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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted by number of followers
Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4355)
Scientific American     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 447)
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 127)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Science Advances     Free   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Scientometric Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Studies in Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Scienze Regionali : Italian Journal of Regional Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Scientific American Mind     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Royal Society Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
SINET : Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scientific Data     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Tanzania Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nordic Studies in Science Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science & Diplomacy     Free   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Springer Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Східно-Європейський журнал передових технологій : Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nuncius     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
National Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
THEORIA : An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Образование и наука     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
MethodsX     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TECNOSCIENZA: Italian Journal of Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Bulletin     Open Access  
Revista MundoFesc     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Científica de la FAREM     Open Access  
Mutis     Open Access  
Ruhuna Journal of Science     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Revista Logos Ciencia & Tecnología     Open Access  
World Scientific Research     Open Access  
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Jurnal MIPA     Open Access  
Unnes Science Education Journal     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies     Open Access  
Selforganizology     Open Access  
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Revista Catarinense da Ciência Contábil     Open Access  
Reviews in Theoretical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Temas y Debates     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Universitas (León)     Open Access  
Seminário de Iniciação Científica e Seminário Integrado de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão     Open Access  
ScienceRise     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Open Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Revista UNIMAR     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
Revista UniVap     Open Access  
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
Sakarya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Smart Science     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Science World Journal     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Población y Desarrollo - Argonautas y caminantes     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Unsolved Questions     Open Access  
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Metode & Forskningsdesign     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Sciences du jeu     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Scientific World     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
SAINSTIS     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science     Open Access  
QScience Connect     Open Access  
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Trilogía     Open Access  
OmniScience : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
The Scientific World Journal     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Revista Sociedad y Economía     Open Access  
Revista Cientifica Guillermo de Ockham     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Universitas Scientiarum     Open Access  
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, The     Full-text available via subscription  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe     Open Access  
TD : The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Open Access  

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UKH Journal of Science and Engineering
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2520-7792
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  • A Novel Approach for Automatic Car Plate Detection and Recognition

    • Authors: Fattah Alizadeh, Sazan Luqman
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: The increasing number of cars inside cities creates problems in traffic control. This issue can be solved by implementing a computer-based automatic system known as the Automatic Car Plate Recognition System (ACPRS). The main purpose of the current paper is to propose an automatic system to detect, extract, segment, and recognize the car plate numbers in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). To do so, a frontal image of cars is captured and used as an input of the system. After applying the required pre-processing steps, the SURF descriptor is utilized to detect and extract the car plate from the whole input image. After segmentation of the extracted plate, an efficient projection-based technique is being exploited to describe the available digits and the city name of the registered car plate. The system is evaluated over 200 sample images, which are taken under various testing conditions. The best accuracy of the proposed system, under the controlled condition, shows the high performance and accuracy of the system which is 94%.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp1-9
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
  • Evaluation of Smartphone’s Embedded Sensors Through Applications: A Case
           Study of Gyroscope and Accelerometer

    • Authors: Nian Khidr Aziz, Justin Champion, Ibrahim Ismael Hamarash
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Smartphones are used for many daily activities like tele-communication, gaming, web browsing, fitness and health monitoring and traditional office working. Smartphones are equipped with built-in sensors to be able to perform these activities. It is well known that the sensors affect the resolution of the smartphone applications which is very vital in life critical applications (LCA). In this paper, two main sensors, the gyroscope and accelerometer have been studied. All commercial smartphones contain these two sensors and support functions related to them. These two sensors have direct link with the physical measurements which feed the fitness and health applications. A fitness application has been selected and ran under Android and iOS operating systems in two different popular smartphones: Samsung Note5 and iPhone7s smartphones. Statistical methodology has been applied to analysis the data and evaluate the performance of the sensors. The results show that commercial smartphones are not reliable devices for motion-related measurements and they can only be used for general purpose monitoring but not in  life critical applications.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp10-17
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
  • Source Identification, Ecological Risk and Spatial Analysis of Heavy
           Metals Contamination in Agricultural Soils of Tanjaro Area, Kurdistan
           Region, Iraq

    • Authors: Hayder Mohammed Issa, Azad H. Alshatteri
      Pages: 18 - 27
      Abstract: The current work accomplished a comprehensive evaluation of heavy metals pollution in soil of agricultural areas from Tanjaro sub-district, Sulaimaniyah province, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq. Ninety soil samples were collected from thirty different locations. Concentrations of 16 heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry ICP-OES. The pollution index (PI), potential ecological risk index (Er), enrichment factor (EF), and ecological risk index (RI) were used to assess the pollution in soil samples. High levels of Li and Ni, and moderate Ba, Cd, Hg, and Pb according to the results of concentration analysis, pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk (ERI). High levels of Cd and Hg according to the results of Er. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that heavy metals were generated from different natural and anthropogenic sources like natural weathering, fertilizer application, and transportation. Origins of Hg, Cd, Ni, and Pb are probably from activities like overuse of pesticides and fertilizers, whereas Pb could be exhausted from vehicle exhausts as well. Furthermore, spatial distributions revealed nonpoint source pollution for the studied heavy metals.  The obtained results help in the remediation techniques of contaminated soils such as dilution with decontaminated soil or extraction or separation of heavy metals.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp18-27
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
  • Geochemical Evaluation of Formation Water, Mauddud Reservoir, Khabbaz
           Oilfield, Kirkuk Area, Northern Iraq

    • Authors: Fouad M. Qader, Basim Al-Qayim, Fawzi Al-Beyati
      Pages: 28 - 35
      Abstract: In this study, formation-water samples were collected by NOC Staff, during drilling time, from the Mauddud Formation reservoir of the Khabbaz Oilfield, for this reason four samples from four wells; Kz-3, Kz-4, Kz-7, and Kz-23 were selected  to geochemical analysis. Analyzed geochemical parameters include TDS and the concentrations of the different dissolved cations and anions present in brines (Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+1, SO4-2, Cl-1, HCO3-1, and NaCl). Variations among the resulted data are discussed by comparison with other Cretaceous Brines. Geochemical ratios of Na/Cl, (Na-Cl)/SO4) and (Cl-Na)/Mg+2 was calculated for formation water classification following Bojarski, (1970). The calculated geochemical ratios of the studied samples in the studied four wells indicate that all of these waters are "chloride calcium" type under subsurface conditions, this type reflect closed system isolated associations reservoir, which are becoming high hydrostatic in deeper zones without influence by infiltration waters. A major transversal fault cutting the structure at its SE plunge had participated in the dilution of the Mauddud reservoir brine effectively.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp28-35
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
  • Preliminary Evaluation of Quality and Rank of Banik Coal, Zakho, Duhok
           Governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    • Authors: Govand Husain Sherwani
      Pages: 36 - 46
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the rank (or grade) and economic value of so–called coal horizons outcropping in the vicinity of Banik and Shiranish-Islam villages of Zakho District, Duhok Governorate. These coal-like beds (locally known as Banik Coal) make up few meters within the upper part of the Jurassic Naokelekan Formation. The evaluation was mainly based on standard chemical tests of coal (proximate and ultimate analyses) achieved in foreign and local laboratories. The test results were assessed according to the standard coal tests introduced by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The latest stratigraphic studies revealed that the presumable coal horizons were thin beds of limestone and dolomitic limestone alternated with frequent shales all impregnated with bituminous materials, mostly of hydrocarbon source. The bituminous beds were traced in both upper and lower parts of Naokelekan Formation. The standard proximate coal analysis has shown low percent of fixed carbon and high percent of volatiles and ash which support the hydrocarbon source of these bituminous beds. Consequently, it would be difficult to classify these bituminous beds similarly to the standard coal ranks of ASTM. The high values of mineral matter display the dominance of minerals rather than the carbon in the local samples. However, the Gross Calorific Value (heating value) of these beds would imply that they can be used as relatively poor quality source of fuel. Besides, the exploitation of Banik coals would be influenced by the cost of extraction (or mining), the expected prices of produced coal, and the prices of alternative sources of energy.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp36-46
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
  • A Finite-Time Speed and Direction Control for Four-Wheel Drive System

    • Authors: Sarkar Jawhar M Shareef, Fadhil Toufick Aula
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: With the rapid use of the Four-Wheel Drive System (FWDS) worldwide, the necessity of having an adequate control system to control speed and direction in FWDS is extremely required. For this purpose, several control schemes are available in the literature to control the speed and direction in FWDS which should be fast convergence of the control, continuous control performance, and solving external disturbances. In latest years, finite-time controllers (FTC) have gained more consideration from many researchers in the control area, who have expressed applications in several procedures and systems. This research provides a major review of the FTC approaches via both input and output feedbacks for controlling FWDS.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp47-55
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
  • The Status of Mosul Dam, NW of Iraq

    • Authors: Varoojan Siskian, Nasrat Adamo, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Jan Laue, Aayda Abdulahad
      Pages: 56 - 61
      Abstract: Mosul Dam is located in the northwestern part of Iraq impounding the Tigris River; about 60 km north of Mosul city. This project is multipurpose project; to provide water for irrigation, flood control and hydropower generation. The dam is 113 m high and 3650 m long including the spillway. The dam is earth fill type with a mud core. The dam was designed to impound 11.11 km3 because it is based and underlain by gypsum beds alternated with limestone and marl. Therefore, it is planned to use continuous grouting to fill the karst caverns. The used quantity exceeded 95000 tons of solid grouting materials since 1986 up to 2014. After all, is the dam safe' The details are given in the current article.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp56-61
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
  • Industrial Assessment of Limestone Beds of the Qamchuqa Formation for
           Cement Industry, Kurdistan Region, North Iraq

    • Authors: Varoujan Sissakian, Ala Abdulla Ghafur, Sarhang Omer, Dyar Khalil
      Pages: 62 - 71
      Abstract: The Qamchuqa Formation is widely exposed in Kurdistan Region (IKR); north of Iraq. The formation along with the Bekhme Formation form the bulk of the main mountains (anticlines) in the IKR. Among those anticlines is the Ranya anticline, which has a NW – SE trend, where the Qamchuqa Formations has a thickness of about 700 m. The main lithological facies of the formation are limestone, dolomitic limestone and dolomite. We have sampled the uppermost 89 meters of the northeastern limb, by collecting 10 samples of different sampling intervals that range from (3 – 12) m. The ten rock samples were tested by an XRF to measure the concentration of the oxides at each sample. The XRF results showed that the 10 rock samples are limestone with different percentages of oxides. The weighted averages of the oxides in the collected samples have been calculated, and the results showed that the limestone beds along the studied section in the upper part of the Qamchuqa Formations are suitable for the cement industry. The average concentration of CaO and MgO is 55.13 % and 0.26 %, respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp62-71
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
  • A Summary on the Use of Fly Ash as a Partial Replacement Material for
           Cement in Concrete

    • Authors: Heba Adnan Ahmed
      Pages: 72 - 80
      Abstract: Cement is one of the most widely used building materials on the planet. Cement manufacturing has also increased carbon emissions to their greatest level in recent years. Alternative or low-emissions binders have become more popular as a partial cement substitute in recent years. Because of its huge yearly output as waste material and low cost, fly ash is now regarded as one of the most accessible choices. Fly ash-based construction materials have a lot of promise as cement substitutes because of their high performance and inexpensive cost. The purpose of this article is to look at how fly ash affects the workability, setting time, compressive strength, and tensile strength of concrete. The kinds and characteristics of fly ash were also investigated.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp72-80
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
  • A New Method for Solving Interval and Fuzzy Quadratic Equations of Dual

    • Authors: Kamal Mamehrashi
      Pages: 81 - 89
      Abstract: In this paper, we present a numerical method for solving a quadratic interval equation in its dual form. The method is based on the generalized procedure of interval extension called” interval extended zero” method. It is shown that the solution of interval quadratic equation based on the proposed method may be naturally treated as a fuzzy number. An important advantage of the proposed method is that it substantially decreases the excess width defect. Several numerical examples are included to demonstrate the applicability and validity of the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp81-89
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
  • Performance Evaluation of WDM Optical Fiber Communication System in the
           presence of PMD

    • Authors: Nawroz Ibrahim Hamadamen
      Pages: 90 - 103
      Abstract: This paper investigates for rising optical fiber transmission strength, increasing bandwidth, and decreasing communication system weakness by using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). WDM gives today's distention speed and communication traffic. Systems using WDM faces nonlinearities, which the most intensive nonlinear attack is, four wave mixing (FWM). FWM creates and increases crosstalk between WDM channels as a result slows down and impairs the performance of the communication system. This investigation uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for evaluating execution of WDM fiber system by repairing Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD). We took results in the case of trying PMD-Emulator and without trying PMD-Emulator in the system design. We compared the results got in both cases. Furthermore, we compared the performance of the system with the investigations done using different ways, methods, and techniques for compensating PMD and FWM appears in WDM systems. As PMD-Emulator, helps enhancing the system design performance, and OFDM gives the feature of robustness and useful execution to the system. OFDM examined by appointing interfered orthogonal signal sets, for 16 channels; with equally spaced OFDM channels. Oure results showed that the optical fiber communication system using OFDM technique gives perfect removing FWM signal crosstalk, and accurate data transmission, comparing to other techniques used in other researches. We got a decreased FWM power to -77dBm, and the BER of -0.317. Furthermore, the system quality increased with applying PMD-Emulator and OFDM. In addition, using PMD-Emulator in the system design raised the results effectiveness. The program used in the present work is optisystem-15, and the results obtained in this study coincide with the theoretical and actual results obtained by the previous studies.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp90-103
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
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