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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2587-0742 - ISSN (Online) 2587-1749
Published by DergiPark Homepage  [185 journals]
  • Kinetic Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer During Deep Fat Frying of

    • Authors: Yağmur ERİM KÖSE
      Abstract: The effect of deep fat frying temperatures, ranging from 160 to 190 oC, on frying parameters including the heat transfer coefficient (he), mass transfer coefficient (ke) and effective moisture diffusivity (De) were investigated during deep fat frying of churro that is fried dough pastry. Therefore experimental studies were conducted for both heat and mass transfer phenomena and mathematical model was developed for simultaneous transfer by using Newman technique for churro actual geometry (3-D cylindrical shape). Fourier’s and Fick’s laws were applied for computation of coefficients of heat and mass transfer. The he coefficients were 437.360-93.535 W/m2K in the temperatures range of 160 to 190 oC. However, the value of ke and De increased by an increase in oil temperature during frying. The maximum values were determined as 17.36 x10-5 m/s and 2.48 x10-5 m2/s at 190 oC for ke and De, respectively. Model and experimental data had good agreement and the transfer coefficients followed the first order kinetic model with high R2 and low RMSE values. There was found an Arrhenius equation between the effective moisture diffusivity and deep fat frying temperature, so the value of activation energy was calculated as 63.546 kj/mol.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Sustainable Production of New-Graded Bitumen with Waste Styrofoam

    • Authors: İslam GOKALP
      Abstract: Styrofoam is a recyclable petroleum origin product. However, releasing it and/or its waste into nature causes permanent damage to environment and human health owing to toxic materials that it contains. This study was set out on sustainable recycling of waste styrofoam (WS). To recycle the waste, it is used as a modifier in bitumen. In this respect, three type of bitumen in different penetration grade, which are one used for modification the other two used for reference in optimization analysis and WS in five different rate ranging from 1% to 5% by weight of bitumen were utilized. Different conventional test methods were applied on each samples to identify the effect of WS rate on bitumen basic characteristics. Optimum rate of WS required to produce new grade bitumen was evaluated based on modification index found for all test results. The test results showed that WS modification changes the bitumen properties, significantly. It can be possible to produce new graded bitumen using certain rate of WS. Test method was found a critique factor, since optimum rate of WS considered based on modification index changes due to the test method. Overall, the recycling WS using as a modifier in bitumen can an alternative, energy efficient, economic, and eco-friendly method.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Normalization
           in Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier, 1789) (Blattodea, Blaberidae)

    • Authors: Kübra ÖZCAN; Ayşe Nur PEKTAŞ, Şeyda BERK
      Abstract: Quantitative RT-PCR (q-RT-PCR) is a powerful tool that allows large-scale analysis of very small changes in gene expression. For the calculation of gene expression, such as the delta-delta Ct method, different PCR primer efficiencies (E) may affect the result, as PCR primer yields are assumed to be comparable for the gene of interest and housekeeping gene. Therefore, identification of a suitable reference gene for data normalization is an important step in the development of qPCR assays. Furthermore, accurate and reliable results depend on the use of stable reference genes for normalization. The aim of the current study is the identification and validation of a set of six housekeeping genes (GADPH, RPS18, α-TUB, EF1α, ArgK, and ACTB) in cockroach species Nauphoeta cinerea adults using five different algorithms (ΔCt method, Bestkeeper, geNorm, Normfinder and RefFinder) to evaluate the stability of selected reference genes expression. Our results show that α-Tub use provides accurate normalization of gene expression levels in N. cinerea adults. In addition, since the GADPH is selected as the second most stable reference gene, GADPH can be also used for transcript analysis N. cinerea adults. Our study also showed that ACTB (β-actin) should not be used for normalizing transcript levels when examining N. cinerea adults. Additionally, validation studies for reference genes in cockroaches are very few (only one) in the literature. Therefore, the results highlight the need for validation of reference genes under biotic and abiotic conditions in q-RT-PCR studies in cockroaches.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Mineral Exploration and Lithοlοgical Mapping Using Remοte Sensing
           Apprοaches In Between Yazıhan-Hekimhan (Malatya) Turkey

    • Authors: Yusuf TOPAK; Mamadou TRAORE, Ulaş İnan SEVİMLİ, Senem TEKİN
      Abstract: The Remote Sensing processing analysis have become a directing and hopeful instrument for mineral investigation and lithological mapping. Mineral exploration in general and bearing chromites associated with ultrabasic and basic rocks of the ophiolite complex in particular has been successfully carried out in recent years using Remote Sensing techniques. Yazıhan-Hekimhan (Malatya) region of East Taurus mountain belt, ranks second in terms of iron mineralization in Turkey are accepted. The area is characterized by high grade iron ore deposits in use, development and exploration. Lithological mapping and chromite ore exploration of this area is challenging owing to difficult access (High Mountain 2243 m) using the traditional method of exploration. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the capacity of Landsat-8 OLI and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite imagery to discriminate and detect the potential zone of chromites bearing mineralized in Malatya (Yazıhan). Several images processing techniques, Vegetation Mask, Band Ratio (BR), Band Ratio Color Composite (BRCC), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Decorrelation Stretch, Minimum Noise Fraction and Supervised classification using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) exist in previous studies have been performed for lithological mapping. The obtained results show that, BR, PCA and Decorrelation Stretch methods applied on NVIR-SWIR bands of Landsat-8 and ASTER were clearly discriminate the ophiolite rocks at a regional scale. In Addition, SAM classification was applied on a spectral signature of differents ultrabasic and basic rocks extracted from ASTER data. The results are promising in identifying the potentials zones of chromite ore mineralization zones within the ophiolite region. Thus, the techniques used in this research are suitable to detect or identify the high-potential chromite bearing areas in the ophiolite complex rocks using Landsat-8 OLI and ASTER data.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Investigation of Microstructural and Intrinsic Defect States of Facile
           Synthesized WO3 Film

    • Authors: Fatma SARF; Emin YAKAR, Orhan GÜLEN
      Abstract: In this study, WO3 films were simply deposited onto In:SnO2 (ITO) substrates by chemical bath under pH=2 condition. Structural, mophological and optical properties of the synthesized WO3 film were investigated by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), Uv-Vis, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectrophotometer. From x-ray patterns, the tungsten oxide coating exhibits a monoclinic phase structure. Relative homogeneous particle distribution of nanorod/nano-tooth forms are observed on the surface and also surface roughness is less compared to similar studies in the literature. No impurity peak is detected from Uv-Vis spectrum. Band gap of the WO3 film is measured from Tauc plot. Surface defect emission peaks esepecially oxygen vacancies are determined from PL spectrum. Green emission is attributed to heterogeneous film growth process. W-O optical phonon modes are determined from Raman spectra. From these results, the aggregation–deposition mechanism is responsible to WO3 film growth process.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Effect of altitude on polysaccharide and lignin contents of brutian pine
           (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood and kraft pulp

    • Authors: Samim YAŞAR; Gürcan GÜLER
      Abstract: This study investigated the chemical properties of Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood samples collected at altitudes of 800 m, 900 m, and 1000 m and the behaviors of the chemical components of the same materials during kraft pulping. Chemical component analysis indicated that the wood and pulp sample from 1000 m contained higher quantities of holocellulose and α-cellulose, and a lower quantity of lignin. For both wood and pulp samples, a continuous increase in holocellulose and α-cellulose contents and a continuous decrease in lignin content were observed with increasing altitude. Gas chromatography analysis of monosaccharides determined that the highest cellulose and hemicellulose contents were obtained from the wood and pulp sample from 1000 m. Quantity of these components increased with increasing altitude. Lastly, kraft pulping degraded 14.10-15.70% of cellulose, 56.49-61.35% of galactoglucomannan, 65.75-69.61% of arabinoglucoronoxylan, and 92.42-93.48% of lignin in the samples.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Effects of Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) on seed germination and
           development in Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.) and Cress (Lepidium sativum L.)

    • Authors: İbrahim Ertan ERKAN; Özlem ARAS AŞCI
      Abstract: Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.) is cultivated throughout the year. Thanks to the rich metabolites of its leaves, it has a wide usage area in pharmacy. Cress (Lepidium sativum) is in the group of annual vegetables and has a herbaceous structure. Due to its fragrant and slightly spicy structure, it is a vegetable that is used as an appetizer. Its seeds and green parts are very beneficial for health. Rocket is a short-day plant whose leaves are considered to be rich in many minerals and vitamins. The present research was conducted to investigate the effects of doses of Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) (0 (control), 15, 30, 45, 60 mg L-1 on the germination and development of seeds of rocket and cress plants grown in pot experiments. In order to determine the effect of DOT on the development and yield of rocket and cress plants, the percentage of germinated seeds, cotyledon length and dry matter amounts were determined. ANOVA test was used to analyze the data obtained in the present study. Tukey test was used to determine which groups were insignificant differences between the groups. Overall, it was seen that there were significant growth differences between the doses used statistically, the dose of 45 mg L-1 DOT positively affected the germination and dry matter content of rocket and cress seeds.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Tübitak 2237-A Evaluation of Statistical Modeling Methods and
           Applications Training in Natural Sciences

    • Authors: Gamzeozl@gmail.com GAMZEOZL@GMAİL.COM; Semra TÜRKAN, Ceren ÜNAL
      Abstract: Today, the complexity of raw data and information traffic as a result of technological and scientific developments has made the analysis and interpretation of data even more important. Therefore, statistical methods and tools are needed more in curricula. Classical methods such as multiple and logistic regression analysis are generally used in modeling the suitability of target species to the habitat, productivity/species diversity in ecological studies, and natural events such as earthquakes, landslides, and floods in geological studies. However, especially in recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the use of rule-based, empirical, and probabilistic-based methods in studies in natural sciences. In this study, the benefits of statistical modeling techniques and software in natural sciences and the benefits of the "Statistical Modeling Techniques and Applications in Natural Sciences" project carried out within the scope of TÜBİTAK BIDEB 2237-A Scientific Education Activities Support Program are emphasized.The sample of the research consists of 90 graduate students enrolled in graduate programs participating in the activities. Within the scope of the project, activities in which the application examples of statistics in natural sciences were transferred with statistical software were carried out. Activity evaluation forms created by the project researchers were used to measure the impact of these activities on the participating students. It was observed that the transfer of statistical modeling analyzes and application examples from R and Python-based natural sciences in the project affected the participants positively and increased their desire for learning and research.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Characterization of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Stalk Pulp and Evaluation
           in Paper Production

    • Authors: Mustafa ÇİÇEKLER; Ayşe ÖZDEMİR, Ahmet TUTUŞ
      Abstract: In this study, the evaluability of chickpea stalks generated after harvest in chickpea production was investigated in pulp and paper production. Besides, paper production was carried out by blending the chickpea stalk fibers with primary and secondary fibers in certain proportions and the effects of chickpea stalk fibers on the paper properties were determined. Modified kraft method was used in the pulping of chickpea stalks and anthraquinone (AQ) was added to the cooking solution as a catalyst. Some chemical, mechanical and optical properties of the pulps produced with the addition of different AQ charges were compared and the optimum results were obtained from the 0.7% AQ added cooking experiment. The yield and viscosity values of the chickpea stalk pulps increased by 12.6% and 34.2%, respectively and the kappa number decreased by 46.7% with the addition of AQ to cooking liquor. Paper production was carried out by blending the fibers obtained from optimum cooking condition with primary and secondary fibers in certain rates and the effects of chickpea stalk fibers on the paper properties were examined. Depending on the amount of chickpea stalk fibers, the mechanical properties of the papers produced with secondary fibers and the optical properties of the papers produced with primary fibers improved. The strength losses that occur during the recycling of waste paper could be reduced by blending the chickpea stalk fibers with secondary fibers and it is possible to produce various paper types such as writing-printing paper by blending the short fiber chickpea stalk fibers and long fibers.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +030
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