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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 201 - 265 of 265 Journals sorted by number of followers
Revista Científica de la Universidad Nacional del Este     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Patterns     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the Indian Institute of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Research Policy : X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
MUST : Journal of Mathematics Education, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
People and Nature     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Orbis Cógnita : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Uluslararası Bilimsel Araştırmalar Dergisi (IBAD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Saber Digital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Vivências em Ensino de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
BJHS Themes     Open Access  
South American Sciences     Open Access  
Middle European Scientific Bulletin     Open Access  
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access  
Research Integrity and Peer Review     Open Access  
Natural Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal  
RAC: Revista Angolana de Ciências     Open Access  
The Innovation     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Revista de la Sociedad Científica del Paraguay     Open Access  
Rekayasa     Open Access  
Rihan Journal for Scientific Publishing     Open Access  
Türk Bilim ve Mühendislik Dergisi     Open Access  
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
Vilnius University Proceedings     Open Access  
Sciential     Open Access  
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access  
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access  
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access  
Rafidain Journal of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access  
Revista Tecnológica     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access  
Universidad, Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista Politécnica     Open Access  
Reportes Científicos de la FaCEN     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Terapan Universitas Jambi : JIITUJ     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica Ludus Scientiae     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access  
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
Advances in Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Revista Binacional Brasil - Argentina: Diálogo entre as ciências     Open Access  
Revista Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
WikiJournal of Science     Open Access  
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
PENDIPA : Journal of Science Education     Open Access  
Open Conference Proceedings Journal     Open Access  
Naturen     Full-text available via subscription  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Sci     Open Access  
Maskana     Open Access  
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences     Open Access  
Facets     Open Access  
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Iniciação Científica     Open Access  
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Scientific African     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Middle East Journal of Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Technology and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Uni-pluriversidad     Open Access  
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Bases de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
Science Heritage Journal     Open Access  
Avrasya Terim Dergisi     Open Access  
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access  
TÜBAV Bilim Dergisi     Open Access  
LOGIKA Jurnal Ilmiah Lemlit Unswagati Cirebon     Open Access  
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Respuestas     Open Access  
Science Diliman     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Revista Científica y Tecnológica UPSE     Open Access  
HardwareX     Open Access  
Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Sainstek : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Revista de Información Científica     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Jurnal Natural     Open Access  
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Revista Ciência, Tecnologia & Ambiente     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Revista Conhecimento Online     Open Access  
Nova     Open Access  
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Makara Journal of Science     Open Access  
Jurnal Sains Dasar     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Jurnal Matematika, Sains, Dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access  
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access  
The Winnower     Open Access  

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Journal of Composites Science
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2504-477X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [246 journals]
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 262: Polymer-Based Materials Built with
           Additive Manufacturing Methods for Orthopedic Applications: A Review

    • Authors: Kunal Manoj Gide, Sabrina Islam, Z. Shaghayegh Bagheri
      First page: 262
      Abstract: Over the last few decades, polymers and their composites have shown a lot of promises in providing more viable alternatives to surgical procedures that require scaffolds and implants. With the advancement in biomaterial technologies, it is possible to overcome the limitations of current methods, including auto-transplantation, xeno-transplantation, and the implantation of artificial mechanical organs used to treat musculoskeletal conditions. The risks associated with these methods include complications, secondary injuries, and limited sources of donors. Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has the potential to resolve some of these limitations. It can be used for the fabrication of tailored tissue-engineering scaffolds, and implants, repairing tissue defects in situ with cells, or even printing tissues and organs directly. In addition to perfectly matching the patient’s damaged tissue, printed biomaterials can have engineered microstructures and cellular arrangements to promote cell growth and differentiation. As a result, such biomaterials allow the desired tissue repair to be achieved, and could eventually alleviate the shortage of organ donors. As such, this paper provides an overview of different 3D-printed polymers and their composites for orthopedic applications reported in the literature since 2010. For the benefit of the readers, general information regarding the material, the type of manufacturing method, and the biomechanical tests are also reported.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090262
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 263: Finite Element Simulation of
           FRP-Strengthened Thin RC Slabs

    • Authors: Maha Assad, Rami Hawileh, Jamal Abdalla
      First page: 263
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the flexural behavior of high-strength thin slabs externally strengthened with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates through a numerical simulation. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model is created to simulate the response of strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) slabs under a four-point bending test. The numerical model results in terms of load-deflection behavior, and ultimate loads are verified using previously published experimental data in the literature. The numerical results show a good agreement with the experimental results. The FE model is then employed in a parametric study to inspect the effect of concrete compressive strength on the performance of RC thin slabs strengthened with different FRP types, namely carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP), polyethylene terephthalate fiber-reinforced polymers (PET-FRP), basalt fiber-reinforced polymers (BFRP) and glass fiber-reinforced polymers (GFRP). The results showed that the highest strength enhancement was obtained by the slab that was strengthened by CFRP sheets. Slabs that were strengthened with other types of FRP sheets showed an almost similar flexural capacity. The effect of concrete compressive strength on the flexural behavior of the strengthened slabs was moderate, with the highest effect being a 15% increase in the ultimate load between two consecutive values of compressive strength, occurring in the CFRP-strengthened slabs. It can thus be concluded that the developed FE model could be used as a platform to predict the behavior of reinforced concrete slabs when strengthened with different types of FRP composites. It can also be concluded that the modulus of elasticity of the composite plays a major role in determining the flexural capacity of the strengthened slabs.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090263
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 264: Performances Recovery of Flax Fiber
           Reinforced Composites after Salt-Fog Aging Test

    • Authors: Luigi Calabrese, Vincenzo Fiore, Riccardo Miranda, Dionisio Badagliacco, Carmelo Sanfilippo, Davide Palamara, Antonino Valenza, Edoardo Proverbio
      First page: 264
      Abstract: In the present paper, the performance recovery under conditions of discontinuous exposure to a marine environment of a natural fiber-reinforced composite (NFRC) reinforced by flax fibers was assessed. In particular, this laminate was initially exposed to salt-fog for 15 and 30 days, and then stored in a controlled air condition for up to 21 days. The flax fiber-reinforced composite showed coupled reversible and irreversible aging phenomena during the wet stage, as well as evidencing a significant mechanical recovery during the dry stage. Unlike the stiffness, the laminate showed a noticeable recovery of its flexural strength. This behavior affected the composite material toughness. A simplified approach was applied to define a topological map of the material toughness at varying drying times. The results highlight that the composite shows maximum toughness at intermediate drying times thanks to the strength recovery, in addition to its residual plasticity. This approach allows us to better determine that the strength is more closely related to reversible degradation phenomena, whereas the stiffness is mainly correlated to irreversible ones, implying relevant effects on the toughness of the composite exposed to a wet/dry cycle.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090264
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 265: Design and Construction of a
           Low-Cost-High-Accessibility 3D Printing Machine for Producing Plastic
           Components

    • Authors: Kajogbola R. Ajao, Segun E. Ibitoye, Adedire D. Adesiji, Esther T. Akinlabi
      First page: 265
      Abstract: The additive manufacturing process creates objects directly by stacking layers of material on each other until the required product is obtained. The application of additive manufacturing technology for teaching and research purposes is still limited and unpopular in developing countries, due to costs and lack of accessibility. In this study, an extruding-based 3D printing additive manufacturing technology was employed to design and construct a low-cost-high-accessibility 3D printing machine to manufacture plastic objects. The machine was designed using SolidWorks 2020 version with a 10 × 10 × 10 cm3 build volume. The fabrication was carried out using locally available materials, such as PVC pipes for the frame, plywood for the bed, and Zinc Oxide plaster for the bed surface. Repetier firmware was the operating environment for devices running on the computer operating system. Cura was used as the slicing software. The fabricated machine was tested, and the printer produced 3D components with desired structural dimensions. The fabricated 3D printer was used to manufacture some plastic objects using PLA filament. The recommended distance between the nozzle tip and the bed is 0.1 mm. The constructed 3D printer is affordable and accessible, especially in developing nations where 3D printing applications are limited and unpopular.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090265
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 266: Crafting Metal Surface Morphology to
           Prevent Formation of the Carbon–Steel Interfacial Composite

    • Authors: Zheng, Tay, Hong
      First page: 266
      Abstract: We created a coke-repellent inner surface in a stainless steel (SS-321) tube using an enhanced chemical etching tactic. A water-borne etching solution was formulated by combining an ion sequestering ligand (L), hydrogen peroxide (H), hydrochloric acid (C), and a stabilizing agent (E or N). Three etchants, LHC, LHC-E, and LHC-N, were therefore formulated, respectively. The coke-repellent metal surfaces achieved by these etchants all show a characteristic topographic pattern on a micron scale, specifically with grooved spherulite and ridge-like topographic patterns. Fundamentally, these two topographic patterns prompt overhead micro turbulence fields whose agitation mitigates the surface entrapment of aromatic hydrocarbon flocs generated from the overhead lubricant. The surface entrapment of flocs is the crucial step to trigger coke growth. The coke repellency was assessed by placing an SS-321 tube filled with a lubricant in a heat soak. It was found that the topographic pattern and its surface roughness level have opposite effects on coke development. Hence, the three etchants give rise to different coke-resilient surfaces. Moreover, the plug flow rate of the etchant also affects the anti-coking performance, exhibiting an optimal flow rate that offers the highest coke-proof efficacy.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090266
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 267: Composite Ceramics Based on Pastes
           

    • Authors: Maksim Kaimonov, Tatiana Safronova, Tatiana Shatalova, Yaroslav Filippov, Irina Tikhomirova, Yulia Lukina
      First page: 267
      Abstract: Preceramic samples were prepared from pastes based on the aqueous solution of sodium silicate and tricalcium phosphate with a given molar ratio of (Na2O · 2,87SiO2)aq/Ca3(PO4)2 = 1:3 after drying at 24 °C and then 60 °C for 24 h. It established the dependence of the plastic strength of these pastes on both time and temperature and the possibility of using them for extrusion 3D printing. The phase composition of ceramic was represented by unreacted β-TCP (β-Ca3(PO4)2) and β-rhenanite (β-NaCaPO4) after heat treatment at 500 °C. Further, an increase in temperature up to 700 °C led to the appearing phase of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and up to 900 °C, of sodium calcium phosphate (Na3Ca6(PO4)5). After heat-treatment at 1100 °C, ceramic samples consisted of the β-TCP (β-Ca3(PO4)2), sodium calcium phosphate (Na3Ca6(PO4)5), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and β-wollastonite (β-CaSiO3). The bending and compressive strength of the ceramics rose with increasing temperature from ≈6.8 MPa and ≈31.1 MPa at 500 °C to ≈10.6 MPa and ≈43.5 MPa at 1100 °C. The obtained composite ceramics consisted of biocompatible phases that are widely studied in the literature and may be used as a biomaterial for the treatment of bone tissue defects.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090267
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 268: Influence of Electromagnetic
           Activation of Cement Paste and Nano-Modification by Rice Straw Biochar on
           the Structure and Characteristics of Concrete

    • Authors: Alexey N. Beskopylny, Sergey A. Stel’makh, Evgenii M. Shcherban’, Levon R. Mailyan, Besarion Meskhi, Alla S. Smolyanichenko, Valery Varavka, Nikita Beskopylny, Natal’ya Dotsenko
      First page: 268
      Abstract: One main global problem is the accumulation of a large amount of agricultural waste. This problem causes environmental pollution and requires an immediate comprehensive solution. The purpose of this study was scientific substantiation and experimental testing, at the micro- and macro levels, of the joint influence of electromagnetic activation of cement paste and nano-modification by rice straw biochar on the strength and strain properties of concrete. In addition to standard methods, the methods of electromagnetic activation, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry were used. The results of the joint influence of electro-magnetic activation and nano-modification by rice straw biochar on the strength and strain characteristics of concrete were experimentally verified and confirmed by microstructure analysis. Electromagnetic treatment of the cement paste increased the compressive strength, axial compressive strength, tensile strength in bending, and axial tensile strength of concrete. The best performance was demonstrated by electromagnetically-activated concrete containing 5 wt.% rice straw biochar. Strength characteristics increased from 23% to 28% depending on the type of strength, ultimate tensile strains decreased by 14%, and ultimate compressive strains by 8% in comparison with the control concrete composition. Replacing part of the cement with 10 wt.% and 15 wt.% rice straw biochar led to a strong drop in strength characteristics from 14 to 34% and an increase in strain characteristics from 9 to 21%. Scanning electron microscopy showed a denser and more uniform structure of electromagnetically activated samples.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090268
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 269: Hygroscopicity of Gel-Forming
           Composite Materials: Thermodynamic Assessment and Technological
           Significance

    • Authors: Andrey V. Smagin, Nadezhda B. Sadovnikova, Elena A. Belyaeva
      First page: 269
      Abstract: Hygroscopicity is an important technological property of composite materials for the conservation and treatment of water in modern technologies for sustainable green environment and agriculture. Using a thermodynamic approach, this study analyzes the hygroscopicity of composite gel-forming soil conditioners as a function of water activity and temperature. A simple and generally available method of water thermo-desorption is proposed for the quantitative assessment of hygroscopicity, dispersity and potential resistance of composite materials to osmotic collapse. It is based on the fundamental thermodynamic dependence of water potential and temperature of the dried material in a thermodynamic reservoir (laboratory) with constant relative humidity. The hygroscopicity of the studied composite materials in humid air (relative humidity over 90%) reaches a water content of 80–130% (wt); however, this water has too high retention energy and cannot be consumed by green plants, which calls into question the technology of obtaining water from the air using hygroscopic materials. The high hygroscopicity of hydrogels and its dynamics, depending on the controlling factors of temperature and air humidity, must necessarily be taken into account in the materials trade and in the technological calculation of doses for the use of these materials in sustainable agriculture and landscaping.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090269
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 270: Stiffness Degradation under Cyclic
           Loading Using Three-Point Bending of Hybridised Carbon/Glass Fibres with a
           Polyamide 6,6 Nanofibre Interlayer

    • Authors: Ashley Blythe, Bronwyn Fox, Mostafa Nikzad, Boris Eisenbart, Boon Xian Chai
      First page: 270
      Abstract: The stiffness degradation of hybrid carbon/glass fibre composites are investigated under cyclic loading in three-point bending. The composites are compared to toughened composites interlayered with PA 6,6 nanofibre (veil) and a matrix toughened with 5% rubber particulate. With the incorporation of veil into the hybridised composite, the hybrid interface experienced extensive localised delamination, due to crack deflection, causing longitudinal cracking between the fibre and veil interface. It is observed that delamination was redirected and reduced by veil interlayering, due to crack bridging as the cracks propagated. The carbon fibre composites toughened by rubber particulate showed similar stiffness retention to carbon fibre after 1,000,000 cycles. The veil interlayering within carbon fibre improved the stiffness retention by 66.87% for the flexural modulus, compared to carbon fibre and rubber toughened carbon fibre laminates. In both glass and carbon fibre samples, the stiffness retention with veil showed a 10-fold increase in fatigue life, compared with untoughened controls. It is observed from the failure mechanics that veil acted as a randomly orientated fibre layer, rather than a matrix toughener.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090270
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 271: Challenges and Impacts of COVID-19
           Pandemic on Global Waste Management Systems: A Review

    • Authors: Ismail Luhar, Salmabanu Luhar, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
      First page: 271
      Abstract: Unfortunately, nearly the whole world came to a standstill due to the coronavirus disease 2019, i.e., the COVID-19 pandemic, which negatively and severely impacted almost all facets of society, systems, and lives on the planet during the last few years. During this time, a surge in the generation of a huge volume of diverse wastes at an unprecedented rate occurred due to the extensive use of disposables and personal shielding safety gear such as personal protective equipment (PPE) for both infected and uninfected people as well as frontline staff, etc., as corona protocols, especially in the form of “plastic wastes”. Consequently, all these factors induced a novel route for the pollution of air, soil, and water, inviting a great number of health hazards in addition to the pandemic. Beyond a doubt, the susceptibility of the spread of the coronavirus through polluted waste is high, an issue for which the waste management measures are comparatively not up to the mark. The spread of COVID-19 forced the world into lockdown, which had both constructive and unconstructive effects on not only the environment but also systems such as the waste management sector, etc. The unforeseen increase in the quantity of waste created a challenge concerning normal waste disposal facilities, negatively impacting the global waste management industry, and hence, leading to an urgent situation internationally. Still, in developing nations, the sector of waste management is at its nascent stage, and therefore, the sector of waste management during the pandemic period has been influenced severely in many parts of the world. The current comprehensive review provides not only an overview of the impacts and challenges of COVID-19 on the waste management sector but also extends the systematic data of waste generation that has been made accessible so far along with a discussion on the safety of the related workers and staff as well as suggestions for the possible approaches towards better waste management services, which are essential to manage the waste increase resultant of the COVID-19 pandemic in a majority of nations.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090271
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 272: Thermally Conductive Styrene-Butadiene
           Rubber/Boron Nitride Nanotubes Composites

    • Authors: Cristina S. Torres-Castillo, Jason R. Tavares
      First page: 272
      Abstract: The use of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) for fabrication of thermally conductive composites has been explored in the last years. Their elevated thermal conductivity and high mechanical properties make them ideal candidates for reinforcement in polymeric matrices. However, due to their high tendency to agglomerate, a physical or chemical treatment is typically required for their successful incorporation into polymer matrices. Our previous study about the dispersibility of BNNTs allowed determination of good solvents for dispersion. Here, we performed a similar characterization on styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) to determine its solubility parameters. Although these two materials possess different solubility parameters, it was possible to bridge this gap by employing a binary mixture. The solvent casting approach followed by hot pressing was chosen as a suitable method to obtain thermally conductive SBR/BNNT composites. The resulting nanocomposites showed up to 35% of improvement in thermal conductivity and a 235% increase in storage modulus in the frequency sweep, when a BNNT loading of 10 wt% was used. However, the viscoelastic properties in the amplitude sweep showed a negative effect with the increase in BNNT loading. A good balance in thermal conductivity and viscoelastic properties was obtained for the composite at a BNNT loading of 5 wt%.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090272
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 273: Influence of the Chemical Activation
           of Aggregates on the Properties of Lightweight Vibro-Centrifuged
           Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

    • Authors: Alexey N. Beskopylny, Sergey A. Stel’makh, Evgenii M. Shcherban’, Levon R. Mailyan, Besarion Meskhi, Nikita Beskopylny, Diana El’shaeva
      First page: 273
      Abstract: One of the most essential building materials for sustainable development is concrete. However, there is a problem with a lack of inexpensive, efficient ways to make it high-strength and ultra-dense. A promising direction is the additional processing or activation of the cheapest component of the concrete mixture—inert aggregate. The article is devoted to a promising method for the simultaneous activation of both large and small aggregates using vibro-centrifuge technology. It has been established that the activation of concrete aggregates with aqueous solutions of natural bischofite at a concentration of 6 g of dry matter per 1 L of water is the most rational and contributes the maximum increase in strength characteristics and the best values of strain characteristics. Strength characteristics increased up to 16% and ultimate strains increased to 31%, respectively, and the modulus of elasticity increased to 9%. A new improved lightweight fiber-reinforced concrete was created and an innovative technology is proposed that makes it possible to achieve savings in manufacturing due to a significant improvement in structural properties and reducing the working sections of reinforced concrete elements. Regularities between the fundamental chemical processes of the surface activation of aggregates and the physical processes of structure formation of compacted and hardened concrete were revealed. An improvement in the structure of concrete at the micro- and macro-levels was recorded due to a point decrease in crack formation at the interfaces of the “cement matrix-aggregate” and “cement matrix-fiber” phases, and a decrease in the number of micropore defects was also found. Economic efficiency reached 25–27%.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090273
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 274: Editorial for the Special Issue on
           Characterization and Modelling of Composites, Volume II

    • Authors: Stelios K. Georgantzinos
      First page: 274
      Abstract: The increasing demands for more durable, lighter, and smarter structures have led to the development of new and advanced composites. Increased strength and simultaneous weight reduction have resulted in energy savings and applications in several manufacturing industries, such as the automotive and aerospace industries as well as in the production of everyday products. Their optimal design and utilization are a process, which requires their characterization and efficient modeling. The papers published in this Special Issue of the Journal of Composites Science will give composite engineers and scientists insight into what the existing challenges are in the characterization and modeling for the composites field, and how these challenges are being addressed by the research community. The papers present a balance between academic and industrial research, and clearly reflect the collaborative work that exists between the two communities, in a joint effort to solve the existing problems.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090274
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 275: Clevis-Grip Tensile Tests on Basalt,
           Carbon and Steel FRCM Systems Realized with Customized Cement-Based
           Matrices

    • Authors: Dario De Domenico, Natale Maugeri, Paolo Longo, Giuseppe Ricciardi, Giuseppe Gullì, Luigi Calabrese
      First page: 275
      Abstract: The tensile properties of fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) composites are experimentally investigated through clevis-grip tensile tests (according to AC434 provisions) on FRCM coupons realized with customized (ad hoc developed in this paper) cement-based matrices. The tested FRCM coupons are reinforced with basalt, carbon, or steel fabrics, and are prepared with three different matrices: one-component mortar incorporating dispersible copolymer powders of vinyl acetate and ethylene (matrices A and B) and two-component mortar with carboxylated styrene–butadiene copolymer liquid resin (matrix C). This has made it possible to investigate the mechanical compatibility between different mortar matrices and fabrics and the resulting tensile properties of FRCM composites in the uncracked, cracking, and fully cracked phases. Experimental results are critically analyzed in terms of stress–strain curves and failure mechanisms comparatively for the analyzed FRCM systems. It has been shown that the matrix B exhibits a good compatibility with the basalt pre-impregnated fabric, while the matrix C appears to be the most suitable candidate to optimize the interfacial stress transfer at the fiber–matrix interface for all fabrics, thus exalting the mechanical performances in terms of tensile strength and ultimate strain. The results of this experimental program can be useful for designing optimized mortar mixes aimed at realizing novel FRCM composites or at improving existing FRCM systems by suitably accounting for compatibility behavior and slippage at the fabric–matrix interface.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090275
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 276: An Eco-Friendly, Simple, and
           Inexpensive Method for Metal-Coating Strontium onto Halloysite Nanotubes

    • Authors: Anusha Elumalai, David K. Mills
      First page: 276
      Abstract: Osteoporosis increases the risk of bone fracture by reducing bone mass and thereby increasing bone fragility. The addition of strontium (Sr) nanoparticles in bone tissue results in a strengthening of the bone, induction bone formation by osteoblasts, and reduction of bone reabsorption by osteoclasts. The use of Sr for bone tissue regeneration has gained significant research interest in recent years due to its beneficial properties in treating osteoporotic-induced bone loss. We hypothesized that Sr-coated and antibiotic-doped HNTs could be used in antimicrobial coatings and as an antibacterial drug delivery vehicle. Accordingly, we coated HNTs with strontium carbonate (SrHNT) using a simple, novel, and effective electrodeposition method. We tested the antibacterial properties of SrHNT on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermis using the disc diffusion method. We assessed the potential cytotoxic and proliferative effects of SrHNTs on pre-osteoblasts using a Live/Dead cytotoxicity and cell proliferation assay. We successfully coated HNTs with strontium using a one-step benign coating method that does not produce any toxic waste, unlike most HNT metal-coating methods. Antibacterial tests showed that the SrHNTs had a pronounced growth inhibition effect, and cell culture studies using MC 3T3 cells concluded that SrHNTs are cytocompatible and enhance cell proliferation.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090276
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 277: Buckling Analysis of Functionally
           Graded Materials (FGM) Thin Plates with Various Circular Cutout
           Arrangements

    • Authors: Adnan Alashkar, Mohamed Elkafrawy, Rami Hawileh, Mohammad AlHamaydeh
      First page: 277
      Abstract: In this paper, several analyses were conducted to investigate the buckling behavior of Functionally Graded Material (FGM) thin plates with various circular cutout arrangements. The computer model was simulated using the Finite Element (FE) software ABAQUS. The developed model was validated by the authors in previous research. A parametric analysis was employed to investigate the effect of plate thickness and circular cutout diameter on the buckling behavior of the FGM thin plates. The normalized buckling load was also calculated to compare the buckling performance of FGM plates with various dimensions. Moreover, von Mises stress analysis was examined to understand the yield capability of the FGM plates in addition to the buckling modes that show the stress distribution of the critical buckling stress. Hence, this research provides a comprehensive analysis to display the relation between the critical buckling load and the arrangement of the circular cutouts. The results show that the critical buckling load heavily depends on the dimension of the plate and the cutout size. For instance, an increase in the plate thickness and a decrease in the cutout diameter increase the critical buckling load. Moreover, the circular cutout in a horizontal arrangement exhibited the best buckling performance, and as the arrangement shifts to a vertical arrangement, the buckling performance deteriorates.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090277
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 278: A Study on the Structural Features of
           Amorphous Nanoparticles of Ni by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    • Authors: Tuan Tran Quoc, Dung Nguyen Trong, Van Cao Long, Umut Saraç, Ştefan Ţălu
      First page: 278
      Abstract: This study deals with the impact of the heating rate (HR), temperature (T), and the number of atoms (N) on the structural features of amorphous nanoparticles (ANPs) of Ni by molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) the Pak–Doyama pair interaction potential field (PD). The obtained results showed that the structural features of ANPs of Ni are significantly affected by the studied factors. The correlation between the size (D) and the N was determined to be D~N−1/3. The energy (E) was proportional to N−1, and the Ni-Ni link length was 2.55 Å. The glass transition temperature (Tg) derived from the E-T graph was estimated to be 630 K. An increase in the HR induced a change in the shape of the ANPs of Ni. Furthermore, raising the HR caused an enhancement in the D and a decrement in the density of atoms. The obtained results are expected to contribute to future empirical studies.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6090278
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 353: Influence of Spatially Distributed
           Out-of-Plane CFRP Fiber Waviness on the Estimation of Knock-Down Factors
           Based on Stochastic Numerical Analysis

    • Authors: Andreas Schuster, Richard Degenhardt, Christian Willberg, Tobias Wille
      First page: 353
      Abstract: The presence of waviness defects in CFRP materials due to fiber undulation affects the structural performance of composite structures. Hence, without a reliable assessment of the resulting material properties, the full weight-saving potential cannot be exploited. Within the paper, a probabilistic numerical approach for improved estimation of material properties based on spatially distributed fiber waviness is presented. It makes use of a homogenization approach to derive viable knock-down factors for the different plies on the laminate level for reference material and is demonstrated for a representative tension loadcase. For the stochastic analysis, a random field is selected which describes the complex inner geometry of the plies in the laminate model and is numerically discretized by the Karhunen–Loeve expansion methods to fit into an FE model for the strength analysis. Conducted analysis studies reveal a substantial influence of randomly distributed waviness defects on the derived knock-down factors. Based on a topological analysis of the waviness fields, the reduction of the material properties was found to be weakly negatively correlated related to simple geometrical properties such as maximum amplitudes of the waviness field, which justifies the need for further subsequent sensitivity studies.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6120353
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 354: Investigation of Mechanical Properties
           of Coffee Husk-HDPE-ABS Polymer Composite Using Injection-Molding Method

    • Authors: Berhanu Tolessa Amena, Holm Altenbach, Getechew Shunki Tibba, Nazia Hossain
      First page: 354
      Abstract: Waste biomass-based natural fibers are being extensively researched nowadays as a composite material with various waste-based high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to utilize the waste biomass and recycle the plastic waste in an effective approach. In this study, chemically modified spent coffee husk (CH) has been applied with different ratios of HDPE to produce composite material and characterized comprehensively to determine the mechanical stability of the products. The injection molding method was used for composite development containing HDPE with untreated and 10 wt% NaOH-treated CH weight ratios of 0%, 15%, 20%, and 25% together with 10 wt% coupling agent and filler materials of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and kaolin clay, respectively. Physicochemical characteristics of untreated CH, 10 wt% NaOH treated CH, pristine HDPE and HDPE-CH composites have been analyzed comprehensively in this study. Adding 25 wt% fiber with 65 wt% HDPE and 10 wt% of ABS (7 wt%)-kaolin clay (3 wt%) increased the tensile and bending properties significantly. This composite presented the maximum tensile, flexural, and impact strengths, which were 36 MPa, 7.5 MPa, and 2.8 KJ/m2, respectively. The tensile strength and bending strength of NaOH-treated coffee husk fibers (CHF) were enhanced by 32% and 29%, respectively. The microstructural characteristics of HDPE with treated and untreated CHF composites analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated the fibers’ and matrix’s excellent adhesion and compatibility. Thus, HDPE polymer-treated CH composite presented excellent stability, which can be expected as a new addition for construction, food packaging, and other industrial applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6120354
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 355: Tuning of Dielectric Properties of
           

    • Authors: Farah Deeba, Kriti Shrivastava, Minal Bafna, Ankur Jain
      First page: 355
      Abstract: Polymer blend or composite, which is a combination of two or more polymers and fillers such as semiconductors, metals, metal oxides, salts and ceramics, are a synthesized product facilitating improved, augmented or customized properties, and have widespread applications for the achievement of functional materials. Polymer materials with embedded inorganic fillers are significantly appealing for challenging and outstanding electric, dielectric, optical and mechanical applications involving magnetic features. In particular, a polymer matrix exhibiting large values of dielectric constant (ε′) with suitable thermal stability and low dielectric constant values of polymer blend, having lesser thermal stability, together offer significant advantages in electronic packaging and other such applications in different fields. In this review paper, we focused on the key factors affecting the dielectric properties and its strength in thin film of inorganic materials loaded poly methyl meth acrylate (PMMA) based polymer blend (single phase) or composites (multiple phase), and its consequences at low and high frequencies are explored. A wide range of different types of PMMA based polymer blends or composites, which are doped with different fillers, have been synthesized with specific tailoring of their dielectric behavior and properties. A few of them are discussed in this manuscript, with their different preparation techniques, and exploring new ideas for modified materials.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6120355
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 356: Micromechanical Approach to Predict
           Mechanical Properties of Particulate-Dispersed Composites with Dissimilar
           Interfacial Phases

    • Authors: Tomoyuki Fujii, Keiichiro Tohgo, Takahiro Omi, Yoshinobu Shimamura
      First page: 356
      Abstract: The mechanical properties of composites are affected by their constituents. For the development of high-performance composites, it is expected that a technique will be developed which can predict the mechanical properties of composites based on the mechanical properties of their constituents. This study developed a technique based on a micromechanical approach to predict the mechanical properties of composites with interfacial phases between reinforcements and matrix. A double-inclusion model (Hori and Nemat-Nasser, 1993) is effective for the solution of such problems, of which the validity remains unclear. Problems with a particle surrounded by an interfacial phase embedded in an infinite body were calculated via the model and finite element analysis to verify the model. It was found that the macroscopic average stress of the double inclusion could be accurately solved by the model, although the microscopic stress of each phase could not be calculated with high accuracy. Therefore, a micromechanical approach based on the model was formulated and applied to particulate-dispersed composites consisting of zirconia and titanium, and fabricated by spark plasma sintering, in which Ti oxides were created along the interface between zirconia and titanium. As a result, the elastic-plastic stress–strain curves of the composites could be predicted. The approach can investigate the mechanical properties of composites with various shapes of reinforcement surrounded by dissimilar materials in a matrix. It can be concluded that the approach is promising for the development of composites with an excellent mechanical performance.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6120356
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 357: Improving the Anchorage in Textile
           Reinforced Cement Composites by 3D Spacer Connections: Experimental Study
           of Flexural and Cracking Behaviors

    • Authors: Michael El Kadi, Danny Van Hemelrijck, Tine Tysmans
      First page: 357
      Abstract: Textile-reinforced cement (TRC) composites can lead to significant material (and dimensional) savings compared to steel-reinforced concrete, particularly when applied in thin-walled structures such as façade panels, shells, etc. In conditions where the geometrical restrictions do not allow for sufficient anchorage, however, the exploitation of this reinforcement may be suboptimal and the TRC’s mechanical properties may decrease. As shown in the literature, the use of 3D textile reinforcement can lead to an improved anchorage in the reinforcement points and superior post-cracking behavior in terms of bending. The question remains as to whether similar improvements can be achieved using 3D spacer connections, inserted post-manufacturing of the textiles. Therefore, this research experimentally investigated the effect of discretely inserted spacer connections on the flexural properties and cracking behavior of TRCs. Six different TRC beam configurations—varying in the placement of the spacer connections over the span—were investigated. Moreover, a comparison was made with two additional configurations: one equivalent 2D TRC system (using the same in-plane textiles but without through-thickness connections) and one 3D TRC system using knitted 3D textiles (with spacer yarns uniformly distributed). The four-point bending tests were monitored via digital image correlation (DIC) to visualize the full-field cracking pattern. The experimental results showed that the spacer connections could strongly improve the post-cracking bending stiffness and the modulus of rupture (MOR) when placed close to the free end of the sample and could also lead to reduced crack widths when placed around the midspan.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6120357
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 358: Modelling and Comparative Analysis of
           Epoxy-Fly-Ash Composite with Alloys for Bracket Application

    • Authors: Abhijay B. Raghunandan, Dundesh S. Chiniwar, Shivashankar Hiremath, Pavankumar Sondar, H. M. Vishwanatha
      First page: 358
      Abstract: The current study compares and analyses the fly-ash–epoxy composite structure with alloys for bracket applications. A dispersed reinforcement composite is created by combining epoxy and fly-ash. Three different prototypical brackets are modelled and analysed using the finite element method, and their results are compared to common alloys used in the manufacture of L-shaped brackets. The mechanical properties of the composite material are calculated using a rule of mixtures, and the properties of the composite material are modified by changing the percentage composition of fly-ash. Based on equivalent stress and total deformation, all geometrical models are analysed and compared. The analysis results appear to be appropriate for broadening the scope of the application of epoxy-based composites for small-scale and large-scale applications. The results also show that the composite material can be used to make a variety of structural elements with high design complexity, such as bulkheads and other structural components.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6120358
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 359: Additive Manufacturing of C/C-SiC
           Ceramic Matrix Composites by Automated Fiber Placement of Continuous Fiber
           Tow in Polymer with Pyrolysis and Reactive Silicon Melt Infiltration

    • Authors: Corson L. Cramer, Bola Yoon, Michael J. Lance, Ercan Cakmak, Quinn A. Campbell, David J. Mitchell
      First page: 359
      Abstract: An additive manufacturing process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites has been developed based on the C/C-SiC system. Automated fiber placement of the continuous carbon fibers in a polyether ether ketone matrix was performed to consolidate the carbon fibers into a printed preform. Pyrolysis was performed to convert the polymer matrix to porous carbon, and then Si was introduced by reactive melt infiltration to convert a portion of the carbon matrix to silicon carbide. The densities and microstructures were characterized after each step during the processing, and the mechanical properties were measured. The C/C-SiC composites exhibited a porosity of 10–20%, characteristic flexural strength of 234.91 MPa, and Weibull modulus of 3.21. The composites displayed toughness via a significant displacement to failure.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6120359
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 360: Study on Anhydrous Proton Conduction
           in Imidazole–Collagen Composite

    • Authors: Tomoki Furuseki, Shotaro Teranishi, Yasumitsu Matsuo
      First page: 360
      Abstract: Recently, hydrogen-fuel cells have attracted attention as an environmentally friendly next-generation energy device. Very recently, biomaterials such as collagen and chitin have realized proton conductivity via water bridges under humidity condition, and the fabrication of fuel cells using biomaterials is possible. However, the fuel cell electrolyte via water has demerits, such as the complication of fuel cell instruments and the operating temperature limit. Therefore, fuel cell electrolytes without humidified conditions are desired. In the present work, we have synthesized an anhydrous proton conductor using imidazole and collagen, which are biomaterials, and investigated the anhydrous proton conductivity in imidazole–collagen composites. It was found that an imidazole–collagen composite is a high-proton conductor above 10−3 S/m and above 200 °C without the humidified condition compared with other anhydrous bio-proton conductors such as the hydroxyapatite–collagen composite. Moreover, the motional narrowing of the 1H-NMR line width reveals that the proton conductivity is realized in the temperature region from 120 to 200 °C. In addition, the DTA measurement and the impedance analyses reveal that the imidazole–collagen composite film undergoes the phase transition at 120 °C. Furthermore, the proton conductivity in the imidazole–collagen composite strongly depends on n, which is the imidazole concentration per collagen molecule and takes a maximum at n = 2.0. In addition, the proton conductivity perpendicular to the collagen fiber is approximately ten times higher than that parallel to the collagen fiber. From these results, it can be deduced that the proton conductivity in the imidazole–collagen composite is caused by breaking and rearranging the hydrogen bonds of the collagen side chain with the imidazole molecule formed between the collagen fibers.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6120360
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 361: Preform Porosity and Final Thickness
           Variability Prediction after Controlled Post-Infusion External Pressure
           Application with the FEA Model

    • Authors: Igor Zhilyaev, Shun-Hsyung Chang, Sergey Shevtsov, Natalia Snezhina
      First page: 361
      Abstract: One of the reasons for the insufficiently wide use of the low-cost and low-labor vacuum infusion process in the production of polymer composite structures is the uneven distribution of pore pressure, porosity, and preform thickness at the final stage of filling the preform with liquid resin. This article presents the results of a theoretical study of the factors that govern the effectiveness of the known method of external controlled pressure on the preform in order to eliminate or significantly reduce the listed disadvantages. The study includes an analysis of scenarios for the implementation of this method, which differ in the state of the resin gate when external pressure is applied to the preform (open or closed), as well as the pressure in the vacuum vent (maintained unchanged or gradually increased to atmospheric pressure). The research tool was a finite element (FE) model that simulates resin flow according to Darcy’s law and controlled boundary conditions for a thin-walled rectangular preform. The results of the study confirmed the effectiveness of the process in achieving a more uniform distribution of porosity and preform thickness and are good qualitative agreement with the results of borrowed experiments, revealing the conditions for the occurrence of critical situations associated with the possible penetration of air into the preforms through the vacuum port and the reverse flow into the preform of the resin previously forced out through the resin gate.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6120361
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 322: China Rose/Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
           Pollen-Mediated Phytosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Catalytic
           Activity

    • Authors: Brajesh Kumar, Kumari Smita, Yolanda Angulo, Alexis Debut, Luis Cumbal
      First page: 322
      Abstract: We reported an ecofriendly method for the phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the pollen of double-petal China rose/Hibiscus rosa-sinensis as a natural reducing and stabilizing agent. The phytosynthesized AgNPs were preliminary characterized by their optical properties by UV–vis spectroscopy and showed their corresponding surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) at 405 nm. The distribution pattern and morphology of the synthesized AgNPs were confirmed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy whereas X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy depicts their surface properties and crystalline nature. The phytosynthesized AgNPs were spherical, well dispersed, 10–50 nm in size, and crystalline. It also showed moderate photocatalytic activity for the degradation (>30%, 2.5 h) of Thioflavin T dye in direct sunlight. Thus, this work highlights the importance of China rose pollen in green nanoscience and supports the cleanliness of nature by naturally available materials.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110322
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 323: Processing, Mechanical
           Characterization, and Electric Discharge Machining of Stir cast and Spray
           Forming-Based Al-Si Alloy Reinforced with ZrO2 Particulate Composites

    • Authors: Raviraj Shetty, Prakash Rao Gurupur, Jamaluddin Hindi, Adithya Hegde, Nithesh Naik, Mohammed Sabraz Sabir Ali, Ishwargouda S. Patil, Madhukar Nayak
      First page: 323
      Abstract: High performance lightweight structures made of metal matrix composites (MMCs) are in demand for application in variety of industries such as aircraft, spacecraft, automobile, marine, sports equipment, etc. However, uniform distribution of the reinforcement phase to improve the mechanical properties and quality of MMCs has been the challenge for the manufacturing industries. Hence, researchers are focusing on the development of traditional low-cost method of producing metal matrix composites. In the view of above facts, an attempt is made to study the processing and characterization of Si-Al alloy reinforced with zirconium dioxide particulate composites in this paper. Hence, this paper concentrates on experimentally identifying the effect of stir cast and spray forming processing techniques followed by hot pressing on micro hardness, compressive strength, and tensile strength using Taguchi’s design of experiments for aluminum silicon matrix alloy reinforced with zirconium dioxide particulates. From the extensive experimentation on aluminum and silicon reinforced with the ZrO2 powder particulates, it was observed that there was an improvement in selected mechanical properties as the percentage of ZrO2 increased with 13 wt.% of silicon under spray forming processing technique compared to stir cast composites. This may be due to uniform distribution homogenous dispersion, larger work hardening rate, and structure of dislocation tangles around the ZrO2 particulates that occurred during spray forming processing technique. Further, results obtained from the interaction plot, contour plot, main effects plot, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) proved to be successful for identifying the optimum processing parameters for Si-Al alloy reinforced with zirconium dioxide particulate composites. Further, this paper also discusses wear study using pin on disc wear testing apparatus on spray forming processed aluminum and silicon (13.0 wt.%) alloy reinforced with the ZrO2 powder particulates based on Taguchi’s design of experiments followed by second order model generation for wear using response surface methodology. Finally, electrode wear study of spray forming processed aluminum and silicon alloy reinforced with the ZrO2 powder particulates using electric discharge machining by varying peak current (A), pulse on time (μs), and pulse off time (μs) using brass, copper, and graphite as electrode material based on L27orthogonal array. The understanding gained from the design of experiments in this paper can be used to develop future guidelines for processing and characterization of Si-Al alloy reinforced with zirconium dioxide particulate composites.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110323
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 324: Localization of Vibration Weak
           Position of Composites Based on Weighted Modal Strain Energy Summation

    • Authors: Ju Qiu, Wei Lian, Huaxiang Rao, Caiyun Wang, Tengteng Luo, Jiali Tang
      First page: 324
      Abstract: In this paper, two typical examples are used to illustrate the weak position of aircraft structure in the process of vibration. Through the modal analysis of the typical composite plate and I-shaped beam, the first 20-order modal strain energy of the plate is extracted, which is difficult to locate the weak spot due to the highly scattered location of the higher modal strain energy. The modal participation factor is introduced as the weight factor of the summation of the modal strain energy. The modal participation factor is large, the weighting factor is large, and the high modal strain energy of the composite plate moves diagonally in the 45° direction of the composite plate and the high strain energy region is consistent with the previous modes of the plate. This is the result of the weak in-plane shear stiffness of the composite panel, which shows the effectiveness of the mode weighted summation method. The I-shaped composite beam uses the modal strain energy summation of the weight factor, and the higher modal strain energy is concentrated on the middle part of the beam and at 1/4 and 3/4 of it. Therefore, the weak part of the vibration can be clearly identified. The higher modal strain energy is extracted by the method proposed to this paper, which can be used as a reference to structural design and dynamic on-line monitoring.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110324
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 325: Free Vibrational Analysis of a
           Functionally Graded Five-Layer Sandwich Plate Resting on a Winkler Elastic
           Foundation in a Thermal Environment

    • Authors: Mohammad Reza Kardooni, Mohammad Shishesaz, Shapour Moradi, Reza Mosalmani
      First page: 325
      Abstract: The effect of adhesive layers bonding to the core of functionally graded (FG) surface layers is investigated using the free vibration of a five-layer sandwich composite plate resting on a Winkler elastic foundation in a thermal environment. It is assumed that all layers are experiencing a steady-state temperature ΔT. The layer-wise theory is used to derive the governing equations with the help of Hamilton’s principle. The Navier solution is employed to obtain the closed-form solutions. The numerical results obtained using the present theory are compared with three-dimensional finite elements implemented by ABAQUS software. The results show that the proposed theory is not only accurate but also efficient in predicting the natural frequencies of sandwich plates resting on Winkler foundations.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110325
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 326: Gas Sensitive Materials Based on
           Polyacrylonitrile Fibers and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Bayan Kaidar, Gaukhar Smagulova, Aigerim Imash, Zulkhair Mansurov
      First page: 326
      Abstract: The results of the synthesis of PAN/NiO composite fibers by the electrospinning method are presented. The electrospinning installation included a rotating drum collector for collecting fibers. Nickel oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by solution combustion synthesis from nickel nitrate and urea. It was shown that monophase NiO nanoparticles with average particle sizes of 154 nm could be synthesized by this method. NiO nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Based on NiO nanoparticles, composite PAN/NiO fibers were obtained by electrospinning. The obtained composite fibers were modified with heat treatment (stabilization and carbonization) processes. Obtained C/NiO fibers were investigated by SEM, and EDAX. It was shown that obtained composite fibers could be used for the detection of acetone and acetylene in air. These results show that C/NiO based electrospun fibers have potential applications in gas sensors.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110326
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 327: Application of Rh/TiO2 Nanotube Array
           in Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid Solution

    • Authors: Mahmudul Hassan Suhag, Ikki Tateishi, Mai Furukawa, Hideyuki Katsumata, Aklima Khatun, Satoshi Kaneco
      First page: 327
      Abstract: Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) were fabricated via electrochemical anodization process. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation from formic acid solution was investigated using TNTs with simultaneous Rh deposition. The effects of calcination temperature and time for TNTs on hydrogen generation were studied. The maximum hydrogen generation (54 µmol) was observed when using TNTs with a 500 °C calcination temperature and 10 h calcination time under 5 h of black light (352 nm) irradiation. The reusability tests indicated that the TNTs with photodeposited Rh metal (Rh/TNT) had excellent stability up to the fifth cycle for hydrogen generation from formic acid solution. The TNTs were characterized before and after photodeposition of Rh metal via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). XRD revealed the presence of optimal anatase–rutile phase ratios in TNTs at 500 °C and 300 °C calcination temperatures. XRD and SEM revealed the deposition of Rh metal on the TNT surface at 300 °C and 500 °C calcination temperatures. It was observed that the light absorption ability of TNTs calcined at 500 °C was greater than that of TNTs calcined at 300 °C. The reaction mechanisms for the formation of TNTs and photocatalytic hydrogen production from formic acid solutions by TNTs with simultaneous Rh deposition were also proposed.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110327
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 328: Controlling Surface Wettability and
           Plasmonic Resonance of Au/ZnO Heterostructured Films

    • Authors: Sheng-Chiang Chen, Da-Hua Wei
      First page: 328
      Abstract: This work investigated the (0002) textured ZnO films without and with the addition of an Au continuous top layer and its effects on their surface wettability and plasmonic resonance characteristics. The ZnO films were directly fabricated onto glass substrates at the synthesized temperature of 300 °C via a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system, and the as-synthesized ZnO film exhibited an average optical transmittance value of 85%. The ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation can be applied to enhance the hydrophilicity, changing it from a hydrophobic status to hydrophilic status due to the existing and adjustable characteristics of the photocatalytic activity. On the other hand, the surface wetting/contact angle (CA) value of the ZnO film with a controllable surface wettability switched from 94° (hydrophobicity) to 44° (hydrophilicity), after it was exposed to UV light irradiation for 5 min, and stably reversed back to hydrophobicity (92°) via a post-annealed treatment using rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 350 °C for 5 min in air. A fast, simple, and reversible method for switching between hydrophilic and hydrophobic status is claimed in this present work. The improved surface plasmonic resonance is owning to the coupled electron and photon oscillations that can be obtained and produced at the interface between the flat Au layer and ZnO (metal/metallic oxide) heterostructured films for future applications of various wide-bandgap compound semiconductors.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110328
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 329: Applicability of Asymmetric Specimens
           for Residual Stress Evaluation in Fiber Metal Laminates

    • Authors: Johannes Wiedemann, Jan-Uwe R. Schmidt, Christian Hühne
      First page: 329
      Abstract: Residual stresses in fiber metal laminates (FML) inevitably develop during the manufacturing process. The main contributor to these stresses is the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between fibers and metal in combination with high process temperatures. To quantify these stresses, the use of specimens with an asymmetric layup is an easily adaptable method. The curvature that develops after the manufacturing of flat laminates with an asymmetrical layer stack is a measure of the level of residual stresses evolving during cure. However, the accuracy of the curvature evaluation is highly dependent on specimen design and other influencing parameters. This leads to deviations when compared to other methods for residual stress quantification as can be seen from the literature. Therefore, in this work a large set of FML specimens is comprehensively investigated to identify relevant influencing parameters and derive conclusions about specimen design and evaluation techniques. For certain layups and process parameters, there is a good correlation between the curvature and the stress-free temperature, which is further covered by analytical solutions for bimetals. This correlation is the basis to transfer curvature into a stress-free temperature that can consequently be used for the quantification of residual stress levels in more complex FMLs. The transfer is validated by in situ strain measurements during cure using a strain gauge technique. Based on the results, the application of asymmetric specimens for residual stress characterization in more complex laminates is presented in the form of a workflow. The work shows the basic considerations and procedures necessary to use asymmetric specimens for residual stress quantification in FML. Furthermore, the results obtained can also be transferred to other composite materials.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110329
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 330: Numerical Simulation of Two-Phase Flow
           in Liquid Composite Moulding Using VOF-Based Implicit Time-Stepping Scheme
           

    • Authors: Hatim Alotaibi, Chamil Abeykoon, Constantinos Soutis, Masoud Jabbari
      First page: 330
      Abstract: The filling stage in injection/infusion moulding processes plays a key role in composite manufacturing that can be influenced by the inlet and vent ports. This will affect the production of void-free parts and the desirable process time. Flow control is usually required in experiments to optimise such a stage; however, numerical simulations can be alternatively used to predict manufacturing-induced deficiencies and potentially remove them in the actual experiments. This study uses ANSYS Fluent software to model flow-front advancement during the impregnation of woven fabrics. A developed technique is applied by creating tracking points (e.g., on-line monitor) in the direction of the flow to report/collect data for flow-front positions as a function of time. The study adopts the FVM-VOF-based two-phase flow model together with an implicit time-stepping scheme, i.e., a dual-time formulation solution method with a preconditioned pseudo-time derivative. Initially, three time-step sizes, 5 s (small), 25 s, and 50 s (large), are evaluated to examine their impact on numerical saturation lines at various fabric porosities, 40%, 50%, and 60%, for a two-dimensional (2D) rectangular mould, and predictions are then compared with the well-known analytical Darcy. This is followed by a three-dimensional (3D) curved mould for a fillet L-shaped structure, wherein the degree-of-curvature of fibre preforms is incorporated using a User-Defined Function (UDF) to tailor the impregnation process. The developed approach shows its validation (1–5.7%) with theoretical calculations and experimental data for 2D and 3D cases, respectively. The results also stress that a shorter computational time can be achieved with a large time-step size while maintaining the same level of accuracy.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110330
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 331: Structural Engineering of
           Photocatalytic ZnO-SnO2-Fe2O3 Composites

    • Authors: Larissa L. Khomutinnikova, Sergey K. Evstropiev, Dmitry P. Danilovich, Igor K. Meshkovskii, Dmitry V. Bulyga
      First page: 331
      Abstract: The ZnO-SnO2-Fe2O3 composites containing flower-like particles were prepared by the non-isothermal polymer-salt method. Thermochemical processes proceeding during composites synthesis was studied by DTA/TG method. The structure and morphology of obtained composites were studied by the SEM and XRD analysis. Prepared composites containing small amounts of SnO2 and Fe2O3 demonstrate the high adsorption and photodecomposition of the organic dye Rhodamine 6G in its solutions. Obtained materials show the ability of the photogeneration of the chemically active singlet oxygen under the visible irradiation. The synergistic effect of the flower structure and Fe2O3 doping can significantly improve the photocatalytic and adsorption activities.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110331
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 332: Recycled Carbon
           Nanofiber-Polypropylene Nanocomposite: A Step towards Sustainable
           Structural Material Development

    • Authors: Abhishek Kumar Pathak, Tomohiro Yokozeki
      First page: 332
      Abstract: Plastic products play a significant role in fulfilling daily necessities, but the non-decomposable nature of plastic leads to inescapable environmental damage. Recycling plastic material is the most appropriate solution to avoid pollution and short product lifespan. The present study shows the recycling effect on carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) nanocomposite to attain the purpose of reuse and sustainability. 30 wt% CNF melt-blended with polymer and PP-nanocomposites were fabricated using the injection molding technique. PP-CNF nanocomposites were recycled, and mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties were investigated. Three-point bending and tensile testing showed a low decrement of ~1% and ~5% in bending and tensile strength after recycling 30 wt% PP-CNF nanocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the alignment of CNF was disturbed after recycling due to the decrement in the aspect ratio of CNF. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the crystallinity of PP increases with recycling. The lowering of interfacial interaction between CNF and PP after recycling was studied by a stress-controlled rheometer. The decrement in mechanical properties of PP-CNF nanocomposite is not significant due to CNF reinforcement; hence, it can be reused for the same or other structural applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110332
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 333: The Effect of Multi-Walled Carbon
           Nanotubes on the Heat-Release Properties of Elastic Nanocomposites

    • Authors: Alexander V. Shchegolkov, Mourad Nachtane, Yaroslav M. Stanishevskiy, Ekaterina P. Dodina, Dovlet T. Rejepov, Alexandre A. Vetcher
      First page: 333
      Abstract: Of great importance in materials science is the design of effective functional materials that can be used in various technological fields. Nanomodified materials, which have fundamentally new properties and provide previously unrealized properties, have acquired particular importance. When creating heating elements and materials for deformation measurement, it is necessary to understand the patterns of heat release under conditions of mechanical deformation of the material, as this expands the potential applications of such materials. A study of elastomers modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been carried at the MWCNTs concentration of 1–8 wt.%. The modes of heat release of nanomodified elastomers at a voltage of 50 V at different levels of tension are reported. The increment of the MWCNTs concentration to 7 wt.% leads to an increment in the power of heat emissions. It is worth noting the possibility of using the obtained elastomer samples with MNT as sensitive elements of strain sensors, which will allow obtaining information about physical and chemical parameters following the principles of measuring the change in electrical resistance that occurs during stretching and torsion. The changes in conductivity and heat emission under different conditions have been studied in parallel with Raman mapping and infrared thermography. The reported studies allow to make the next step to develop flexible functional materials for the field of electric heating and deformation measurement based on elastic matrices and nanoscale conductive fillers.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110333
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 334: Defects Detection and Identification
           in Adhesively Bonded Joints between CFRP Laminate and Reinforced Concrete
           Beam Using Acousto-Ultrasonic Technique

    • Authors: Cheikh A. T. Sarr, Sylvain Chataigner, Laurent Gaillet, Nathalie Godin
      First page: 334
      Abstract: Adhesively bonded composite reinforcements have been increasingly used in civil engineering since the 1980s. They depend on the effective transfer of forces throughout the adhesive joint that may be affected by defects or damages. It is therefore necessary to provide methods to detect and/or identify these defects present in the bonded joints without affecting their future use. This should be carried out through nondestructive methods (NDT) and should be able to discriminate the different types of defects that may be encountered. The acousto-ultrasonic technique shows good potential to answer to this challenge, as illustrated in recent studies led on small-scale model samples. In this paper, we assess the robustness of this methodology on larger scale samples using reinforced concrete beams (RC beam), that is a mandatory step prior to on-site applications. A mono-parametric analysis allows the detection of all types of defects using a simple criterion set. For the identification, it was necessary to conduct a data-driven strategy by means of a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a random forest (RF) method used from extracted parameters.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110334
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 335: Aminated Graphene Nanomesh:
           Theoretical and Experimental Insights into Process of Decorating, Topology
           and Electron Properties

    • Authors: Olga E. Glukhova, Maxim K. Rabchinskii, Svyatoslav D. Saveliev, Demid A. Kirilenko, Pavel V. Barkov
      First page: 335
      Abstract: The physicochemical nature of the amino group NH2’s landing on the basal plane of the graphene and on the edge atoms of the graphene nanomesh was revealed. The mechanism of covalent binding between the NH2 groups and the carbon atoms of the graphene and the GNM was discovered in silico by the SCC DFTB method. The maximum amount ratio of the amino groups to carbon atoms equaled 4.8% for GNM and 4.6% for the basal plane. The established values of the concentration and the trend of change in the work function of electrons are experimentally confirmed.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110335
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 336: Effects of Adding Cinnamon, ZnO, and
           CuO Nanoparticles on the Antibacterial Properties of a Glass Ionomer
           Cement as the Luting Agent for Orthodontic Bands and Their Cytotoxicity

    • Authors: Hooman Shafaee, Haida Khosropanah, Hamidreza Rahimi, Majid Darroudi, Abdolrasoul Rangrazi
      First page: 336
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding cinnamon nanoparticles (NPs), Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and Copper oxide (CuO) NPs on the antibacterial property of a luting and lining glass ionomer cement (GIC) that was used for the cementation of orthodontic bands to the tooth. Cinnamon NPs, ZnO NPs, and CuO NPs were added into a luting and lining GIC in weight percentages of 1%, 2%, and 4%, respectively while a non-modified GIC was considered as the control group. Agar disc diffusion test was applied to assess the antimicrobial property of samples against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was examined through the MTT assay for gingival fibroblasts. Data showed that GIC containing cinnamon and ZnO NPs displayed a larger inhibition zone diameter and greater antibacterial activity against S. mutans than CuO NPs. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in the inhibition zone diameter of cinnamon NPs and ZnO NPs. The cytotoxicity assessment revealed the lower cytotoxicity of cinnamon NPs and the higher cytotoxicity of CuO NPs while the cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs was observed to be higher than cinnamon NPs and lower than CuO NPs. GIC containing cinnamon NPs exhibited noticeable antibacterial activity against S. mutans and cinnamon NPs revealed less cytotoxicity and it is can be labeled as a favorable option for further assessment to be applied in fixed orthodontic treatments for the cementation of bands to teeth.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110336
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 337: The Enhanced Moisture Absorption and
           Tensile Strength of PVA/Uncaria gambir Extract by Boric Acid as a Highly
           Moisture-Resistant, Anti-UV, and Strong Film for Food Packaging
           Applications

    • Authors: Dieter Rahmadiawan, Hairul Abral, Razan Muhammad Railis, Ilham Chayri Iby, Melbi Mahardika, Dian Handayani, Khiky Dwi Natrana, Dian Juliadmi, Fazhar Akbar
      First page: 337
      Abstract: There is an increasing demand for food packaging materials that are safe for the environment and human health. Pure polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film is non-toxic and transparent but has poor UV-light shielding, thermal and moisture resistance, and antibacterial activity. Our previous work prepared and characterized a biofilm derived from PVA and edible Uncaria gambir extract (UG). The film has antibacterial properties and is anti-UV and flexible. However, UG is hydrophilic, making this film have low moisture absorption. To improve these properties, we trialed adding boric acid (BA) and UG into the PVA. This present study aims to characterize pure PVA film and blend films resulting from mixing PVA (10%), BA (0.5%), and UG (1%). It was found that the PVA/UG/BA film presented the best performance in terms of UV light absorption, tensile properties, thermal and moisture resistance, and antibacterial activity. This blend sample absorbs about 98% of the UV light at 400 nm wavelength without significantly sacrificing transparency. These findings indicate that UG and BA could be advantageous in the preparation of moisture and thermal-resistant UV shielding films with low toxicity and high antibacterial properties based on PVA. They were also found to be strong enough for food packaging applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110337
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 338: Behavior of Pultruded
           Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Beam-Columns Infilled with Engineered
           Cementitious Composites under Cyclic Loading

    • Authors: Yoganantham Chinnasamy, Philip Saratha Joanna, Karthikeyan Kothanda, Beulah Gnana Ananthi Gurupatham, Krishanu Roy
      First page: 338
      Abstract: Glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) is an advanced material that has superior corrosion resistance, a high strength-to-weight ratio, low thermal conductivity, high stiffness, high fatigue strength, and the ability to resist chemical and microbiological compounds. Despite their many advantages compared with traditional materials, GFRP sections exhibit brittle behavior when subjected to severe loading conditions such as earthquakes, which could be overcome by infilling the GFRP sections with concrete. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out on the cyclic response of a GFRP beam-column infilled with high-volume fly ash engineered cementitious composites (HVFA-ECC) consisting of 60%, 70%, and 80% fly ash as a replacement for cement. Finite element analysis was also conducted using robot structural analysis software, and the results were compared with the experimental results. The mechanical properties of GFRP sections presented are the compressive strength of ECC, the direct tensile strength of ECC determined using a dog-bone-shaped ECC specimen, the hysteresis behavior of the beam-column, and the energy dissipation characteristics. The lateral load-carrying capacity of beam-column GFRP infilled with HVFA-ECC consisting of 60%, 70%, and 80% fly ash was found to be, respectively, 43%, 31%, and 20% higher than the capacity of GFRP beam-columns without any infill. Hence the GFRP sections infilled with HVFA-ECC could be used as lightweight structural components in buildings to be constructed in earthquake-prone areas. Also in the structural components, as 70% of cement could be replaced with fly ash, it can potentially lead to sustainable construction.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110338
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 339: Optimization and Prediction of
           Mechanical Characteristics on Vacuum Sintered Ti-6Al-4V-SiCp Composites
           Using Taguchi’s Design of Experiments, Response Surface Methodology
           and Random Forest Regression

    • Authors: Adithya Lokesh Hegde, Raviraj Shetty, Dundesh S Chiniwar, Nithesh Naik, Madhukara Nayak
      First page: 339
      Abstract: Today, among emerging materials, metal matrix composites, due to their excellent properties, have an increasing demand in the field of aerospace and automotive industries. However, the difficulties associated with the processing of these composites have been a challenge to manufacturing industries due to inhomogeneous mixing of the matrix with the reinforcement, oxidation, and microstructural phase transformation during processing. Hence, in this paper, Ti-6Al-4V reinforced with SiCp has been processed through a specially developed compression molding, followed by vacuum sintering. The main objective of this paper was to determine the favorable vacuum sintering conditions for Ti-6Al-4V reinforced with 15 Wt. % SiCp composites under a different aging temperature (°C), aging time (h), heating rate (°C/min), and cooling rate (°C /min) to improve the process output parameters such as the hardness, surface roughness, and to reduce the porosity using Taguchi’s Design of Experiments. Finally, the response surface methodology and random forest regression have been used to predict the optimum process output parameters. From the extensive experimentation and understanding gained from Taguchi’s Design of Experiments, the response surface methodology and random tree regression approach can be successfully used to predict the hardness, porosity, and surface roughness during the processing of Ti-6Al-4V-SiCp composites.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110339
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 340: Biomimetic Hierarchical Nanocomposite
           Hydrogels: From Design to Biomedical Applications

    • Authors: Zhi Yao, Jiankun Xu, Jun Shen, Ling Qin, Weihao Yuan
      First page: 340
      Abstract: Natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is highly heterogeneous and anisotropic due to the existence of biomacromolecule bundles and pores. Hydrogels have been proposed as ideal carriers for therapeutic cells and drugs in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, most of the homogeneous and isotropic hydrogels cannot fully emulate the hierarchical properties of natural ECM, including the dynamically spatiotemporal distributions of biochemical and biomechanical signals. Biomimetic hierarchical nanocomposite hydrogels have emerged as potential candidates to better recapitulate natural ECM by introducing various nanostructures, such as nanoparticles, nanorods, and nanofibers. Moreover, the nanostructures in nanocomposite hydrogels can be engineered as stimuli-responsive actuators to realize the desirable control of hydrogel properties, thereby manipulating the behaviors of the encapsulated cells upon appropriate external stimuli. In this review, we present a comprehensive summary of the main strategies to construct biomimetic hierarchical nanocomposite hydrogels with an emphasis on the rational design of local hydrogel properties and their stimuli-responsibility. We then highlight cell fate decisions in engineered nanocomposite niches and their recent development and challenges in biomedical applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110340
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 341: Comparison of the Estimation Ability
           of the Tensile Index of Paper Impregnated by UF-Modified Starch Adhesive
           Using ANFIS and MLR

    • Authors: Morteza Nazerian, Hossin Ranjbar Kashi, Hamidreza Rudi, Antonios N. Papadopoulos, Elham Vatankhah, Dafni Foti, Hossin Kermaniyan
      First page: 341
      Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to offer an optimal model to predict the tensile index of the paper being consumed to make veneer impregnated with different weight ratios of modified starch (from 3.18 to 36.8%) to urea formaldehyde resin (WR) containing different formaldehyde to urea molar ratios (MR, from 1.16:1 to 2.84:1) enriched by different contents of silicon nano-oxide (NC, from 0 to 4%) using multiple linear regression (MLR) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and compare the precision of these two models to estimate the response being examined (tensile index). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) were also used to analyze the results. The results of studying the adhesive structure using FTIR analysis showed that as the WR increased to the maximum level and MR increased to the average level (3%), more ether and methylene linkage forms due to cross-linking. TEM analysis also indicated that if an average level of silicon nano-oxide is applied, there will be more cross-linking due to the more uniform distribution and suitable interactions between the adhesive and nanoparticles. The modeling results showed that the ANFIS model estimates have been closer to the actual values compared to the MLR model. It can be concluded that the model offered by ANFIS has a higher potential to predict the tensile index of the paper impregnated with the combined adhesive of UF resin and modified starch. However, the MLR model could not offer a good estimate to predict the response. According to the preferred approach to predict the most effective property of resin coated paper, modelling would be useful to the research community and the results are beneficial in industrial applications without spending more cost and time.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110341
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 342: Application of Biocomposite Films of
           Chitosan/Natural Active Compounds for Shelf Life Extension of Fresh
           Poultry Meat

    • Authors: João Ricardo Afonso Pires, Karen Miranda Almeida, Ana Sofia Augusto, Érica Torrido Vieira, Ana Luísa Fernando, Victor Gomes Lauriano Souza
      First page: 342
      Abstract: Active packaging based on chitosan (Ch) incorporated with six different natural hydro-alcoholic extracts (HAE) (rosemary, green tea, black tea, ginger, kenaf, and sage) were developed and tested to extend the shelf life of fresh poultry meat. The quality of the meat packaged was assessed through physical-chemical and microbiological characterization over 15 days of refrigerated storage. In vitro antimicrobial activity of pure extracts and films against Gram-positive (B. cereus) and Gram-negative (S. enterica) foodborne bacteria was also addressed. Pure extracts and the films developed showed antimicrobial activity by the diffusion agar method only against the Gram-positive bacteria. Microbial analysis of the meat wrapped with films incorporated with HAE showed a reduction of 3.1–4.5 log CFU/g and 2.5–4.0 log CFU/g on the total viable microorganisms and total coliforms, respectively. Ch + Kenaf and Ch + Sage films presented the highest antimicrobial activity. Regarding the oxidation degradation, as expected, TBARS values increased for all samples over time. However, the meat wrapped in the biocomposites, except for CH + Sage, presented lower secondary oxidation metabolites (reduction of 75–93%) in the content of malonaldehyde. This protection was superior for the meat wrapped with Ch + Rosemary. Active film also showed promising results by retarding the discoloration process and the increase of pH over time. Thus, the biocomposites produced can pose as an alternative technology to enhance the shelf life of fresh poultry meat and maintain its quality.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110342
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 343: Digital Manufacture of a Continuous
           Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Matrix Truss Core Structural Panel Using
           Off-the-Tool Consolidation

    • Authors: Mark E. Bourgeois, Donald W. Radford
      First page: 343
      Abstract: Sandwich panels are commonly used as structure, based on fiber reinforced composites, with the goal of high flexural stiffness and low mass. It is most common to separate two high performance composite facesheets with a low-density core, generally in the form of a foam or honeycomb. A recent concept has been to replace these traditional core materials with fiber reinforced truss-like structures, with the goal of further reducing mass. A system is described that can radically reduce the amount of tooling required for truss core sandwich panel manufacture. This system, which is a digital manufacturing platform for the extrusion of continuous fiber reinforced commingled glass fiber/PET tow, was developed to demonstrate the rigidization of composites both on, and off, a tool surface. Navtruss core panels were successfully manufactured using this digital manufacturing platform, without conventional tooling, and the resulting through thickness compression moduli and panel shear moduli were within 14.6% and 23% of the values baseline compression molded specimens. Thus, the results suggest that, with further development, complex truss core structures with performance approaching that of compression molded panels can be manufactured with radically reduced tooling requirements from high volume fraction, continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110343
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 344: A Better Understanding of the SBA-15
           Pores Filling through Textural Changes in CMK-3 Carbon Synthesis and Its
           CO2:CH4 Adsorption Selectivity

    • Authors: Karla Quiroz-Estrada, Marcos Esparza-Schulz, Carlos Felipe
      First page: 344
      Abstract: This text reports the morphological and textural behavior of the synthesis stages of a CMK-3 carbon type using a silicon matrix of the SBA-15 type calcined at 823 K as a template. During the synthesis, three intermediate materials were obtained because of (i) the addition of sucrose to the SBA-15 template (CCMK3-1st), (ii) the addition of sucrose to the CCMK3-1st material (CCMK3-2nd), and (iii) the carbonization by pyrolysis of the by-product CCMK3-2nd (CCMK3-F). The texture of the above materials was found by analyzing the N2 adsorption isotherms, applying the classical adsorption theories to obtain the BET-specific surface and the meso- and micropore distributions by the BJH and Dubinin–Astakhov (DA) methods, respectively, in addition to the non-localized density functional theory (NLDFT). Similarly, with high resolution, the samples were analyzed morphologically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the adsorption isotherms of CO2 and CH4 of the CMK-3 sample were obtained at six different temperatures in the interval of 243 to 303 K to evaluate the behavior of the isosteric enthalpy of adsorption (qst) and its CO2:CH4 ideal selectivity. The final CMK-3 carbon presented two families of micro- and mesopores of 1.5 and 3.2 nm, nanopipe diameters of 3.5 nm, and a specific surface area of 1350 m2/g. It also presented values of 6.0 and 2.4 mmol/g adsorbed CO2 and CH4 at 243 K, respectively, and strong intermolecular interactions, with qst values higher than 22 kJ/mol reflected in high selectivity values for an ideal mixture of CO2:CH4 (30:70%).
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110344
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 345: Electrical and Magnetic Properties of
           3D Printed Integrated Conductive Biodegradable Polymer Nanocomposites for
           Sustainable Electronics Development

    • Authors: Rajveer Mudhar, Andiol Mucolli, Jim Ford, Cristian Lira, Hamed Yazdani Yazdani Nezhad
      First page: 345
      Abstract: This article reports research on the development and implementation of new methods for structurally integrated and recyclable polymer based electronic products via multi-head fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing. The focus of this research is to propose an efficient FDM-3D printing process utilising multiple filaments with no interruption of the process to ensure the multi-material electronic product achieved is structurally integrated. Such research is an attempt towards development of recyclable rigid electronic structures via multi-material 3D printing, i.e., multiple conductive nanomaterial embedded thermoplastic and non-conductive thermoplastic layers (in coil forms, herein). Six radio frequency identification (RFID) tag coil geometries were selected for the study. The thermoplastic polymer used in this research was polylactic acid (PLA), and the conductive filament was carbon black nanoparticle embedded PLA at approx. 21 wt.%. The nozzle and filaments diameters examined were 1.75 mm. A MakerBot Replicator 2X 3D printer was partially disassembled to be equipped with a dual head, for our examinations. The research investigated the major challenges ahead of the proposed development, mainly, on the deteriorating effects on the quality of the integrated product (structural integrity, electric and magnetic properties) induced by the 3D printing process parameters (e.g., temperature). The most efficient nozzle and bed temperatures to prevent visible defects were found to be higher than the supplier’s recommendation, attributed to the uncertainties associated with the multi-material composition, and were found to require 248 °C and 100 °C for reliable and continued FDM printing, respectively. The measurements on the electric and magnetic properties, using 4-wire resistance and Hall effect method, respectively, were conducted to quantify process induced deteriorating effects, quantitatively. It has been examined whether the multi-material electronic structure can be achieved via uninterrupted (continuous) processing of polymer nanocomposite-based identification systems for recyclability purpose whilst maintaining the electromagnetic properties of it, a promising technology for reducing landfill. Recommendations were identified for best practices behind such development.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110345
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 346: Theory of Magnetoelectric Effect for
           Three-Layer Piezo-Magnetostrictive Asymmetric Composites

    • Authors: Dmitry Filippov, Ying Liu, Peng Zhou, Bingfeng Ge, Jiahui Liu, Jitao Zhang, Tinajing Zhang, Gopalan Srinivasan
      First page: 346
      Abstract: Here, we discuss a model for the quasi-static magnetoelectric (ME) interaction in three-layer composites consisting of a single piezoelectric (PE) layer and two magnetostrictive (MS) layers with positive and negative magnetostriction. Two types of layer arrangements are considered: Type 1: a sandwich structure with the PE layer between the two MS layers and Type 2: the two MS layers form the adjacent layers. Expressions for the ME response are obtained using the system of equations of elasto- and electrostatics for the PE and MS phases. The contributions from longitudinal and bending vibrations to the net ME response are considered. The theory is applied for trilayers consisting of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), nickel for negative magnetostriction, and Metglas for positive magnetostriction. Estimates of the dependence of the strength of the ME response on the thickness of the three layers are provided. It is shown that the asymmetric three-layer structures of both types lead to an increase in the strength of ME interactions by almost an order of magnitude compared to a two-layer piezoelectric-magnetostrictive structure. The model predicts a much stronger ME response in Type 2 structures than in Type 1. The theory discussed here is of importance for designing composites for applications such as magnetic field sensors, gyrators, and energy harvesters.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110346
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 347: Sparsely Cross-Linked Hydrogel with
           Starch Fragments as a Multifunctional Soil Conditioner

    • Authors: Leonid O. Ilyasov, Irina G. Panova, Petr O. Kushchev, Andrey A. Belov, Irina A. Maksimova, Andrey V. Smagin, Alexander A. Yaroslavov
      First page: 347
      Abstract: A sparsely cross-linked copolymer was synthesized, and was composed of acrylic acid, acrylamide, and starch. Swelling of the copolymer in an aqueous solution resulted in the formation of hydrogel particles; this formulation was used as a partially biodegradable soil conditioner. The hydrogel was characterized with the following main conclusions: (a) the degree of copolymer swelling increases from 300 to 550 when altering the pH of the solution from 3 to 9. (b) After mixing with sand and soil, the degree of swelling decreases because of restricted volumes of sand/soil-filled containers and a mechanical resistance from the sand/soil particles. (c) Initial sand and soil additions demonstrate unsatisfactory water-retaining properties; the addition of the hydrogel significantly increases the maximum water capacity, while a substantial part of the water in the hydrogel remains available to plants. (d) Upon deposition of the hydrogel formulation over sand/soil and drying out, a protective coating forms on the surface, composed of hydrogel and sand/soil particles, resistant to wind and water erosion. (e) The starch-containing hydrogel is non-toxic towards bacterial and fungal microorganisms; the latter can utilize the microgel in order to support their own development. The results of the work indicate that cross-linked anionic copolymers are promising for use as combined soil conditioners.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110347
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 348: Seismic Composite Metamaterial: A
           Review

    • Authors: Al-Shami Qahtan, Jiankun Huang, Mugahed Amran, Diyar N. Qader, Roman Fediuk, Al-Dhabir Wael
      First page: 348
      Abstract: The modern construction revolution throughout the past two decades has brought the need for ground vibration mitigation, and this has been one of the major study areas. These studies were mainly focused on the effect of forestation on vibration reduction as the available natural metamaterial. Physical methods such as the finite element method and the boundary conditions of 2D and 3D applications in ground vibration reduction have been developed. Many researchers, scientists, and organizations in this field have emphasized the importance of these methods theoretically and numerically. This paper presents the historical context of resonant metamaterials (MMs), the current progress of periodic 2D and 3D structures, and the possible future outcomes from the seismic metamaterials (SMs), and it relates them with their elastic counterparts to the natural metamaterial (NMs). The idea of bandgaps (FBGs) in the frequency range of interest is reviewed and discussed in some detail. Moreover, the attenuation associated with ground vibrations, noise, seismology, and the like is explained by managing the peculiar mechanisms of ground vibrations. However, a comprehensive computational review focuses on shielding MMs for ground vibration mitigation in urban areas. This phenomenon led to unique features for various techniques to control the bandgap width for various construction applications. Ecological solutions involve the creation of an economic, environmentally based seismic shield for both the Bragg scattering and the local resonance bandgaps. Reportedly, additive studies based on numerical simulation and experiments have improved the functionality of the 2D and 3D periodic structures. It was found that the mechanical properties differ (i.e., stiffness, Poisson’s ratio, and bulk density) and that the geometrical parameters (i.e., lattice, model dimensions, distance from vibration sources, and number of periodic structures) exhibited strong effects on the width and location of the derived FBGs. The geometrical properties of the used unit cell have a strong effect on the attenuation mechanism. Although deep analysis was created in much of the previous research, it was revealed, based on that research, that the attenuation mechanism is still unclear. However, this review article presents a detailed exposition of the recent research progress of the seismic metamaterials, including 2D, 3D, and the main mechanisms of the theoretical backgrounds of energy attenuation. It also summarizes the effects of the factors on the width and location of the bandgaps at a low frequency. In addition, the natural metamaterials and the study of the urban environment are surveyed. The major findings of this review involve the effectiveness of NMs for different functionalities in ground vibration attenuation, which leads to diverse purposes and applications and proposes a roadmap for developing natural materials for clean and quiet environments.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110348
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 349: Studies of the Application of
           Electrically Conductive Composite Copper Films to Cotton Fabrics

    • Authors: Ramshad Abzhalov, Malik Sataev, Shaizada Koshkarbayeva, Guzaliya Sagitova, Bakyt Smailov, Abdugani Azimov, Bagdagul Serikbaeva, Olga Kolesnikova, Roman Fediuk, Mugahed Amran
      First page: 349
      Abstract: This paper presents a technology for applying copper and silver films to cotton fabrics by combining photochemical and chemical methods for the reduction of the compounds of these metals. The resulting metal-containing films have inherent electrical conductivity of metals. All the main processes described in the work were carried out by means of the compounds being sorbed by the surface of the fabric when they were wetted in appropriate solutions. The aim of the work was to study the application of electrically conductive composite copper films on cotton fabrics. The tasks to achieve this aim were to perform scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm that as a result of the experiment, CuCl with a semiconductor ability was formed on the surface of the sample. The driving force behind the photochemical reduction of copper and silver halides on cotton surfaces is that, as a result of the photooxidation of cellulose molecules in the fabric, copper monochloride is first formed on the cotton surface. Subsequently, the process of obtaining silver particles based on semiconductor silver chloride obtained as a result of the transformation of copper monochloride was carried out. The physicochemical and photochemical processes leading to the formation of monovalent copper chloride, which provides sufficient adhesion to the substrate, are considered. It is shown that in this case, the oxidation of monovalent copper also occurs with the formation of soluble salts that are easily removed by washing. Since the proposed technology does not require special equipment, and the chemical reagents used are not scarce, it can be used to apply bactericidal silver films to various household items and medical applications in ordinary laundries or at home. This article examines an affordable and simple technology for producing metal films on a cotton surface due to the presence of disadvantages (time duration, high temperature, scarce reagents, special installations, etc.) of a number of well-known methods in the production of chemical coatings.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110349
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 350: Composites for Aqueous-Mediated
           Heterogeneously Catalyzed Degradation and Mineralization of Water
           Pollutants on TiO2—A Review

    • Authors: Madappa C. Maridevaru, Andrea Sorrentino, Belqasem Aljafari, Sambandam Anandan
      First page: 350
      Abstract: Wastewater incorporates a wide range of organic toxins, which have an adverse impact on the health of humans and other living things. In recent years, nanotechnology has promoted effective strategies for the photodegradation of industrial organic toxins and tenacious medical contaminants present in wastewater. Advanced composites based on photocatalysts can provide promising solutions for environmental cleanup without generating hazardous byproducts, because they promote the complete oxidation of contaminants. This survey article recaps the essentials of heterogeneous catalysis. Among the major players in heterogeneous catalysis, the metal oxide catalyst (e.g., TiO2) groups cover photocatalysis of water toxins such as dyes, harmful organic molecules, and pharmaceutical contamination. The reasons for the proposal of TiO2 as an active filler for heterogeneous photocatalysts include its superior surface area, significant activity for distinct oxidation and reduction reactions at low temperatures and pressures, effective interaction with metal supports, and chemical stability. Because of the aforementioned features, heterogeneous TiO2 catalysts have a lot of potential in photocatalyst applications, and they can be improved even further by doping them with anionic or cationic dopants.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110350
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 351: Optical Detection of Void Formation
           

    • Authors: Benedikt Neitzel, Florian Puch
      First page: 351
      Abstract: During the impregnation of reinforcement fabrics in liquid composite molding processes, the flow within fiber bundles and the channels between the fiber bundles usually advances at different velocities. This so-called “dual-scale flow” results in void formation inside the composite material and has a negative effect on its mechanical properties. Semi-empirical models can be applied to calculate the extent of the dual-scale flow. In this study, a methodology is presented that stops the impregnation of reinforcement fabrics at different filling levels by using a photo-reactive resin system. By means of optical evaluation, the theoretical calculation models of the dual-scale flow are validated metrologically. The results show increasingly distinct dual-scale flow effects with increasing pressure gradients. The methodology enables the measurability of microscopic differences in flow front progression to validate renowned theoretical models and compare simulations to measurements of applied injection processes.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110351
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 352: Hybrid Polyethylene Composites with
           Recycled Carbon Fibres and Hemp Fibres Produced by Rotational Moulding

    • Authors: Maria Oliveira, Kim L. Pickering, Christian Gauss
      First page: 352
      Abstract: This study assessed polyethene composites produced by rotational moulding with hybrid reinforcement using recycled carbon fibre (RCF) and hemp fibre (HF). First, the RCF was treated with nitric acid to introduce hydroxyl groups on the fibres’ surface and was characterised by infrared spectroscopy and microscopy analyses. Although the fibre surface treatment improved the tensile properties of the composites, the use of grafted maleic anhydride polyethylene (MAPE) as a coupling agent was more effective in improving the interfacial bonding between the fibres and the matrix. Alkali-treated hemp fibres were then used in combination with RCF to produce rotationally moulded composites with an overall fibre content of 10 wt.% but with different ratios of HF/RCF, namely, (20/80) and (50/50). The results showed that the addition of RCF increased the composite’s Young’s modulus compared to neat PE, regardless of the fibre treatment. Similarly, the hybrid composites showed superior Young’s moduli than the HF–PE composites through the increase in the RCF content. It was also observed that adding RCF reduced the void size within the final composites compared to the HF–PE composites, which contributed to the greater performance of the hybrid composites compared to their natural counterparts.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6110352
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 279: Optimal Modified Starch Content in UF
           Resin for Glulam Based on Bonding Strength Using Artificial Neural Network
           

    • Authors: Morteza Nazerian, Masood Akbarzade, Payam Ghorbanezdad, Antonios N. Papadopoulos, Elham Vatankhah, Dafni Foti, Mojtaba Koosha
      First page: 279
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to present an application of the artificial neural network (ANN) that predicts the bonding strength of glulam manufactured from plane tree (Platanus orientalis L.) wood layers adhered with a combination of modified starch adhesive and UF resin. Bonding strength was measured at different weight ratios containing different values of nano-zinc oxide as an additive under different conditions of press temperature and press time. As a part of the research, an experimental design was determined. According to that, the glulam specimens were fabricated, the bonding strength of specimens was measured, and the results were statistically analyzed. Then, a model was developed to predict bonding strength using the artificial neural network (ANN) technique. To describe the results, FTIR and TGA tests were also conducted. The experimental results show that the maximum bonding strength values were obtained when the WR was at the middle level (50%), nano-zinc oxide content was at a maximum (4%), and press temperature and press time were fixed at 200 °C and 22 min, respectively. The ANN results agreed well with the experimental results. It became clear that the prediction errors were in an acceptable range. The results indicate that the developed ANN model could predict the bonding strength well with an acceptable error.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100279
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 280: Preparation of Nanochitin from
           Crickets and Comparison with That from Crab Shells

    • Authors: Kana Kishida, Toshifumi Mizuta, Hironori Izawa, Shinsuke Ifuku
      First page: 280
      Abstract: Crickets are gaining worldwide attention as a nutrient source with a low environmental impact. We considered crickets as a new source of chitin raw material. Chitin isolated from crickets was successfully converted to nanochitin by pulverization. First, chitin was obtained from cricket powder in a 2.6% yield through a series of chemical treatments. Chitin identification was confirmed by FT-IR and 13C NMR. The chitin had an α-type crystal structure and a deacetylation degree of 12%. Next, it was pulverized in a disk mill to obtain nanochitin. Cricket nanochitin was of a whisker shape, with an average fiber width of 10.1 nm. It was larger than that of crab shells, while the hydrodynamic diameter and crystal size were smaller. Such differences in shape affected the physical properties of the dispersion. The transmittance was higher than that of crab nanochitin due to the size effect, and the viscosity was smaller. Moreover, the dry non-woven cricket nanochitin sheets were more densely packed, and their modulus and breaking strength were greater.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100280
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 281: The Effects of Air-Entraining Agent on
           Fresh and Hardened Properties of 3D Concrete

    • Authors: Ella Spurina, Maris Sinka, Krists Ziemelis, Andris Vanags, Diana Bajare
      First page: 281
      Abstract: Three-dimensional concrete printing (3DCP) is becoming more common in the construction industry nowadays; however, the aspect of durability of printed concrete is not well-studied yet. Frost resistance is a very important factor for durability of concrete structures located in northern regions. Since air-entraining agents (AEAs) are widely used in conventional concrete, this paper focuses on exploring the potential of using AEAs in 3D concrete as well—the main objective is to determine how it affects fresh and hardened properties, including frost resistance of 3D concrete. Three different mixes were printed and cast—the dry mix consisted of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), limestone filler (LF), sand, as well as viscosity modifying agent (VMA) and superplasticizer (SP). Two mixes contained different amounts of AEA, the third one was used as reference. First, fresh state properties were tested—air content, density, and mini cone flow test. Second, 28-day compressive and flexural strength tests were carried out; bulk and particle densities were also determined. Next, both cast and printed concrete samples were subject to freeze–thaw cycles according to provisions of CEN/TS 12390-9, mass loss due to surface scaling was determined for each sample. As a result, printed concrete samples containing AEA in the amount of 0.06% of binder mass showed the highest frost resistance—addition of AEA decreased both flexural and compressive strength of this printed concrete mix by 30–40%. To conclude, the obtained results give an insight of how addition of AEA to printed concrete mix affects its properties both in long and short term. Further research of certain aspects, for instance, the air void system and pore distribution is needed to gain a deeper understanding on how to increase durability of 3D concrete.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100281
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 282: Surface Damage in Woven Carbon
           Composite Panels under Orthogonal and Inclined High-Velocity Impacts

    • Authors: Veronica Marchante Rodriguez, Marzio Grasso, Yifan Zhao, Haochen Liu, Kailun Deng, Andrew Roberts, Gareth James Appleby-Thomas
      First page: 282
      Abstract: The present research is aimed at the study of the failure analysis of composite panels impacted orthogonally at a high velocity and with an angle. Woven carbon-fibre panels with and without external Kevlar layers were impacted at different energy levels between 1.2 and 39.9 J. Sharp and smooth gravels with a mass from 3.1 to 6.7 g were used to investigate the effects of the mass and the contact area on the damage. Optical microscopy and thermography analyses were carried out to identify internal and surface damage. It was identified that sharp impactors created more damage on the impacted face of the panels, while the presence of a Kevlar layer increased the penetration limit and reduced the damage level in the panel at a higher energy.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100282
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 283: A Review on the Optimization of the
           Mechanical Properties of Sugarcane-Bagasse-Ash-Integrated Concretes

    • Authors: Nisala Prabhath, Buddhika Sampath Kumara, Vimukkthi Vithanage, Amalka Indupama Samarathunga, Natasha Sewwandi, Kaveendra Maduwantha, Madawa Madusanka, Kaveenga Koswattage
      First page: 283
      Abstract: Leading sugar-producing nations have been generating high volumes of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) as a by-product. SCBA has the potential to be used as a partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in concrete, from thereby, mitigating several adverse environmental effects of cement while keeping the cost of concrete low. The majority of the microstructure of SCBA is composed of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 compounds, which can provide pozzolanic properties to SCBA. In this paper, literature on the enhancement of the mechanical properties of SCBA-incorporating concrete is analyzed. Corresponding process parameters of the SCBA production process and properties of SCBA are compared in order to identify relationships between the entities. Furthermore, methods, including sieving, post-heating, and grinding, can be used to improve pozzolanic properties of SCBA, through which the ideal SCBA material parameters for concrete can be identified. Evidence in the literature on the carbon footprint of the cement industry is utilized to discuss the possibility of reducing CO2 emissions by using SCBA, which could pave the way to a more sustainable approach in the construction industry. A review of the available research conducted on concrete with several partial replacement percentages of SCBA for OPC is discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100283
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 284: Comparison of Structural Performance
           and Environmental Impact of Epoxy Composites Modified by Glass and Flax
           Fabrics

    • Authors: Georgios Koronis, Arlindo Silva, Michael Ong
      First page: 284
      Abstract: Comparing the structural performance and environmental impact of parts made of natural and synthetic fibers has become increasingly important for industry and education, as the benefits of one type of fiber over another are not always clear. The current work discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using natural and synthetic fibers and compares the flexural performance of parts made of each of these fibers and their environmental impact. This paper investigates the flexural behavior of epoxy composites modified by glass and flax fabrics through experimental, numerical, and analytical studies. Specimens with various fabrics (dried and non-dried) were fabricated to test their performance. The failure of unidirectional glass and flax fiber reinforced polymer composite laminate was examined by destructive testing. A finite-element model was developed, and the mechanical behaviors of fiber-reinforced composites were predicted in a three-point bending test. Experimental results were compared to numerical analysis to validate the model’s accuracy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was employed to determine the climate impact of composite production. The analysis revealed a decreased environmental effect of plant-based panels suggesting that they are less energy and CO2 intensive than synthetic solutions. The LCA model can be applied in further studies of products that consist of or use flax-based composites.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100284
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 285: A Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory
           for Natural Frequencies Study of Functionally Graded Plates on Elastic
           Supports

    • Authors: Fatima Zohra Zaoui, Djamel Ouinas, Belkacem Achour, Abdelouahed Tounsi, Enamur R. Latifee, Ahmed A. Alawi Al-Naghi
      First page: 285
      Abstract: This study presents a hyperbolic shear deformation theory for free vibration of functionally graded plates on elastic foundations. The field of displacements is chosen based on the assumptions that axial and transverse displacements consist of components due to bending and shear. The components of the axial shear displacements give rise to the parabolic variation in the shear strain through the thickness, such that the shear stresses vanish on the plate boundaries. Therefore, the shear correction factor is not necessary. The material properties of the functionally graded plate are assumed to vary through the thickness according to the power law of the volume fraction of the constituents. The elastic foundation is modeled as a Pasternak foundation. The equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle. The analytical solutions were established from Navier’s approach, and the results obtained are found to be in good agreement with the solutions of three-dimensional elasticity and with the solutions of the various plate theories. The effects of the power law index, the thickness ratio, and the foundation parameters on the natural frequency of the plates were also evaluated.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100285
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 286: Electrochemical Studies of the
           

    • Authors: Peter Ikubanni, Makanjuola Oki, Adekunle Adeleke, Olanrewaju Adesina, Peter Omoniyi, Esther Akinlabi
      First page: 286
      Abstract: The corrosion behavior of metal matrix composites (MMCs) is accelerated by the inclusion of reinforcements. Hence, this study investigates the corrosion behavior of MMCs produced from Al 6063 matrix alloy with reinforcement particulates of silicon carbide (SiC) and palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) inclusion at different mix ratios. The MMCs were synthesized using the double stir casting technique. The corrosion behaviors of the composites in NaCl solutions were studied via gravimetric analysis and electrochemical measurements. The gravimetric analysis showed fluctuating dissolution rate of the samples in NaCl solution to indicate flawed film as well as corrosion product formation over the surface of the specimens. The observed corrosion mechanism of the samples was general and pitting corrosion. The presence of reinforcements within the Al6063 matrix acted as active sites for corrosion initiation. The range of values for Ecorr and Icorr obtained in 3.5% NaCl at 24 h was between −220.62 and −899.46 mV and between 5.45 and 40.87 µA/cm2, respectively, while at 72 h, the Ecorr values ranged from 255.88 to −887.28 mV, and the Icorr ranged from 7.19 to 16.85 µA/cm2. The Nyquist and Bode plots revealed the electrochemical corrosion behavior of the samples under investigation, with predominant reactions on the surface of the samples linked to charge transfer processes. The relative resistance to corrosion of the samples depends on the thin oxide film formed on the surface of the samples.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100286
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 287: Damage Analysis of Thermoplastic
           Composites with Embedded Metal Inserts Using In Situ Computed Tomography

    • Authors: Juliane Troschitz, René Füßel, Robert Kupfer, Maik Gude
      First page: 287
      Abstract: Thermoplastic composites (TPCs) are predestined for use in lightweight structures, for example, in automotive engineering, due to their good specific mechanical properties. In many areas of lightweight design, the use of metal inserts for load introduction into composite structures has become established. The inserts can be embedded during composite manufacturing without fibre damage. The technology is based on the concept of moulding holes with a pin tool and simultaneously placing the insert in the moulded hole. The embedding process results in a complex material structure in the joining zone with inhomogeneous three-dimensional fibre orientation and locally varying fibre content. The local material structure has a significant influence on the mechanical behaviour of the joining zone. For this reason, in situ computed tomography (CT) analyses are conducted in this work for a better understanding of the damage behaviour in the joining zone. In situ CT push-out tests were carried in the two thickness directions of along and opposed to the direction of the embedding process. The characteristic local material structure in the joining zone led to direction-dependent damage behaviour based on different failure modes.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100287
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 288: Strength and Deformation
           Characteristics of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite Wrapped Aluminium
           Foam Beams

    • Authors: Zhizheng Zhang, Peter Myler, Erping Zhou, Ruifeng Zhou
      First page: 288
      Abstract: Sandwich structures fabricated from an aluminium skinned foam enclosed within a carbon fibre reinforced composite structure have the potential application for high-performance on- and off-road automotive vehicles. The deformations and failure of these types of structures are presented, and results indicate that the application of aluminium face sheets with aluminium foam (AF) aids to prevent the delamination of the outer layers of carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP). The load carrying capacity has been increased by utilising a manufacturing method to maintain the adhesion between the core and the skins until the failure stage is reached. The core shear and de-bonded issue associated with this type of sandwich structure can be addressed by this manufacture method. The peak average flexure load capacity of an aluminium foam sandwich structure (AFSS) with a completely wrapped around CFRP skin was 2800 N with a mass of 191 g. This compares favourably with previously used AFSS without the skins, which had a peak average load of 600 N and a mass of 125 g. An initial finite element model for comparison purposes has been developed to represent the structure’s behaviour and predict the associated failure loads. It is proposed that CFRP wrapped around AFSS enhances the structural performance without significant weight gain.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100288
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 289: Technical and Economic Viability of
           Distributed Recycling of Low-Density Polyethylene Water Sachets into Waste
           Composite Pavement Blocks

    • Authors: Celestin Tsala-Mbala, Koami Soulemane Hayibo, Theresa K. Meyer, Nadine Couao-Zotti, Paul Cairns, Joshua M. Pearce
      First page: 289
      Abstract: In many developing countries, plastic waste management is left to citizens. This usually results in landfilling or hazardous open-air burning, leading to emissions that are harmful to human health and the environment. An easy, profitable, and clean method of processing and transforming the waste into value is required. In this context, this study provides an open-source methodology to transform low-density polyethylene drinking water sachets, into pavement blocks by using a streamlined do-it-yourself approach that requires only modest capital. Two different materials, sand, and ashes are evaluated as additives in plastic composites and the mechanical strength of the resulting blocks are tested for different proportion mix of plastic, sand, and ash. The best composite had an elastic modulus of 169 MPa, a compressive strength of 29 MPa, and a water absorptivity of 2.2%. The composite pavers can be sold at 100% profit while employing workers at 1.5× the minimum wage. In the West African region, this technology has the potential to produce 19 million pavement tiles from 28,000 tons of plastic water sachets annually in Ghana, Nigeria, and Liberia. This can contribute to waste management in the region while generating a gross revenue of 2.85 billion XOF (4.33 million USD).
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100289
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 290: Effect of Rubber Heat Treatment on
           Rubberized-Concrete Mechanical Performance

    • Authors: Abdelrahman Swilam, Ahmed M. Tahwia, Osama Youssf
      First page: 290
      Abstract: To eliminate the unfavorable effect of the accumulation of end-of-life car tires on the environment, many studies have been conducted to recycle those tires in concrete as a partial or full replacement of its natural aggregates. However, the produced rubberized concrete suffers from low compressive strength due to low adhesion at the rubber/cement interface. Pre-treating of rubber surfaces before use in concrete is the most effective way to overcome this adverse effect on the concrete strength. Several studies introduced different methods to enhance rubberized-concrete strength through pre-treating rubber particles, especially when using a high content of rubber in concrete. This study presents the results of experimental work on the effect of heat treatment on crumb-rubber–concrete mechanical performance. Rubber contents of 40%, 60% and 80% of sand volume were the variables in this study. Workability, density, compressive strength, and impact resistance were the measurements in this experimental work. The results showed that using saturated-surface dry (SSD) rubber can eliminate the adverse effect on concrete slump when using a high rubber volume or the heat-treated rubber. Using heat-treated rubber at 200 °C for 2 h as 40%, 60%, and 80% displayed compressive strength recoveries of 14.9%, 10.4% and 9.7%, respectively. Heat treatment of 40%, 60%, and 80% rubber contents increased the impact resistance for ultimate failure by 57%, 28%, and 7%, respectively, compared with those of the control mix. The thermal treatment enhanced the impact resistance at ultimate failure by 37%, 28%, and 15%, respectively, for mixes containing 40%, 60%, and 80% rubber contents compared with those of as-received rubber.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100290
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 291: Fabrication and Characterization of
           Hybrid Bio-Composites Using Braided Natural Fibers and Aligned
           Thermoplastic Filaments

    • Authors: Akhilesh Kumar Thakur, Jens Schuster, Yousuf Pasha Shaik
      First page: 291
      Abstract: The composite group investigates endlessly the features of natural fiber/thermoplastic matrix composite materials to improve recyclability, use of renewable sources, and reduce material costs. In this context, the development and use of biodegradable polymers for composites is considered one of the important strategies for reducing environmental challenges. Here, axially oriented fibers incorporated in conforming matrices make up fiber-reinforced composites. Due to the high viscosity of molten Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), impregnating into reinforced fiber strands is challenging. So, continuous hybrid flax and hemp fibers were produced using a braiding technique by considering the fiber aspect ratio (AR). The resulting braided yarns were parallel aligned with PCL filaments before being compression molded into unidirectional composite laminates. The flax and PCL blend had better mechanical properties than the other produced composites. Temperatures for the glass transition, melting, and crystallization, were much greater than for neat PCL. However, mechanical properties were barely altered due to the ductile nature of PCL.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100291
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 292: Influence of Hybrid Basalt
           Fibres’ Length on Fresh and Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacted
           Ambient-Cured Geopolymer Concrete

    • Authors: Mohamed Heweidak, Bidur Kafle, Riyadh Al-Ameri
      First page: 292
      Abstract: Recently, short basalt fibres (BFs) have been gaining considerable attention in the building materials industry because of their excellent mechanical properties and lower production cost than their counterparts. Reinforcing geopolymer composites with small volumes of fibres has been proven an efficient technique to enhance concrete's mechanical properties and durability. However, to date, no study has investigated the effect of basalt fibers’ various lengths and volume content on self-compacted geopolymer concrete's fresh and mechanical properties (SCGC). SCGC is prepared by mixing fly ash, slag, and micro fly ash as the binder with a solid alkali-activator compound named anhydrous sodium metasilicate (Na₂SiO₃). In the present study, a hybrid length of long and short basalt fibres with different weight contents were investigated to reap the benefits of multi-scale characteristics of a single fibre type. A total of 10 mixtures were developed incorporating a single length and a hybrid mix of long (30) mm and short (12) mm basalt fibres, with a weight of 1%, 1.5% and 2% of the total binder content, respectively. The fresh and mechanical properties of SCGC incorporating a hybrid mix of long and short basalt fibres were compared to plain SCGC and SCGC containing a single fibres length. The results indicate that the hybridization of long and short fibres in SCGC mixture yields better mechanical properties than single-length BF-reinforced SCGC. A hybrid fibre coefficient equation will be validated against the mechanical properties results obtained from the current experimental investigation on SCGC to assess its applicability for different concrete mixes.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100292
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 293: Effect of Nano-Zirconia Addition on
           Mechanical Properties of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer

    • Authors: Muhammad Saukani, Ayu Novia Lisdawati, Heri Irawan, Rendy Muhamad Iqbal, Dwi Marta Nurjaya, Sotya Astutiningsih
      First page: 293
      Abstract: Geopolymer is an emerging material alternative to Portland cement and has potential as a refractory material. Adding filler in geopolymer material is a strategy to increase the advantages of its physical and mechanical properties. It has been previously reported that adding nanoparticles can increase the compressive strength value, but there is no reported interaction between nanoparticles and geopolymer during the geopolymerization process. This study aims to study the effect of adding nano-zirconia fillers on the physical and mechanical changes of metakaolin-based geopolymers with nano-zirconia fillers. The geopolymer samples were made with 100 g of metakaolin as the base material and nano-zirconia in amounts of 2 g, 5 g, 10 g, and 15 g. Further characterization was carried out by XRD, FTIR, and SEM-EDX. This study showed that the compressive strength of the MZr05 sample increased significantly by 58.7% compared to the control sample. The test results of the structure and functional groups did not lead to any new compounds formed in the geopolymerization reaction. Therefore, the interaction of metakaolin geopolymer with nano-zirconia only creates an interfacial bonding.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100293
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 294: Bio-Based Epoxies: Mechanical
           Characterization and Their Applicability in the Development of
           Eco-Friendly Composites

    • Authors: Nithesh Naik, B. Shivamurthy, B. H. S. Thimmappa, Zhanhu Guo, Ritesh Bhat
      First page: 294
      Abstract: The combination of awareness of harmful industrial processes, environmental concerns, and depleting petroleum-based resources has spurred research in developing sustainable materials from renewable sources. Natural bio-based polymers have replaced synthetic polymers because of growing concern about environmental sustainability. As a result of heating and distilling cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL), cardanol has emerged as a promising bio-retrieved component that can be used to make bio-based epoxy. The current work intends to investigate the mechanical properties of three kinds of cardanol-based bio-based epoxies in anticipation of widespread use. Vickers hardness, tensile and flexural strength are used to characterize mechanical properties. Additionally, a water absorption test is carried out to examine the weight gain properties of all the bio-based epoxy variants selected. FormuLITE 2 (FormuLITE 2501A + FormuLITE 2401B) exhibited the highest Vickers hardness, tensile and flexural strength among the three variants. Moreover, it exhibited a water absorption rate nearly equivalent to that of the conventional LY556/HY951, and thus, FormuLITE 2, the bio-based epoxy resin having 34% of bio-content blended with conventional epoxy, proves to be the best option out of the selected bio-based epoxies to be used further as the matrix material for the fabrication of biocomposites.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100294
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 295: Incremental Sheet Forming of
           Metal-Based Composites Used in Aviation and Automotive Applications

    • Authors: Tomasz Trzepieciński, Sherwan Mohammed Najm, Tomaž Pepelnjak, Kamel Bensaid, Marcin Szpunar
      First page: 295
      Abstract: For several years, the aviation industry has seen dynamic growth in the use of composite materials due to their low weight and high stiffness. Composites are being considered as a means of building lighter, safer, and more fuel-efficient automobiles. Composite materials are the building material of a relatively new kind of unmanned aerial vehicle, commonly known as a drone. Incremental forming methods allow materials to be quickly formed without the need to manufacture conventional metal dies. Their advantage is the high profitability during the production of prototypes and a small series of products when compared with the conventional methods of plastic forming. This article provides an overview of the incremental forming capabilities of the more commonly produced aluminium- and titanium-based laminates, which are widely used in the aircraft industry. In addition, for composites that are not currently incrementally formed, i.e., aramid-reinforced aluminium laminates, the advantages and potential for incremental forming are presented.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100295
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 296: Mitigation of Heat Propagation in a
           Battery Pack by Interstitial Graphite Nanoplatelet Layer: Coupled
           Electrochemical-Heat Transfer Model

    • Authors: Barbara Palmieri, Fabrizia Cilento, Ciro Siviello, Francesco Bertocchi, Michele Giordano, Alfonso Martone
      First page: 296
      Abstract: The use of high thermal conductive materials for heat transfer is gaining attention as a suitable treatment for improving battery performance. Thermal runaway is a relevant issue for maintaining safety and for proficient employment of accumulators; therefore, new solutions for thermal management are mandatory. For this purpose, a hierarchical nanomaterial made of graphite nanoplatelet has been considered as an interface material. High-content graphite nanoplatelet films have very high thermal conductivity and might improve heat dissipation. This study investigates the effect of a thermally conductive material as a method for safety enhancement for a battery module. A numerical model based on the finite element method has been developed to predict the heat generation during a battery pack’s charge and discharge cycle, using the Multiphysics software Comsol. The lumped battery interface generates appropriate heat sources coupled to the Heat Transfer Interface in 3D geometry. Simulation results show that the protection of neighbouring cells from the interleaved layer is fundamental for avoiding heat propagation and an uncontrollable heating rise of the entire battery pack. The use of graphite nanocomposite sheets could effectively help to uniform the temperature and delay the TR propagation.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100296
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 297: Carbon-Fibre/Metal-Matrix Composites:
           A Review

    • Authors: Sergei Mileiko
      First page: 297
      Abstract: At present, most carbon fibres are used as reinforcement for polymers. Fabrication technologies for carbon-fibre-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) are now reaching a mature state that effectively replaces metals in various technical fields, including aerospace, sporting equipment, civil engineering, etc. However, there are many structures in which metal alloys cannot be replaced with CFRPs because of, firstly, the limited temperatures that plastics can survive, and secondly, the relatively low fracture toughness of CFRPs. This has led researchers to develop carbon-fibre/metal-matrix composites (CFMMCs), considering aluminium, titanium, and nickel alloys as potential matrix materials. The present paper presents a review of the corresponding results, focusing on those obtained in the current century.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100297
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 298: New Structural Nanocomposite Based on
           PLGA and Al2O3 NPs as a Balance between Antibacterial Activity and
           Biocompatibility with Eukaryotic Cells

    • Authors: Alexander V. Simakin, Ruslan M. Sarimov, Veronika V. Smirnova, Maxim E. Astashev, Dmitriy A. Serov, Denis V. Yanykin, Denis N. Chausov, Alexey V. Shkirin, Oleg V. Uvarov, Evgeny Rotanov, Andrey Shakhovskoy, Vadim I. Bruskov, Vladimir E. Ivanov, Alexey S. Dorokhov, Andrey Y. Izmailov
      First page: 298
      Abstract: Development of eco-friendly and biodegradable package materials is an important goal of modern science and international industry. Poly(lactic)-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is suitable for this purpose. However, biocompatible materials may be contaminated with bacteria. This problem may be solved by the addition of metal oxides nanoparticles (NPs) with antibacterial properties. Although metal oxides NPs often show cytotoxicity against plant and mammalian cells, a new nanocomposite based on PLGA and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) NPs has been developed. The PLGA/Al2O3 NP composite has pronounced antibacterial properties. The addition of Al2O3 NPs 0.01% inhibited growth of E. coli for >50%. The antimicrobial effect of Al2O3 NPs is implemented through the generation of reactive oxygen species and damage of bacterial proteins and DNA. The biocompatibility of the nanocomposite with plant and mammalian cells was studied. The PLGA/Al2O3 NP composite did not influence the growth and development of tomatoes and cucumbers. PLGA and its composite with Al2O3 NPs 0.001–0.1% did not influence viability and proliferation of mammalian cells, on their density or substrate colonization rate. The developed nanocomposite has controlled mechanical properties, high antibacterial activity and high biocompatibility, which makes it an attractive candidate for building and food package material manufacture and agriculture.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100298
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 299: Synthesis and Catalytic Activity in
           the Hydrogenation Reaction of Palladium-Doped Metal-Organic Frameworks
           Based on Oxo-Centered Zirconium Complexes

    • Authors: Rose K. Baimuratova, Anastasia V. Andreeva, Igor E. Uflyand, Gennadii V. Shilov, Farida U. Bukharbayeva, Alima K. Zharmagambetova, Gulzhian I. Dzhardimalieva
      First page: 299
      Abstract: Metal-nanocluster-doped porous composite materials are attracting considerable research attention, due to their specific catalytic performance. Here we report a simple, cheap, and efficient strategy for the preparation of palladium hydrogenation catalysts based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). It has been shown that the synthesis of Pd/MOF results in the formation of palladium nanoparticles uniformly fixed on the surface. The composition and structure of the resulting composites were studied using elemental analysis, DSC, TGA, XRD, TEM, and IR spectroscopy. Pd nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8–12 nm were successfully confined in the UiO-type MOFs, and the obtained nanocomposites exhibited abundant porosity, high stability, and a large surface area. It has been shown that the resulting catalytic systems with high activity, selectivity, and stability reduce phenylacetylene and allyl alcohol to styrene and propanol, respectively, in liquid-phase hydrogenation reactions.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100299
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 300: High Dispersion of Platinum
           Nanoparticles over Functionalized Zirconia for Effective Transformation of
           Levulinic Acid to Alkyl Levulinate Biofuel Additives in the Vapor Phase

    • Authors: Ramyakrishna Pothu, Naresh Mameda, Harisekhar Mitta, Rajender Boddula, Raveendra Gundeboyina, Vijayanand Perugopu, Ahmed Bahgat Radwan, Aboubakr M. Abdullah, Noora Al-Qahtani
      First page: 300
      Abstract: In recent years, functionalized metal oxides have been gaining popularity for biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals due to the global energy crisis. This study reports a novel catalyst based on noble metal immobilization on functionalized zirconia that has been successfully used in the production of biofuel alkyl levulinates (ALs) from lignocellulosic biomass-derived levulinic acid (LA) under vapor-phase. The wet impregnation method was used to immobilize Pt-metal nanoparticles on zirconia-based supports (silicotungstic acid zirconia, STA-ZrO2; sulfated zirconia, S-ZrO2; and tetragonal zirconia, t-ZrO2). A variety of physicochemical techniques were used to characterize the prepared catalysts, and these were tested under atmospheric pressure in continuous flow esterification of LA. The order of catalytic activity followed when ethyl levulinate was produced from levulinic acid via esterification: Pt/STA-ZrO2 ≫ Pt/S-ZrO2 ≫ Pt/t-ZrO2. Moreover, it was found that ALs synthesis from LA with different alcohols utilizing Pt/STA-ZrO2 catalyst followed the order ethyl levulinate ≫ methyl levulinate ≫ propyl levulinate≫ butyl levulinate. This work outlines an excellent approach to designing efficient catalysts for biofuels and value-added compounds made from biomass.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100300
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 301: Enhancing Resilience and
           Self-Centering of Existing RC Coupled and Single Shear Walls Using EB-FRP:
           State-of-the-Art Review and Research Needs

    • Authors: Ali Abbaszadeh, Omar Chaallal
      First page: 301
      Abstract: The primary seismic force-resisting system (SFRS) in middle- to high-rise reinforced concrete (RC) building structures often includes coupled shear walls (CSWs) and single shear walls (SSWs). These walls are designed to transfer lateral forces to the foundation and dissipate energy through the development of plastic hinges. The latter lead to residual displacement in these structural components. On the other hand, self-centering systems enable the structures to return to their initial position after severe loading or at least reduce residual displacement. The objectives of this study were, therefore, as follows: (i) to review the state of the art on shear wall self-centering techniques and retrofitting methods based on externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymer (EB-FRP); (ii) to evaluate research needs to improve the self-centering ability of shear walls using EB-FRP.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100301
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 302: Simplified Modelling of Failure in
           High Strength Bolts under Combined Tension and Bending

    • Authors: Francesco Plaitano, Aurel Stratan, Elide Nastri
      First page: 302
      Abstract: Bolted connections are widely adopted in steel structures and their behaviour affects to a large extent the global response of the system. High-strength bolts of type HV are commonly employed. Under pure tension, these bolt assemblies usually fail by thread stripping. However, it was observed experimentally that, under combined tension and bending, the failure mode changes to fracture of the shank. The former loading condition commonly occurs in the case of thick extended end plate connections and the latter in the case of flush end plates. In order to analyse the behaviour of the structure, the finite element method (FEM) is usually employed. While there is a wealth of information on FEM modelling of bolts for standard loading conditions (e.g., tension), the authors are unaware of a model able to replicate both tension-only and combined tension and bending conditions. In this paper, a simplified approach to be used in the framework of FEM is proposed to model the behaviour of high-strength HV bolts which can replicate the failure mechanism of bolts under tension only and combined tension and bending. The bolt assembly is modelled with continuum elements, supplemented by a non-linear spring connecting the nut to the bolt shank. The spring captures the stiffness, resistance, and ductility of the bolt-to-nut threaded connection, reproducing the experimentally observed failure mode in the case of pure tension conditions. A simplified damage model is applied to the continuum finite elements used to model the bolt, which replicates shank failure under combined tension and bending as a result of large local stresses and strains occurring under these conditions. The proposed model captures with good accuracy the actual behaviour of high-strength HV bolts under tension only as well as under combined tension and bending.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100302
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 303: In Situ Formation of Nanoparticles on
           Carbon Nanofiber Surface Using Ceramic Intercalating Agents

    • Authors: Alex A. Burnstine-Townley, Sajia Afrin, Yuen Yee Li Sip, David Fox, Lei Zhai
      First page: 303
      Abstract: Nickel silicide nanoparticles were prepared in situ on carbon nanofibers through pyrolysis of electrospun fibers containing poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN, carbon fiber precursor), silazane (SiCN ceramic precursor), and nickel chloride (nickel source). SiCN ceramics produced in carbon nanofibers during the pyrolysis expanded the graphitic interlayer spacing and facilitated the diffusion of metal atoms to the fiber surfaces, leading to the formation of nickel silicide nanoparticles at a reduced temperature. In addition, nickel silicide nanoparticles catalyzed an in situ formation of carbon nanotubes, with carbon sourced from the decomposition of silazane. The method introduces a simple route to produce carbon supported metal nanoparticles for catalysis and energy storage applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100303
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 304: Fabrication of Novel Nanohybrid
           Material for the Removal of Azo Dyes from Wastewater

    • Authors: Mohammad Rahat Hossain, Taslim Ur Rashid, Nadira Parvin Lata, Shaikat Chandra Dey, Mithun Sarker, Sayed Md. Shamsuddin
      First page: 304
      Abstract: This study attempted to harness the dual benefit of adsorption and photocatalytic degradation for efficiently removing a model anionic azo dye, Orange G, from an aqueous solution. For this purpose, a series of bifunctional nanohybrids containing different proportions of naturally occurring biopolymer chitosan and ternary photocatalyst made of kaolinite, TiO2, and ZnO were prepared through the dissolution of chitosan in acid and subsequent deposition on ternary photocatalyst. The characterization through Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) have confirmed the successful fabrication of nanohybrids from TiO2 and chitosan. The adsorptive separation of Orange G from the aqueous solution and subsequent degradation under solar irradiation was thoroughly studied by recording the λmax value of dye in the ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer at various operating conditions of pH, dye concentration, contact time, and compositional variation. The nanohybrid (TP0.75CS0.25) fabricated from 75% ternary photocatalyst (w/w) and 25% chitosan (w/w) removed 97.4% Orange G within 110 min at pH 2.5 and 10 mg/L dye concentration. The relative contribution of chitosan and ternary composite on dye removal was understood by comparing the experimental results in the dark and sunlight. Recyclability experiments showed the suitability of the nanohybrid for long-term repeated applications. Equilibrium experimental data showed a better correlation with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The rapid and nearly complete removal capacity, long-term reusability, and simple fabrication technique make this novel nanohybrid a promising advanced material for removing hazardous azo dyes from industrial effluents.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100304
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 305: Threshold Identification and Damage
           Characterization of Woven GF/CF Composites under Low-Velocity Impact

    • Authors: Marzio Grasso, Yigeng Xu
      First page: 305
      Abstract: The Delamination Threshold Load (DTL) is a key parameter representing damage resistance of a laminate and is normally identified by locating a sudden drop in the impact force-time history for the laminate made of unidirectional layers. For the woven composite, however, their failure mechanisms appear different and the current literature is not providing any clear procedure regarding the identification of the delamination initiation, as well as the evolution of the failure mechanisms associated with it. In this paper, experimental data have been collected using woven glass and carbon fiber composites. The results are analyzed in terms of force-time and force-displacement curves. While delamination and other damages were clearly observed using ultrasonic scans, the analysis of the results does not reveal any trend changes of the curves that can be associated with the incipient nucleation of delamination. A preliminary discussion regarding the nature of the mechanisms through which the delamination propagates in woven composite and a justification for the absence of a sudden change of the stiffness have been presented. It raises a question on the existence of DTL for woven composites under low velocity impact.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100305
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 306: Effect of Sequential Thermal Aging and
           Water Immersion on Moisture Kinetics and SBS Strength of Wet Layup
           Carbon/Epoxy Composites

    • Authors: Vistasp M. Karbhari, SoonKook Hong
      First page: 306
      Abstract: This paper presents results of specific cases of sequential exposure of wet layup ambient cured carbon/epoxy composites to thermal aging and immersion in deionized water. Thermal aging is conducted at temperatures between 66 °C and 260 °C for periods of time up to 72 h whereas immersion is up to 72 weeks. Effects are characterized in terms of moisture kinetics using a two-stage diffusion model, and through short beam shear (SBS) strength. The response is characterized by a competition between the mechanisms of postcure, which results in increased polymerization and increases in SBS strength and glass transition temperature; and thermally induced microcracking and polymer degradation as well as moisture-induced plasticization and hydrolysis accompanied by fiber-matrix debonding, which results in deterioration. Thermal aging by itself is not seen to negatively impact SBS strength until the highest temperatures of exposure are considered in the investigation. However, the subsequent immersion in deionized water is seen to have a greater deteriorative effect with the period of post-thermal aging immersion being the dominant deteriorative factor.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100306
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 307: Green Synthesis of Selenium
           Nanoparticles Using Cleistocalyx operculatus Leaf Extract and Their Acute
           Oral Toxicity Study

    • Authors: Tri Thien Vu, Phuong Thi Mai Nguyen, Ngan Hanh Pham, Thanh Huu Le, Tran Hung Nguyen, Dinh Trung Do, Duong Duc La
      First page: 307
      Abstract: Green synthesis has recently attracted extensive attention from scientists all over the world for the production of metal nanoparticles. Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) have been demonstrated as a suitable supplement nutrient for the replacement of selenium ions in terms of safety and efficiency. This work presented a friendly and facile approach to synthesize the Se NPs using polyphenols content in the Cleistocalyx operculatus (CO) leaves extract. The synthesizing conditions were optimized to obtain the Se NPs with uniform distribution and shape. The prepared Se NPs were well-characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy diffractive spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The resultant Se NPs were in spherical shape with the particle size in a range from 50–200 nm. The antimicrobial properties of Se NPs were investigated against Echerichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which showed reasonable activity. The acute oral toxicity of Se NPs in mice was also studied. The result indicated that Se NPs exhibited lower toxicity than that of SeO2 with the lethal concentration (50% death of mice) of 7.75 mg kg−1.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100307
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 308: Exploration of Optical, Redox, and
           Catalytic Properties of Vanadia-Mayenite Nanocomposites

    • Authors: Ekaterina I. Shuvarakova, Ekaterina V. Ilyina, Vladimir O. Stoyanovskii, Grigory B. Veselov, Alexander F. Bedilo, Aleksey A. Vedyagin
      First page: 308
      Abstract: The present paper continues the exploration of the physicochemical and catalytic properties of vanadia-mayenite composites. The samples were prepared by an impregnation of calcium aluminate Ca12Al14O33 (mayenite, C12A7) with a solution of vanadium precursor. Pure mayenite and V/C12A7 nanocomposites were characterized by Raman and diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopies. The reducibility of the samples was examined in temperature-programmed reduction experiments performed in a hydrogen atmosphere. The catalytic performance of vanadium-containing systems was studied in the non-oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane. As found, the low-loaded sample (5%V/C12A7 sample) contains vanadium predominantly in the form of Ca3(VO4)2, while for the 10%V/C12A7 sample, two types of calcium vanadates (Ca2V2O7 and Ca3(VO4)2) are registered. The presence of these phases defines the spectroscopic characteristics and the redox properties of nanocomposites. Both the samples, 5%V/C12A7 and 10%V/C12A7, exhibit comparable catalytic activity, which is mainly connected with the amount of the Ca3(VO4)2 phase. The uniqueness of the studied catalysts is their excellent tolerance toward coke formation under the reaction conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100308
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 309: Process Optimization for the 3D
           Printing of PLA and HNT Composites with Arburg Plastic Freeforming

    • Authors: Leonardo G. Engler, Janaina S. Crespo, Noel M. Gately, Ian Major, Declan M. Devine
      First page: 309
      Abstract: The industrial use of additive manufacturing continues to rapidly increase as new technology developments become available. The Arburg plastic freeforming (APF) process is designed to utilize standard polymeric granules in order to print parts with properties similar to those of molded parts. Despite the emerging industrial importance of APF, the current body of knowledge regarding this technology is still very limited, especially in the field of biodegradable polymer composites. To this end, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was reinforced with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) by hot melt extrusion. The PLA/HNT (0–10 wt%.) composites were analyzed in terms of their rheology, morphology, and thermal and mechanical properties. A study of the processing properties of these composites in the context of APF was performed to ensure the consistency of 3D-printed, high-quality components. The optimized machine settings were used to evaluate the tensile properties of specimens printed with different axis orientations (XY and XZ) and deposition angles (0 and 45°). Specimens printed with an XY orientation and deposition angle starting at 0° resulted in the highest mechanical properties. In this study, the use of PLA/HNT composites in an APF process was reported for the first time, and the current methodology achieved satisfactory results in terms of the 3D printing and evaluation of successful PLA/HNT composites to be used as feedstock in an APF process.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100309
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 310: Drilling-Induced Damages in Hybrid
           Carbon and Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Laminate and Optimized
           Drilling Parameters

    • Authors: Elango Natarajan, Kalaimani Markandan, Santhosh Mozhuguan Sekar, Kaviarasan Varadaraju, Saravanakumar Nesappan, Anto Dilip Albert Selvaraj, Wei Hong Lim, Gérald Franz
      First page: 310
      Abstract: Hybrid carbon and glass fiber-reinforced composites have attracted significant research interest for primary load-bearing structural components in the field of aviation manufacturing owing to their low weight and high strength to weight ratio. However, the anisotropic and heterogenic nature of carbon and/or glass fiber-reinforced composite prevents high machining quality due to the directionality effect of fibers in the polymer matrix. As such, this study investigates the effect of drilling process for hybrid fiber-reinforced composite and reports optimal drilling parameters to improve the drill quality. Experimental studies indicate that an increased point angle (i.e., from 80° to 120°) resulted in low delamination upon entry due to reduced thrust force, which in turn produces better surface finish with minimal tool wear. The optimal feed rate (0.2 mm/min) ensures lower delamination at entry, since higher feed rates can increase the thrust force due to elevation in the shear area or raise the self-generated feed angle, which in turn reduces the effective clearance angle. To this end, drilling parameters were optimized using Dandelion optimizer (DO)—a cutting-edge metaheuristic search algorithm (MSA). We report the excellent consistency of DO to solve the proposed drilling optimization problem while achieving promising results as ascertained by the small standard deviation values.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100310
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 311: High Surface Area Activated Charcoal
           for Water Purification

    • Authors: Ahmed. S. Ahmed, Mohammed Alsultan, Rowaa Tareq Hameed, Yamama F. Assim, Gerhard F. Swiegers
      First page: 311
      Abstract: An activated charcoal with a high surface area of 4320–3800 m2/g with significant adsorption properties was prepared by the chemical and thermal processing of walnut residues. Iraqi walnut shells were sonicated with different ratios of potassium hydroxide (KOH). The mixture was then calcined at different temperatures using an electric oven until the best thermal conditions for a very high activated surface area and performance were identified. The resulting activated charcoal was further purified to remove residual KOH and metal impurities. Investigations revealed that the quality of the prepared activated charcoal was comparable to or surpassed that of commercially available counterparts in both the physical and adsorption properties. It was characterised for methylene blue degradation and the removal of heavy elements during water purification.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100311
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 312: Synthesis and Characterization of
           Carbon Fiber Nanocomposite Using Titanium Dioxide and Silicon Carbide
           Nanomaterials

    • Authors: Shiva Chandan Reddy Modugu, Jens Schuster, Yousuf Pasha Shaik
      First page: 312
      Abstract: Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have spread to a wide range of industries in recent decades, including the automobile, aeronautics, and space industries. Recently, the emergence of new requirements for improved properties and features has become one of the major drivers of the introduction of innovative methodologies and process optimization. In this study, the effect of nanomaterials on the behavior of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites was investigated experimentally. The grafting of TiO2 and SiC nanomaterials onto the surface of fibers was performed by mixing nanomaterials in the epoxy resin. CFRPs were manufactured using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) in this study and characterized using mechanical and thermal testing. The primary test parameters were carbon fiber with epoxy resin and 0% nanomaterials by weight. An increase in properties was observed in nanocomposite with 2% wt. of nanomaterials when compared with 0, 0.5, and 1% wt. Between 0 wt.% and 2 wt.%, the tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength, hardness, and HDT properties were increased by 17%, 39%, 32%, 14% and 21%, respectively, due to the addition of nanomaterials into the resin.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100312
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 313: FRP Stay-in-Place Formworks for High
           Performance of Concrete Slabs

    • Authors: Reema Goyal, Subhra Majhi, Abhijit Mukherjee, Shweta Goyal
      First page: 313
      Abstract: Stay-in-Place (SiP) formworks obviate the transportation, placement, removal and storage requirements of conventional formworks. Fibre Reinforced Polymer SiPs (FRP-SiP) have additional advantages, such as corrosion resistance, high specific strength and durability. This paper discusses an experimental instigation consisting of two sets of slabs having varying span-to-depth ratios cast on an FRP-SiP. Control specimens with conventional steel bar reinforcements were also cast. Several treatments for improving interfacial bonds at the interface between concrete and FRP-SiP have been investigated. Cyclic flexural tests were performed to evaluate their structural performance. Load-displacement relationship and load capacity are presented. Failure envelopes and energy absorption capacity were evaluated. It was found that the load capacity of FRP-SiP was around 107% greater than the conventional steel rebar specimens. Bond treatment on the FRP-SiP specimens increased the load capacity by around 215% over the untreated specimens. The load-deflection behaviour and the failure modes of the FRP-SiP specimens were distinctly different from those of the conventional specimens. The flexure and shear provisions in American Concrete Institute Standards (ACI 440) were found to be conservative in comparison to the present results. This study demonstrates that FRP-SiPs improve both the structural performance and construction efficiency of concrete slabs, however, new standards would be necessary to be able to utilize their improved capacity.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100313
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 314: Ceramics Based on Sodium Rhenanite
           CaNaPO4, Obtained via Firing of Composite Cement-Salt Stone

    • Authors: Otabek Toshev, Tatiana Safronova, Gilyana Kazakova, Tatiana Shatalova, Olga Boytsova, Yulia Lukina, Sergey Sivkov
      First page: 314
      Abstract: Ceramics based on rhenanite CaNaPO4 with density of 0.94 g/cm3 and compressive strength of 10.3 MPa was obtained via firing at 900 °C of composite cement-salt stone prepared from a hardening powder mixture of calcium citrate tetrahydrate Ca3(C6H5O7)2∙4H2O and sodium dihydrogen phosphate NaH2PO4. The phase composition of the obtained samples of cement–salt stone was represented by monetite CaHPO4, unreacted sodium dihydrogen phosphate and calcium citrate tetrahydrate. According to the XRD data, the phase composition of the ceramic samples after annealing in the temperature range of 500–700 °C was mainly represented by the β-CaNaPO4 phase. It was found that after an annealing at temperature of 900 °C, the phase composition of ceramics was presented with the only phase of β-CaNaPO4. It was demonstrated that an increase in the annealing temperature led to an increase in the grain size from 1 μm after annealing at 500 °C to 5 μm after annealing at 900 °C. Obtained ceramic material based on CaNaPO4 could be important for regenerative treatments of bone tissue defects.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100314
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 315: The Impact of Zinc Oxide Micro-Powder
           Filler on the Physical and Mechanical Response of High-Density
           Polyethylene Composites in Material Extrusion 3D Printing

    • Authors: Nectarios Vidakis, Markos Petousis, Athena Maniadi, Vassilis Papadakis, Amalia Moutsopoulou
      First page: 315
      Abstract: The scope of this work was to develop novel polymer composites via melt extrusion and 3D printing, incorporating High-Density Polyethylene filled with zinc oxide particles in various wt. percentages. For each case scenario, a filament of approximately 1.75 mm in diameter was fabricated. Samples for tensile and flexural testing were fabricated with 3D printing. They were then evaluated for their mechanical response according to ASTM standards. According to the documented testing data, the filler increases the mechanical strength of pure HDPE at specific filler concentrations. The highest values reported were a 54.6% increase in the flexural strength with HDPE/ZnO 0.5 wt.% and a 53.8% increase in the tensile strength with 10 wt.% ZnO loading in the composite. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman, and thermal characterization techniques were used. The experimental findings were evaluated in other research areas where they were applicable.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100315
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 316: White Ginger Nanocellulose as
           Effective Reinforcement and Antimicrobial Polyvinyl Alcohol/ZnO Hybrid
           Biocomposite Films Additive for Food Packaging Applications

    • Authors: Dieter Rahmadiawan, Hairul Abral, Wahyu Hidayat Yesa, Dian Handayani, Neny Sandrawati, Eni Sugiarti, Ahmad Novi Muslimin, S. M. Sapuan, R. A. Ilyas
      First page: 316
      Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been used in packaging applications due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, this non-toxic synthetic material belonging to a highly hydrophilic polymer has poor resistance to wet environments, no antibacterial activity, and low tensile and thermal properties. This study aims to prepare and characterize a PVA-based biocomposite film mixed with antimicrobial white ginger nanocellulose (GCNF) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. The film was processed using GCNF (0.1 g) or/and ZnO nanoparticles (0.5 g). The results confirm that the GCNF/ZnO/PVA-based film presents the strongest antimicrobial activity and the highest thermal resistance. This film also had the best value in tensile strength (19.7 MPa) and modulus (253.1 MPa); 63.9% and 117.9%, respectively higher than purce PVA. Its elongation at break was 56.6%, not statistically significantly different from the pure PVA film. Thus, this PVA-based hybrid biocomposite film reinforced by GCNF and ZnO has excellent potential for fresh food packaging in industrial applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100316
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 317: Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of
           Amoxicillin with Mn-Doped Cu2O under Sunlight Irradiation

    • Authors: Yohannes Teklemariam Gaim, Simachew Mekides Yimanuh, Zaid Girmay Kidanu, Mengstu Etay Ashebir
      First page: 317
      Abstract: In this work, we report the synthesis of Mn-doped Cu2O nanoparticles using aloe vera leaves extract. X-ray diffraction data revealed that the Mn-doped Cu2O crystals have a cubic crystal structure. The surface morphology of the as-synthesized catalyst indicated truncated octahedral and spherical-like shapes. The photocatalytic activity of the catalyst is efficient at pH 9, initial concentration of amoxicillin 15 mg/L, and photocatalyst dosage 1 g/L under sunlight irradiation. 92% of amoxicillin was degraded in the presence of Mn-doped Cu2O. The enhancement in photocatalytic performance is due to the incorporation of Mn, which delays the rapid recombination rate by trapping the photogenerated electron. Therefore, Mn-doped Cu2O could remove pharmaceuticals from pharmaceutical factory and hospital wastes.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100317
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 318: A Data Driven Modelling Approach for
           the Strain Rate Dependent 3D Shear Deformation and Failure of
           Thermoplastic Fibre Reinforced Composites: Experimental Characterisation
           and Deriving Modelling Parameters

    • Authors: Johannes Gerritzen, Andreas Hornig, Benjamin Gröger, Maik Gude
      First page: 318
      Abstract: The 3D shear deformation and failure behaviour of a glass fibre reinforced polypropylene in a shear strain rate range ofγ˙=2.2e−4;3.4e0/s 2.2 × 10−4  to 3.41/s is investigated. An Iosipescu testing setup on a servo-hydraulic high speed testing unit is used to experimentally characterise the in-plane and out-of-plane behaviour utilising three specimen configurations (12-, 13- and 31-direction). The experimental procedure as well as the testing results are presented and discussed. The measured shear stress–shear strain relations indicate a highly nonlinear behaviour and a distinct rate dependency. Two methods are investigated to derive according material characteristics: a classical engineering approach based on moduli and strengths and a data driven approach based on the curve progression. In all cases a Johnson–Cook based formulation is used to describe rate dependency. The analysis methodologies as well as the derived model parameters are described and discussed in detail. It is shown that a phenomenologically enhanced regression can be used to obtain material characteristics for a generalising constitutive model based on the data driven approach.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100318
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 319: Mixed-Mode I/II Testing of Composite
           Materials—A Refined Data Reduction Scheme for the Wedge-Loaded
           Asymmetric Double Cantilever Beam Test

    • Authors: Michael May, Philipp Hahn, Borhan Uddin Manam, Mathieu Imbert
      First page: 319
      Abstract: The wedge-loaded asymmetric double cantilever beam (WADCB) test is an experimental method to determine the mixed-mode I/II fracture toughness of composite materials by inserting a wedge into the specimen along a potential delamination path. Whilst the current closed-form solution for the ADCB test assumes identical forces acting in both specimen arms, this manuscript proposes a refined closed-form solution allowing for different forces acting on both specimen arms, which is thought to be more general and more rigorous. WADCB tests were carried out on composites made from Torayca T700SC/2592 unidirectional prepreg. Both the current and the refined closed-form solution were used to analyze the data, and some differences were found in the predictions, indicating that the forces in the two specimen arms are indeed not identical.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100319
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 320: Utilizing of Magnetized Water in
           Enhancing of Volcanic Concrete Characteristics

    • Authors: Mostafa M. Keshta, Mohamed M. Yousry Elshikh, Mohamed Abd Elrahman, Osama Youssf
      First page: 320
      Abstract: Volcanic concrete is an eco-friendly concrete type in that it contains coarse and fine aggregates that all extracted from the igneous volcanic rock. However, utilizing of volcanic ash (VA) as partial/full replacement of concrete cement significantly affects the concrete workability, especially at high cement replacement ratios. This has also some adverse effects on concrete strength. Utilizing magnetized water (MW) in concrete as a partial/full replacement of ordinary tap water (TW) has a notable effect on enhancing the fresh and hardened concrete properties. This research aims to study the effect of using MW prepared in a magnetic field of 1.4 Tesla on the workability and hardened properties (compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths) of volcanic concrete. In this study, VA partially replaced volcanic concrete cement with ratios of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Ten volcanic concrete mixes were prepared in two groups. The first one was prepared with VA (0–20%) and mixed with TW. The other group was prepared with the same VA contents like group one, but mixed with MW. Microstructure imaging for volcanic concrete was also conducted in this study. Results of water tests showed 17% and 15% increase in total dissolved solids (TDS) and pH, respectively, of MW compared with those of TW. In addition, the water magnetization decreased the water surface tension by 7% compared with that of TW. Results of hardened concrete tests showed that the best ratio of VA in volcanic concrete was 5% with and without using magnetized water. The volcanic concrete slump decreased when using TW; however, using MW enhanced the volcanic concrete slump by up to 8%. The compressive strength was improved by 35%, 23%, and 20% at 7 days, 28 days, and 120 days, respectively, with no VA and with the presence of MW. The compressive strength was improved by 11%, 12%, and 11% after 7 days, 28 days, and 120 days, respectively, with using 5% VA and with the presence of MW. Both splitting tensile strength and flexural strength of volcanic concrete with and without VA or MW behaved similar to that of the corresponding compressive strength.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100320
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 6, Pages 321: Analysis of the Segregation Phenomena
           of Wood Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    • Authors: Elmar Moritzer, Felix Flachmann, Maximilian Richters, Marcel Neugebauer
      First page: 321
      Abstract: Wood–plastic composites (WPC) are enjoying a steady increase in popularity. In addition to the extrusion of decking boards, the material is also used increasingly in injection molding. Depending on the formulation, geometry and process parameters, WPC tends to exhibit irregular filling behavior, similar to the processing of thermosets. In this work, the influence of matrix material and wood fiber content on the flow, mold filling and segregation behavior of WPC is analyzed. For this purpose, investigations were carried out on a flow spiral and a sheet cavity. WPC based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) achieves significantly higher flow path lengths at a wood mass content of 30% than polypropylene (PP)-based WPC. The opposite behavior occurs at higher wood contents due to the different shear thinning behavior. Slightly decreased wood contents could be observed at the beginning of the flow path and greatly increased wood contents at the end of the flow path, compared to the starting material. When using the plate cavity, flow anomalies in the form of free jets occur as a function of the wood content, with TPU exhibiting the more critical behavior. The flow front is frayed, but in contrast to the flow spiral, no significant wood accumulation could be detected due to the shorter flow path lengths.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs6100321
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 10 (2022)
       
 
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