the number of collenchyma layer in the corners of the stem, the number of collenchyma, parenchyma and sclerenchyma layers in the cortex, the formation of crystals in the stem, the margin structure of the cells adjacent to the stoma, the mesophyll structure, the flat and curved ends of the petiole, the number of the collenchyma and parenchyma layer in the petiole, density of stellate trichomes on vegetative organs, presence, type and density of capitate and peltate glandular trichomes, presence and density of dendroid trichomes were determined as important anatomical characters in distinguishing of the taxon.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • A Study on Recyclability of AlSi7Mg0.3 Machining Waste

    • Authors: Mertol GÖKELMA; Rabia ÖNEN TÜZGEL, A. Yiğit KAYA, Onur ÖZAYDİN
      Abstract: Aluminium products are widely used in the automotive industry. One of the important aluminium products in the automotive is wheel production. Turkish wheel production is expected to reach 360000 tons in 2025. The wheels are produced by Low-Pressure Die Casting at the first stage and the machining process in CNC machines is used to create the final form. A significant amount of machining waste (swarf, turnings, and chips) is created during the machining and the importance of secondary aluminium has been increasing due to environmental and economic concerns. This study focuses on the recycling of AlSi7Mg0.3 cast alloy machining waste. The turnings were sorted into two size fractions and remelted separately under a salt flux in a resistance heating furnace. Two different salt mixtures with different melting points and different salt factors were studied in this work. Metal yield and coagulation yield after remelting were discussed.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
 
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