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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access  
ABC Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access  
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access  
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avrasya Terim Dergisi     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Scientific Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
BibNum     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bistua : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Básicas     Open Access  
BJHS Themes     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Central European Journal of Clinical Research     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Dharmakarya     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Results     Open Access  
Extensionismo, Innovación y Transferencia Tecnológica     Open Access  
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access  
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access  
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Technology and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access  
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Science & Emerging Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access  
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access  
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science     Open Access  
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Research     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Scientometric Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science     Open Access  
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

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UKH Journal of Science and Engineering
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2520-7792
Published by U of Kurdistan Hewler Homepage  [2 journals]
  • A Novel Approach for Automatic Car Plate Detection and Recognition

    • Authors: Fattah Alizadeh, Sazan Luqman
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: The increasing number of cars inside cities creates problems in traffic control. This issue can be solved by implementing a computer-based automatic system known as the Automatic Car Plate Recognition System (ACPRS). The main purpose of the current paper is to propose an automatic system to detect, extract, segment, and recognize the car plate numbers in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). To do so, a frontal image of cars is captured and used as an input of the system. After applying the required pre-processing steps, the SURF descriptor is utilized to detect and extract the car plate from the whole input image. After segmentation of the extracted plate, an efficient projection-based technique is being exploited to describe the available digits and the city name of the registered car plate. The system is evaluated over 200 sample images, which are taken under various testing conditions. The best accuracy of the proposed system, under the controlled condition, shows the high performance and accuracy of the system which is 94%.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp1-9
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of Smartphone’s Embedded Sensors Through Applications: A Case
           Study of Gyroscope and Accelerometer

    • Authors: Nian Khidr Aziz, Justin Champion, Ibrahim Ismael Hamarash
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Smartphones are used for many daily activities like tele-communication, gaming, web browsing, fitness and health monitoring and traditional office working. Smartphones are equipped with built-in sensors to be able to perform these activities. It is well known that the sensors affect the resolution of the smartphone applications which is very vital in life critical applications (LCA). In this paper, two main sensors, the gyroscope and accelerometer have been studied. All commercial smartphones contain these two sensors and support functions related to them. These two sensors have direct link with the physical measurements which feed the fitness and health applications. A fitness application has been selected and ran under Android and iOS operating systems in two different popular smartphones: Samsung Note5 and iPhone7s smartphones. Statistical methodology has been applied to analysis the data and evaluate the performance of the sensors. The results show that commercial smartphones are not reliable devices for motion-related measurements and they can only be used for general purpose monitoring but not in  life critical applications.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp10-17
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Source Identification, Ecological Risk and Spatial Analysis of Heavy
           Metals Contamination in Agricultural Soils of Tanjaro Area, Kurdistan
           Region, Iraq

    • Authors: Hayder Mohammed Issa, Azad H. Alshatteri
      Pages: 18 - 27
      Abstract: The current work accomplished a comprehensive evaluation of heavy metals pollution in soil of agricultural areas from Tanjaro sub-district, Sulaimaniyah province, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq. Ninety soil samples were collected from thirty different locations. Concentrations of 16 heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry ICP-OES. The pollution index (PI), potential ecological risk index (Er), enrichment factor (EF), and ecological risk index (RI) were used to assess the pollution in soil samples. High levels of Li and Ni, and moderate Ba, Cd, Hg, and Pb according to the results of concentration analysis, pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk (ERI). High levels of Cd and Hg according to the results of Er. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that heavy metals were generated from different natural and anthropogenic sources like natural weathering, fertilizer application, and transportation. Origins of Hg, Cd, Ni, and Pb are probably from activities like overuse of pesticides and fertilizers, whereas Pb could be exhausted from vehicle exhausts as well. Furthermore, spatial distributions revealed nonpoint source pollution for the studied heavy metals.  The obtained results help in the remediation techniques of contaminated soils such as dilution with decontaminated soil or extraction or separation of heavy metals.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp18-27
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Geochemical Evaluation of Formation Water, Mauddud Reservoir, Khabbaz
           Oilfield, Kirkuk Area, Northern Iraq

    • Authors: Fouad M. Qader, Basim Al-Qayim, Fawzi Al-Beyati
      Pages: 28 - 35
      Abstract: In this study, formation-water samples were collected by NOC Staff, during drilling time, from the Mauddud Formation reservoir of the Khabbaz Oilfield, for this reason four samples from four wells; Kz-3, Kz-4, Kz-7, and Kz-23 were selected  to geochemical analysis. Analyzed geochemical parameters include TDS and the concentrations of the different dissolved cations and anions present in brines (Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+1, SO4-2, Cl-1, HCO3-1, and NaCl). Variations among the resulted data are discussed by comparison with other Cretaceous Brines. Geochemical ratios of Na/Cl, (Na-Cl)/SO4) and (Cl-Na)/Mg+2 was calculated for formation water classification following Bojarski, (1970). The calculated geochemical ratios of the studied samples in the studied four wells indicate that all of these waters are "chloride calcium" type under subsurface conditions, this type reflect closed system isolated associations reservoir, which are becoming high hydrostatic in deeper zones without influence by infiltration waters. A major transversal fault cutting the structure at its SE plunge had participated in the dilution of the Mauddud reservoir brine effectively.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp28-35
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Preliminary Evaluation of Quality and Rank of Banik Coal, Zakho, Duhok
           Governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    • Authors: Govand Husain Sherwani
      Pages: 36 - 46
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the rank (or grade) and economic value of so–called coal horizons outcropping in the vicinity of Banik and Shiranish-Islam villages of Zakho District, Duhok Governorate. These coal-like beds (locally known as Banik Coal) make up few meters within the upper part of the Jurassic Naokelekan Formation. The evaluation was mainly based on standard chemical tests of coal (proximate and ultimate analyses) achieved in foreign and local laboratories. The test results were assessed according to the standard coal tests introduced by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The latest stratigraphic studies revealed that the presumable coal horizons were thin beds of limestone and dolomitic limestone alternated with frequent shales all impregnated with bituminous materials, mostly of hydrocarbon source. The bituminous beds were traced in both upper and lower parts of Naokelekan Formation. The standard proximate coal analysis has shown low percent of fixed carbon and high percent of volatiles and ash which support the hydrocarbon source of these bituminous beds. Consequently, it would be difficult to classify these bituminous beds similarly to the standard coal ranks of ASTM. The high values of mineral matter display the dominance of minerals rather than the carbon in the local samples. However, the Gross Calorific Value (heating value) of these beds would imply that they can be used as relatively poor quality source of fuel. Besides, the exploitation of Banik coals would be influenced by the cost of extraction (or mining), the expected prices of produced coal, and the prices of alternative sources of energy.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp36-46
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A Finite-Time Speed and Direction Control for Four-Wheel Drive System

    • Authors: Sarkar Jawhar M Shareef, Fadhil Toufick Aula
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: With the rapid use of the Four-Wheel Drive System (FWDS) worldwide, the necessity of having an adequate control system to control speed and direction in FWDS is extremely required. For this purpose, several control schemes are available in the literature to control the speed and direction in FWDS which should be fast convergence of the control, continuous control performance, and solving external disturbances. In latest years, finite-time controllers (FTC) have gained more consideration from many researchers in the control area, who have expressed applications in several procedures and systems. This research provides a major review of the FTC approaches via both input and output feedbacks for controlling FWDS.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp47-55
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The Status of Mosul Dam, NW of Iraq

    • Authors: Varoojan Siskian, Nasrat Adamo, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Jan Laue, Aayda Abdulahad
      Pages: 56 - 61
      Abstract: Mosul Dam is located in the northwestern part of Iraq impounding the Tigris River; about 60 km north of Mosul city. This project is multipurpose project; to provide water for irrigation, flood control and hydropower generation. The dam is 113 m high and 3650 m long including the spillway. The dam is earth fill type with a mud core. The dam was designed to impound 11.11 km3 because it is based and underlain by gypsum beds alternated with limestone and marl. Therefore, it is planned to use continuous grouting to fill the karst caverns. The used quantity exceeded 95000 tons of solid grouting materials since 1986 up to 2014. After all, is the dam safe' The details are given in the current article.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp56-61
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Industrial Assessment of Limestone Beds of the Qamchuqa Formation for
           Cement Industry, Kurdistan Region, North Iraq

    • Authors: Varoujan Sissakian, Ala Abdulla Ghafur, Sarhang Omer, Dyar Khalil
      Pages: 62 - 71
      Abstract: The Qamchuqa Formation is widely exposed in Kurdistan Region (IKR); north of Iraq. The formation along with the Bekhme Formation form the bulk of the main mountains (anticlines) in the IKR. Among those anticlines is the Ranya anticline, which has a NW – SE trend, where the Qamchuqa Formations has a thickness of about 700 m. The main lithological facies of the formation are limestone, dolomitic limestone and dolomite. We have sampled the uppermost 89 meters of the northeastern limb, by collecting 10 samples of different sampling intervals that range from (3 – 12) m. The ten rock samples were tested by an XRF to measure the concentration of the oxides at each sample. The XRF results showed that the 10 rock samples are limestone with different percentages of oxides. The weighted averages of the oxides in the collected samples have been calculated, and the results showed that the limestone beds along the studied section in the upper part of the Qamchuqa Formations are suitable for the cement industry. The average concentration of CaO and MgO is 55.13 % and 0.26 %, respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp62-71
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A Summary on the Use of Fly Ash as a Partial Replacement Material for
           Cement in Concrete

    • Authors: Heba Adnan Ahmed
      Pages: 72 - 80
      Abstract: Cement is one of the most widely used building materials on the planet. Cement manufacturing has also increased carbon emissions to their greatest level in recent years. Alternative or low-emissions binders have become more popular as a partial cement substitute in recent years. Because of its huge yearly output as waste material and low cost, fly ash is now regarded as one of the most accessible choices. Fly ash-based construction materials have a lot of promise as cement substitutes because of their high performance and inexpensive cost. The purpose of this article is to look at how fly ash affects the workability, setting time, compressive strength, and tensile strength of concrete. The kinds and characteristics of fly ash were also investigated.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp72-80
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A New Method for Solving Interval and Fuzzy Quadratic Equations of Dual
           Form

    • Authors: Kamal Mamehrashi
      Pages: 81 - 89
      Abstract: In this paper, we present a numerical method for solving a quadratic interval equation in its dual form. The method is based on the generalized procedure of interval extension called” interval extended zero” method. It is shown that the solution of interval quadratic equation based on the proposed method may be naturally treated as a fuzzy number. An important advantage of the proposed method is that it substantially decreases the excess width defect. Several numerical examples are included to demonstrate the applicability and validity of the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp81-89
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Performance Evaluation of WDM Optical Fiber Communication System in the
           presence of PMD

    • Authors: Nawroz Ibrahim Hamadamen
      Pages: 90 - 103
      Abstract: This paper investigates for rising optical fiber transmission strength, increasing bandwidth, and decreasing communication system weakness by using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). WDM gives today's distention speed and communication traffic. Systems using WDM faces nonlinearities, which the most intensive nonlinear attack is, four wave mixing (FWM). FWM creates and increases crosstalk between WDM channels as a result slows down and impairs the performance of the communication system. This investigation uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for evaluating execution of WDM fiber system by repairing Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD). We took results in the case of trying PMD-Emulator and without trying PMD-Emulator in the system design. We compared the results got in both cases. Furthermore, we compared the performance of the system with the investigations done using different ways, methods, and techniques for compensating PMD and FWM appears in WDM systems. As PMD-Emulator, helps enhancing the system design performance, and OFDM gives the feature of robustness and useful execution to the system. OFDM examined by appointing interfered orthogonal signal sets, for 16 channels; with equally spaced OFDM channels. Oure results showed that the optical fiber communication system using OFDM technique gives perfect removing FWM signal crosstalk, and accurate data transmission, comparing to other techniques used in other researches. We got a decreased FWM power to -77dBm, and the BER of -0.317. Furthermore, the system quality increased with applying PMD-Emulator and OFDM. In addition, using PMD-Emulator in the system design raised the results effectiveness. The program used in the present work is optisystem-15, and the results obtained in this study coincide with the theoretical and actual results obtained by the previous studies.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp90-103
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
 
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