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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alfarama Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
BJHS Themes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Instruments     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Science and Technology Journal of Namibia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access  
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 168)
Journal of the Indian Institute of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Unsolved Questions     Open Access  
Jurnal Sains Dasar     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Logo STI Science, Technology and Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Maskana     Open Access  
MethodsX     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
National Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Natural Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Naturen     Full-text available via subscription  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Studies in Science Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nova     Open Access  
Open Conference Proceedings Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Orbis Cógnita : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Patterns     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
People and Nature     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Población y Desarrollo - Argonautas y caminantes     Open Access  
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, The     Full-text available via subscription  
QScience Connect     Open Access  
Quantum Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Rafidain Journal of Science     Open Access  
Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Reportes Científicos de la FaCEN     Open Access  
Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Research Integrity and Peer Review     Open Access  
Research Policy : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Respuestas     Open Access  
Revista Bases de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Revista Cientifica Guillermo de Ockham     Open Access  
Revista Conhecimento Online     Open Access  
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
Revista Politécnica     Open Access  
Revista Tecnológica     Open Access  
Revista UniVap     Open Access  
SAINSTIS     Open Access  
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Sci     Open Access  
Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5078)
Science & Diplomacy     Free   (Followers: 3)
Science Advances     Free   (Followers: 44)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science Heritage Journal     Open Access  
Science World Journal     Open Access  
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ScienceRise     Open Access  
Sciences du jeu     Open Access  

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Journal of Composites Science
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2504-477X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 233: Hybrid Fabrication of Zirconia Parts
           with Smooth Surface Texture and Tight Tolerances

    • Authors: Laurent Spitaels, Valentin Dambly, Aiora Beobide Otaegi, Julien Bossu, Cathy Delmotte, Gregory Martic, Enrique Juste, Raoul Carrus, Pedro-José Arrazola, Fabrice Petit, Edouard Rivière-Lorphèvre, François Ducobu
      First page: 233
      Abstract: The conventional manufacturing chain for technical ceramics is too expensive for the production of small series or unique parts with complex designs. Hybrid machines that combine additive and subtractive processes can be an interesting solution to overcome this technology lock-in. However, despite the great interest in hybrid machines for metallic parts, there is a lack of data in the literature when it comes to ceramics. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to closing this gap. It is the first to evaluate the achievable geometrical tolerances according to ISO 2768-2 as well as the surface textures of composite zirconia parts shaped sequentially by pellet additive manufacturing (PAM, from ceramic injection molding feedstock) and finish milling. The green parts were then debinded and sintered to analyze the influence of these steps. Compared to the initial green parts, the sintered parts exhibited shiny and smooth surfaces with sharp edges. Flatness, parallelism and perpendicularity all achieved an H (fine) class, while the surface textures were significantly improved, resulting in arithmetic roughness (Ra) below 1.6 µm.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070233
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 234: Biocomposite Based on
           Polyhydroxybutyrate and Cellulose Acetate for the Adsorption of Methylene
           Blue

    • Authors: Ángel Villabona-Ortíz, Rodrigo Ortega-Toro, Jenyfer Pedroza-Hernández
      First page: 234
      Abstract: Industrialization and globalization have caused severe environmental problems, such as contaminating water bodies by toxic agents from various industries, generating a significant loss of biodiversity and health risks. Globally, approximately 80% of wastewater is discharged without treatment, worsening the situation. However, in Colombia, initiatives have been taken to improve wastewater management, with ambitious investments and targets to improve treatment infrastructure. Recently, advanced technologies have been developed to treat wastewater, including more efficient and sustainable biological methods, such as using coconut-derived adsorbent biomaterials, rich in useful properties for the adsorption of pollutants in solutions. This research focuses on developing a composite biomaterial using cellulose acetate (CA) extracted from coconut mesocarp and polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB), by the casting method, to treat wastewater. Adsorption tests with the tracer methylene blue (MB) were carried out in the Energy and Environment laboratory of the University of Cartagena. For this, MB solutions were prepared with 5 to 50 ppm concentrations. The analyses showed that the composite biomaterial is thermally stable and has good homogeneity and porosity. At a concentration of 40 ppm and a dosage of 10 mg of adsorbent, the adsorption efficiency was 89%, with an adsorption capacity of 35.98 mg/g. The above indicates that the composite biomaterial is presented as a sustainable, improved, and efficient solution to remove contaminants from wastewater, benefiting the environment and human health.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070234
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 235: Acoustic Emission during Non-Uniform
           Progression of Processes in Composite Failure According to the Von Mises
           Criterion

    • Authors: Sergii Filonenko, Anzhelika Stakhova, Adrián Bekö, Alzbeta Grmanova
      First page: 235
      Abstract: In the study, based on the model of acoustic emission during the destruction of a composite material by shear force according to the Von Mises criterion, the effect of non-uniformity of the destruction process on the generated acoustic emission signal is simulated. The study under the accepted modeling conditions allows us to determine the patterns of changes in the amplitude envelope of acoustic emission signals at various stages of developing processes. In theoretical and experimental studies of acoustic emission signals when searching for patterns in their parameter changes and developing methods for monitoring or diagnosing the state of composite materials, the problem lies in the interpretation of recorded information. This issue arises from the complexity and diversity of processes occurring in the material structure at micro and macro levels, and the high sensitivity of the acoustic emission method to these processes, wherein structural changes lead to observable alterations in the characteristics of acoustic emissions. Solving this problem requires both theoretical and experimental studies to understand the influence of various factors on the characteristics of the generated acoustic emission. The results of the presented study can be used to assess the condition of composite materials and structures, such as bridges, e.g., in terms of defectiveness, property dispersion, damage during operation, and other characteristics.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070235
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 236: Characterization of Posidonia oceanica
           Fibers High-Density Polyethylene Composites: Reinforcing Potential and
           Effect of Coupling Agent

    • Authors: Manel Haddar, Ahmed Elloumi, Cheldly Brdai, Ahmed Koubaa
      First page: 236
      Abstract: This study investigated the influence of fiber loading and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) coupling agent on the structural, thermal, mechanical, morphological properties, and torque rheology of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) reinforced with Posidonia oceanica fiber (POF) composites. HDPE/POF composites, both with and without MAPE, were manufactured using a two-step process: composite pellets extrusion, followed by test samples injection molding with various POF loadings (0, 20, 30, and 40 wt%). HDPE/POF composites reinforced with higher loading of POF (40 wt%) exhibit superior stiffness, better crystallinity, and higher stabilized torque and mechanical energy (Em) compared to other composite formulations. Therefore, varying the POF loading leads to extrusion and injection processing variations. Furthermore, the coupling agent significantly enhances the tensile strength, ductility, impact strength, crystallinity, stabilized torque, and Em of the HDPE/POF composite. This improvement is due to the enhanced interfacial adhesion between the POF and the HDPE matrix with the addition of the MAPE, as supported by the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070236
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 237: Effect of Shade and Light-Curing
           Intensity on Bulk-Fill Composite: Heat Generation and Chemo-Mechanical
           Properties (In Vitro Study)

    • Authors: Hussein, Saeed
      First page: 237
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of shade and light-curing intensity on the heat generation and degree of conversion of bulk-fill composite. A commercially available bulk-fill composite resin was used in this study. A total of 250 cylindrical specimens of each composite shade (n = 25/group) were prepared (125 for testing heat generation and 125 for testing degree of conversion, then cured using a monowave light-curing unit (LCU) with a single light intensity of 1470 mW/cm2 and a polywave LCU with three different light intensities (1200, 2000, and 3000 mW/cm2). Heat generation during polymerization was measured by five K-type thermocouples placed in each 1 mm layer from top to bottom. FTIR was used for evaluating the degree of conversion. Regarding heat generation, significant differences were seen in layers 4 and 5. Curing types and times also showed significant impacts on heat generation and the degree of conversion. Heat generation relates more to curing time than light intensity. Darker shades generate and retain more heat. Lighter shades exhibit higher degrees of conversion with longer curing.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070237
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 238: A Critical Review of Cold-Formed Steel
           Built-Up Composite Columns with Geopolymer Concrete Infill

    • Authors: Serene Sara Simon, Bidur Kafle, Riyadh Al-Ameri
      First page: 238
      Abstract: Concrete-filled built-up cold-formed steel (CFS) columns offer enhanced load-carrying capacity, improved strength-to-weight ratios, and delayed buckling through providing internal resistance and stiffness due to the concrete infill. Integrating sustainable alternatives like self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC) with low carbon emissions is increasingly favoured for addressing environmental concerns in construction. This review aims to explore the current knowledge regarding CFS built-up composite columns and the performance of SCGC within them. While research on geopolymer concrete-filled steel tubes (GPCFSTs) under various loads has demonstrated high strength and ductility, investigations into built-up sections remain limited. The literature suggests that geopolymer concrete’s superior compressive strength, fire resistance, and minimal shrinkage render it highly compatible with steel tubular columns, providing robust load-bearing capacity and gradual post-ultimate strength, attributed to the confinement effect of the outer steel tubes, thereby preventing brittle failure. Additionally, in built-up sections, connector penetration depth and spacing, particularly at the ends, enhances structural performance through composite action in CFS structures. Consequently, understanding the importance of using a sustainable and superior infill like SCGC, the cross-sectional efficiency of CFS sections, and optimal shear connections in built-up CFS columns is crucial. Moreover, there is a potential for developing environmentally sustainable built-up CFS composite columns using SCGC cured at ambient temperatures as infill.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070238
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 239: Water–Gas Shift Activity
           over Ni/Al2O3 Composites

    • Authors: Pannipa Tepamatr, Sumittra Charojrochkul, Navadol Laosiripojana
      First page: 239
      Abstract: The water–gas shift (WGS) performance of 10%Ni/Al2O3, 20%Ni/Al2O3 and 10%Ni/CaO-Al2O3 catalysts was studied to reduce CO concentration and produce extra hydrogen. Ni was added onto the Al2O3 support by an impregnation method. The physicochemical properties of nickel catalysts that influence their catalytic activity were examined. The most influential factors in increasing the CO conversion for the water–gas shift reaction are Ni dispersion and surface acidity. Ni metal sites were identified as the active sites for CO adsorption. The main effect of nickel metal was reducing the adsorbed CO amount by reducing the active site concentration. The 10%Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was more active for the WGS reaction than other catalysts. This catalyst presents a high CO conversion rate (75% CO conversion at 800 °C), which is due to its high Ni dispersion at the surface (6.74%) and surface acidity, thereby favoring CO adsorption. A high Ni dispersion for more surface-active sites is exposed to a CO reactant. In addition, favored CO adsorption is related to the acidity on the catalyst surface because CO reactant in the WGS reaction is a weak base. The total acidity can be evaluated by integrating the NH3-Temperature-Programmed Desorption curves. Therefore, an enhancement of surface acidity is identified as the favored CO adsorption.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070239
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 240: Effect of PVDF, HA, and AgNO3
           Annealing on β-Phase, Optical, and Mechanical Properties

    • Authors: Markuniene, Palevicius, Vezys, Augustyniak, Perkowski, Urbaite, Janusas
      First page: 240
      Abstract: Typically, polymer composites and ceramics are used to create biosensors. Materials with properties that are ideal for biosensors and chemical sensors include AgNO3 (silver nitrate), PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), and HA (hydroxyapatite). Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer has been widely used in several applications because of its well-known superior ferroelectric characteristics and biocompatibility. The brittleness and low bending strength of hydroxyapatite limit its applicability. Several HA and polymer composite formulations have been developed to compensate for HA’s mechanical weakness. The final product contains a significant amount of HA, making HA/polymer composites highly biocompatible. When the right amount of silver is deposited, the maximum piezoelectric activity is generated, and silver nitrate has antimicrobial properties. The non-toxic solvent DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) and the solvent casting method were chosen for the preparation of the film. Surface roughness was chosen to measure the Str and Sdr properties of the thin film. For liquid preparation, the multifractal spectra analysis was chosen for each sample. SEM was used to examine the samples morphologically. EDX and mapping analyses were presented for chemistry distribution in the samples.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070240
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 241: Preparation and Characterization of
           Particleboard Made from Industrial-Type Wood Particles and Discarded Duck
           Feathers

    • Authors: Raydan, Charrier, Kowaluk, Robles
      First page: 241
      Abstract: Global poultry waste production is substantial, with billions of poultry raised annually for meat and egg production, resulting in significant feather waste. Conventional poultry waste disposal methods are restricted due to environmental concerns. Meanwhile, wood-composite panel industries face raw material shortages, emphasizing the need for sustainable, renewable fiber sources. In this study, in the core layer of panels, wood particles were replaced with 5 wt% clean duck feathers without pretreatment to take advantage of feather attributes like hydrophobicity, thermal insulation, and sound damping as an alternative construction material. Three adhesives—urea-formaldehyde (UF), polymeric 4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI), and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)—were examined for resin–feather compatibility. The control panels in this study were identical but wood was not replaced with feathers. The results revealed that wood–feather particleboard with pMDI and PVAc resins meets the requirements of the relevant standard for P2 boards (where applicable) concerning their modulus of rupture (MOR: 11 N·mm−2), modulus of elasticity (MOE: 1600 N·mm−2), internal bond (IB: 0.35 N·mm−2), and screw withdrawal resistance (SWR). However, those produced with UF resin did not meet the standards for IB and MOE. Furthermore, the physical properties showed similar water resistance and thickness swelling to control panels with pMDI. Notably, substituting 5 wt% wood with feathers improved thermal insulation by approximately 10% for UF and pMDI resins. Additionally, particleboard with feathers demonstrated improved sound absorption at high frequencies, ranging from 2500 to 500 Hz, particularly with pMDI resin, approaching Class B classification according to EN ISO 11654:1997. This study identifies the higher compatibility of pMDI over PVAc and UF adhesives for feather-based composite materials in construction applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070241
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 242: Assessment of Adhesion in Woven
           Fabric-Reinforced Laminates (FRLs) Using Novel Yarn Pullout in Laminate
           Test

    • Authors: Feyi Adekunle, Ang Li, Rahul Vallabh, Abdel-Fattah M. Seyam
      First page: 242
      Abstract: Fiber-reinforced laminates with flexibility (FRLs) are becoming increasingly crucial across diverse sectors due to their adaptability and outstanding mechanical attributes. Their ability to deliver high performance relative to their weight makes them indispensable in lighter-than-air (LTA) applications, such as aerostats, inflatable antennas, surge bladders, gas storage balloons, life rafts, and other related uses. This research delved into employing woven fabrics as the reinforcement material and explored how their specific parameters, like fiber type, fabric count (warp thread density × weft thread density), fabric areal density, and fabric cover influence the bonding and mechanical properties of laminates. A thorough analysis encompassing standard T-peel (ASTM standard D1876) and a newly proposed yarn pullout in laminate test were conducted on laminates fabricated with various woven reinforcements, each with its unique specifications. The T-peel test was utilized to gauge the adhesive strength between FRL components, offering crucial insights into interfacial bonding within the laminates. Nevertheless, challenges exist with the T-peel test, including instances where the adherents lack the strength to withstand rupture, resulting in unsuccessful peel propagation and numerous outliers that necessitate costly additional trials. Thus, our research group introduced a novel yarn pullout in laminate test to accurately assess adhesion in FRLs. This study uncovered correlations between both adhesion tests (T-peel and yarn pullout in laminate), indicating that the innovative yarn pullout in laminate test could effectively substitute for characterizing adhesion in FRLs. Furthermore, the findings unveiled a complex relationship between woven fabric specifications and laminate properties. We noted that variations in fiber type, yarn linear density, and adhesive type significantly impacted adhesion strength. For instance, Kevlar exhibited markedly superior adhesion compared to Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) when paired with Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) adhesive, whereas UHMWPE demonstrated better adhesion with Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA). Moreover, the adhesion quality lessened as fabric count increased for the same adhesive quantity. These discoveries carry practical implications for material selection and design across industries, from automotive to aerospace, offering avenues to enhance FRL performance.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070242
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 243: In Situ Synthesis, Characterization
           and Photocatalytic Efficacy of Silver-Enhanced MXene and Graphene
           Nanocomposites

    • Authors: Kishore Chand, M. Mustafa Azeem, Muhammad Nazim Lakhan, Mukhtiar Ahmed, Muhammad Jehanzaib Aslam, Ahmer Hussain Shah
      First page: 243
      Abstract: The emergence of 2D materials has significantly expanded the wide range of nanomaterials with diverse applications. Notably, their high conductivity, catalytic efficiency, and hydrophobicity have fueled heightened research interests for water treatment applications. This research aimed to investigate the synthesis and characterization of MXene and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites with silver nanoparticles (Ag) for enhanced catalytic activity in the decomposition of Direct Blue-24 dye. In this study, we employed well-established methods, previously documented in the literature, to prepare two distinct nanocomposites. Novel nanocomposites, namely reduced graphene oxide–silver nanoparticles (rGO–Ag) and MXene–silver nanoparticles (MXene–Ag), were synthesized using the hydrothermal and direct reduction method with an ammoniacal solution (aqueous solution). Comprehensive characterization using advanced tools revealed that the introduced Ag particles integrated seamlessly onto the parent nanofilms of the Carbon derivatives, forming a secondary phase with enhanced catalytic functionality. These nanocomposites demonstrated significant improvements in the catalytic decomposition reactions in simulated wastewater. Verification involved the reduction reaction of Direct Blue-24 dye at known nanocomposite concentrations. The results indicated that MXene–Ag exhibited a superior catalytic activity of 98% in 10 min compared to the rGO–Ag nanocomposite films, which achieved 96% in 35 min. The results indicated that MXene–Ag nanocomposites exhibited a 20–25% increase in catalytic efficiency compared to the rGO–Ag nanocomposites. The outcomes of this research hold promise for practical applications in textile wastewater management and various industrial sectors dealing with mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals containing azo and/or phthalocyanine products.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070243
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 244: Development of Foam Composites from
           Flax Gum-Filled Epoxy Resin

    • Authors: Corentin Musa, Mohammed Zaidi, Michaël Depriester, Yamina Allouche, Naïm Naouar, Alain Bourmaud, Dominique Baillis, François Delattre
      First page: 244
      Abstract: In the present work, an innovative range of foams based on flax gum-filled epoxy resin was developed, reinforced or not by flax fibers. Foams and composites with different gum and epoxy resin contents were produced and their mechanical and thermal performances were characterized. To enhance the organic flax gum filler’s cross-linking, we exploited the oxidized components’ reactivity with the amine hardener (isophorone diamine). We compared the materials obtained with those derived from the native components. The flax gum and fibers were primarily characterized by chemical analysis, NMR, and FTIR to evaluate the mild oxidation of the native materials. The formation of chemical bonds between the oxidized polymer chains, epoxy resin, and hardener was evidenced by FTIR, and the materials were then studied by SEM and X-ray computed micro-tomography (CT) and submitted to mechanical and thermal tests. The relevance of the oxidation treatment was highlighted through a significant increase in density and mechanical performance (+36% and +81%, respectively, for the 100% flax gum material). The positive effect of the flax fibers on homogeneity evidenced through micro-CT analysis was also clearly addressed. This set of promising results paves the way for the future development of fully flax-based insulation composite materials.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070244
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 245: Effect of Copper Doping in Borate
           Bioactive Glass on Bacterial Colonization Prevention—An Insight
           Study on Protein/Carbohydrate Leakage for Biomedical Applications

    • Authors: Bharath Sankaralingam, Gobi Saravanan Kaliaraj, Isha Rameshbabu, Padmapriya Rajendran, Kamalan Kirubaharan Amirtharaj Mosas
      First page: 245
      Abstract: Researchers have extensively studied borate bioactive glass (BBG) for bone regeneration and wound healing applications. In the current study, 13-93B3 (54.6% B2O3, 22.1% CaO, 7.9% K2O, 7.7% MgO, 6.0% Na2O, and 1.7% P2O5) was synthesized using a sol–gel technique and doped with different molar concentrations of Cu (0.01, 0.05, and 0.25 M) into BBG for possible biomedical applications. Then, the antibacterial activity was tested against E. coli and S. aureus. The maximum zone of inhibition against S. aureus was achieved at 100 μg/mL of 0.25 M Cu-doped BBG. At 50 μg/mL of 0.25 molar copper concentration, E. coli showed a significant reduction in colony-forming units. Hydroxyl radical production, influenced by the BBG powder, was most effective against S. aureus, followed by E. coli. Protein leakage studies demonstrated significant leakage after treatment with BBG powder, demonstrating a strong effect on bacterial strains. This shows a change in protein synthesis, which is essential for central metabolism and gene transcription, affecting proteins in the periplasm and inner and outer membranes. Furthermore, carbohydrate leakage studies showed that BBG is effective against all three categories of cellular carbohydrate, namely membrane-bound, transmembrane, and intracellular carbs. This study focuses on the diverse antibacterial processes of Cu-doped BBG, which has emerged as a promising contender for biological applications that require strong antibacterial characteristics.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070245
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 246: Correlation of Microstructural
           Features within Short Carbon Fiber/ABS Manufactured via Large-Area
           Additive- Manufacturing Beads

    • Authors: Neshat Sayah, Douglas E. Smith
      First page: 246
      Abstract: Short carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites are widely used in polymer extrusion additive manufacturing (AM), including large-area additive manufacturing (LAAM), due to their enhanced mechanical properties as compared to neat polymers. However, the mechanical properties of these composites depend on microstructural characteristics, including fibers and micro-voids, which are determined during processing. In this work, the correlation between fibers and micro-voids within the microstructure of LAAM polymer composites throughout various processing stages of short carbon fiber-reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (SCF/ABS) is investigated. The processing stages considered here include the incoming pellets, a single freely extruded strand, a single regularly deposited bead, and a single regularly deposited bead pressed by a mechanical roller. A high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) system is employed to characterize the microstructural features in terms of the fibers (volume fraction, fiber orientation tensor) and micro-voids (volume fraction, sphericity) in the SCF/ABS samples. The results indicate that micro-voids exist within the microstructure of the SCF/ABS composite in all four stages considered here and that the micro-void volume fraction and micro-void sphericity vary among the test samples. Moreover, the results show a considerable variation in fiber orientation and fiber volume fraction within the microstructure throughout all the stages considered; however, all the samples show the highest alignment in the extrusion/print direction. Furthermore, a correlation is identified between the fiber orientation and the micro-void volume fraction within samples from all four stages considered here. This finding suggests that fibers tend to align more in the extrusion/print direction in regions with less micro-void content.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070246
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 247: Investigating Microstructural and
           Mechanical Behavior of DLP-Printed Nickel Microparticle Composites

    • Authors: Benny Susanto, Vishnu Vijay Kumar, Leonard Sean, Murni Handayani, Farid Triawan, Yosephin Dewiani Rahmayanti, Haris Ardianto, Muhammad Akhsin Muflikhun
      First page: 247
      Abstract: The study investigates the fabrication and analysis of nickel microparticle-reinforced composites fabricated using the digital light processing (DLP) technique. A slurry is prepared by incorporating Ni-micro particles into a resin vat; it is thoroughly mixed to achieve homogeneity. Turbidity fluctuations are observed, initially peaking at 50% within the first two minutes of mixing and then stabilizing at 30% after 15–60 min. FTIR spectroscopy with varying Ni wt.% is performed to study the alterations in the composite material’s molecular structure and bonding environment. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed distinctive transmittance signatures at specific wavelengths, particularly within the visible light spectrum, with a notable peak at 532 nm. The effects of printing orientation in the X, Y, and Z axes were also studied. Mechanical properties were computed using tensile strength, surface roughness, and hardness. The results indicate substantial enhancements in the tensile properties, with notable increases of 75.5% in the ultimate tensile strength and 160% in the maximum strain. Minimal alterations in surface roughness and hardness suggest favorable printability. Microscopic examination revealed characteristic fracture patterns in the particulate composite at different values for the wt.% of nickel. The findings demonstrate the potential of DLP-fabricated Ni-reinforced composites for applications demanding enhanced mechanical performance while maintaining favorable printability, paving the way for further exploration in this domain.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070247
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 248: A Design Optimization Study of
           Step/Scarf Composite Panel Repairs, Targeting the Maximum Strength and the
           Minimization of Material Removal

    • Authors: Spyridon Psarras, Maria-Panagiota Giannoutsou, Vassilis Kostopoulos
      First page: 248
      Abstract: This study aimed to optimize the geometry of composite stepped repair patches, using a parametric algorithm to automate the process due to the complexity of the optimization problem and various factors affecting efficiency. More specifically, the algorithm initially calculates the equivalent strengths of the repaired laminate plate according to a max stress criterion, then calculates the dimensions of several elliptical repair patches, taking into account several design methods extracted from the literature. Next, it creates their finite element models and finally, the code conducts an assessment of the examined patch geometries, given specific user-defined criteria. In the end, the algorithm reaches a conclusion about the optimum patch among the designed ones. The algorithm has the potential to run for many different patch geometries. In the current research, five patch geometries were designed and modeled under uniaxial compressive loading at 0°, 45° and 90°. Overall, the code greatly facilitated the design and optimization process and constitutes a useful tool for future research. The results revealed that elliptical stepped patches can offer a near-optimum solution much more efficient than that of the conservative option of the circular patch, in terms of both strength and volume of healthy removed material.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070248
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 249: Effect of Ion-Exchanger Monoporosity
           in the Kinetics of Oxygen Sorption by Silver-Containing Nanocomposites

    • Authors: Vyacheslav Krysanov, Maria Gadebskaya, Tatyana Krysanova, Tamara Kravchenko, Oleg Kozaderov
      First page: 249
      Abstract: The results of a study of the kinetics of oxygen sorption from water by silver-containing nanocomposites synthesized on the base of macroporous ion exchangers with different pore sizes are presented. In the case of the Lewatit K 2620 ion exchanger, the pore size was fixed (41 nm), and for KU-23, it varied in the range from 10 to 100 nm. The nanocomposite materials Ag0⸱KU-23 and Ag0⸱Lewatit K 2620 were prepared by chemical precipitation. Using the different physicochemical methods, it was found that due to the monoporosity of the ion exchanger, the average size of the silver particles in the Ag0⸱Lewatit K 2620 nanocomposite is smaller than for KU-23. This effect contributes to the intensification of oxygen absorption and is proved by the results of studying the rate and degree of oxygen sorption by nanocomposites in the entire studied range of their capacity on metal. On the other hand, the polyporosity of the KU-23 ion exchanger, due to its better diffusion permeability, contributes to the more uniform distribution of silver over the volume of nanocomposite grains and ensures the steady state of the sorption process. Based on the presented experimental results, the synthesized silver-containing nanocomposites can be recommended as multifunctional materials with bactericidal action and catalytic effect for different industrial applications, including the deep removal of dissolved oxygen in the production of ultrapure water for energetics and microelectronics.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070249
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 250: Developing Bio-Nano Composites Using
           Cellulose-Nanofiber-Reinforced Epoxy

    • Authors: Meysam Mehdinia, Mohammad Farajollah Pour, Hossein Yousefi, Ali Dorieh, Anthony J. Lamanna, Elham Fini
      First page: 250
      Abstract: This study introduces the development of a novel bio-nano composite via the dispersion of cellulose nanofibers (CNF) in epoxy. The surface of cellulose nanofibers was functionalized using a two-step chemical treatment to enhance dispersion. The interfacial characteristics of CNF were improved using alcohol/acetone treatments. The modified CNF (M-CNF) demonstrated enhanced compatibility and improved dispersion in the epoxy matrix as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. Based on the analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns, M-CNF did not disturb the crystalline phases at the interface. The results of mechanical testing showed that M-CNF worked as a reinforcing agent in the bio-nano composite. The flexural modulus increased from 1.4 to 3.7 GPa when M-CNF was introduced. A similar trend was observed for tensile strength and impact resistance. The optimum performance characteristics were observed at M-CNF of 0.6%. At higher dosages, some agglomeration was observed, which weakened the interfacial properties. This study promotes sustainability and resource conservation while offering CNF as a sustainable reinforcing agent to develop bio-nano composites.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070250
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 251: Preparation and Properties of a
           Composite Carbon Foam, as Energy Storage and EMI Shield Additive, for
           Advanced Cement or Gypsum Boards

    • Authors: Christina Gioti, Konstantinos C. Vasilopoulos, Maria Baikousi, Angelos Ntaflos, Zacharias Viskadourakis, Alkiviadis S. Paipetis, Constantinos E. Salmas, George Kenanakis, Michael A. Karakassides
      First page: 251
      Abstract: This article explores the cutting-edge advancement of gypsum or cement building boards infused with shape-stabilized n-octadecane, an organic phase change material (PCM). The primary focus is on improving energy efficiency and providing electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding capabilities for contemporary buildings. This research investigates the integration of these materials into construction materials, using red-mud carbon foam (CCF) as a stabilizer for n-octadecane (OD@CCF). Various analyses, including microstructural examination, porosity, and additive dispersion assessment, were conducted using X-ray microtomography and density measurements. Thermal conductivity measurements demonstrated the enhancement of composite boards as the OD@CCF content increased, while mechanical tests indicated an optimal additive content of up to 20%. The thermally regulated capabilities of these advanced panels were evaluated in a custom-designed room model, equipped with a homemade environmental chamber, ensuring a consistent temperature environment during heating and cooling cycles. The incorporation of OD@CCF into cement boards exhibited improved thermal energy storage properties. Moreover, the examined composite boards displayed efficient electromagnetic shielding performance within the frequency range of 3.2–7.0 GHz, achieving EMI values of approximately 18 and 19.5 dB for gypsum and cement boards, respectively, meeting the minimum value necessary for industrial applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070251
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 252: Processing and Mechanics of Aromatic
           Vitrimeric Composites at Elevated Temperatures and Healing Performance

    • Authors: Tanaya Mandal, Unal Ozten, Louis Vaught, Jacob L. Meyer, Ahmad Amiri, Andreas Polycarpou, Mohammad Naraghi
      First page: 252
      Abstract: Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites are renowned for their exceptional mechanical properties, with applications in industries such as automotive, aerospace, medical, civil, and beyond. Despite these merits, a significant challenge in CFRPs lies in their repairability and maintenance. This study, for the first time, delves into the processing and self-healing capability of aromatic thermosetting co-polyester vitrimer-based carbon fiber composites through mechanical testing. Vitrimers are an emerging class of thermosetting polymers, which, owing to their exchangeable covalent bonds, enable the re-formation of bonds across cracks. The specific vitrimer chosen for this study is an aromatic thermosetting co-polyester (ATSP). The mechanical properties of samples were analyzed initially through three-point bending (3PB) testing at room temperature before and after healing (by curing samples for 2 h at 280 °C). Samples were also 3PB tested at 100 °C to analyze their mechanical properties at an elevated temperature for comparison to the samples tested at room temperature. To investigate the fracture properties, optical microscopy images of samples were taken after 3PB tests, which were analyzed to observe crack initiation and crack growth behavior. Through load–displacement curves from double cantilever beam (DCB) mechanical testing, the Mode I crack initiation fracture toughness values of self-healed composites and control composites were calculated to evaluate healing efficiency in ATSP CFRP composites cured at 280 °C for 2 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a similar surface morphology of cracks before and after self-healing. Micro-computed tomography (CT) X-ray imaging confirmed that the healed samples closely resembled the as-fabricated ones, with the exception of some manufacturing voids, caused by outgassing in the initial healing cycle. This research demonstrated the ability for the in situ repair of ATSP CFRPs by restoring the fracture toughness to values comparable to the pristine composite (~289 J/m2).
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070252
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 253: Eco-Friendly Isolated Nanocellulose
           from Seaweed Biomass via Modified-Acid and Electron Beam Process for
           Biodegradable Polymer Composites

    • Authors: Jae-Hun Kim, Jin-Ju Jeong, Jung-Soo Lee
      First page: 253
      Abstract: Nanocellulose (NC) has emerged as a promising biodegradable material with applications in various industrial fields owing to its high mechanical strength, thermal stability, and eco-friendly properties. Traditional methods for isolating NC from wood-based biomass (WB) involve high energy consumption and extensive chemical usage, leading to environmental and sustainability concerns. This study explored an alternative approach to isolate NC from seaweed-based biomass (SB) (SNC), which contains fewer non-cellulosic components and a higher cellulose content than WB, thereby yielding a more efficient e-isolation process. We employed a combination of modified-acid solution and electron beam (E-beam) technology to isolate NC from SB. The E-beam process enhanced the crystallinity while reducing the particle size, thus facilitating NC isolation with reduced environmental impact and processing time. Moreover, our method significantly reduced the need for harsh chemical reagents and energy-intensive processes, which are typically associated with traditional NC isolation methods. We fabricated biodegradable films with improved mechanical properties using NC as a reinforcing agent in polymer composites, thereby demonstrating the potential of NC-based materials for various applications. Therefore, our proposed approach offers a sustainable and efficient method for NC isolation and serves as a guide for the development of eco-friendly industrial processes. Our findings contribute to ongoing efforts to create sustainable materials and reduce the environmental footprint of the manufacturing industry.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070253
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 254: A Finite Element Analysis Study of
           Influence of Femoral Stem Material in Stress Shielding in a Model of
           Uncemented Total Hip Arthroplasty: Ti-6Al-4V versus Carbon
           Fibre-Reinforced PEEK Composite

    • Authors: Mario Ceddia, Giuseppe Solarino, Giorgio Giannini, Giuseppe De Giosa, Maria Tucci, Bartolomeo Trentadue
      First page: 254
      Abstract: Total hip arthroplasty is one of the most common and successful orthopaedic operations. Occasionally, periprosthetic osteolysis associated with stress shielding occurs, resulting in a reduction of bone density where the femur is not properly loaded and the formation of denser bone where stresses are confined. To enhance proximal load transfer and reduce stress shielding, approaches, including decreasing the stiffness of femoral stems, such as carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPCs), have been explored through novel modular prostheses. The purpose of the present study was to analyse, by the finite element analysis (FEA) method, the effect that the variation of material for the distal part of the femoral stem has on stress transmission between a modulable prosthesis and the adjacent bone. Methods: Through three-dimensional modelling and the use of commercially available FEA software Ansys R2023, the mechanical behaviour of the distal part of the femoral stem made of CFRPC or Ti-6Al-4V was obtained. A load was applied to the head of the femoral stem that simulates a complete walking cycle. Results: The results showed that the use of a material with mechanical characteristics close to the bone, like CFRPC, allowed for optimisation of the transmitted loads, promoting a better distribution of stress from the proximal to the distal part of the femur. This observation was also found in some clinical studies in literature, which reported not only an improved load transfer with the use of CFRPC but also a higher cell attachment than Ti-6Al-4V. Conclusions: The use of a material that has mechanical properties that are close to bone promotes load transfer from the proximal to the distal area. In particular, the use of CFRPC allows the material to be designed based on the patient’s actual bone characteristics. This provides a customised design with a lower risk of prosthesis loss due to stress shielding.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070254
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 255: The Effect of Nanoclay Type on the
           Mechanical Properties and Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan/PVA
           Nanocomposite Films

    • Authors: Hadisehsadat Farrokhi, Mojtaba Koosha, Navid Nasirizadeh, Mahshid Salari, Majid Abdouss, Tianduo Li, Yinghua Gong
      First page: 255
      Abstract: Nanoclays are a class of nanomaterials extensively used to prepare polymer nanocomposites. In this study, four types of common nanoclays were selected to prepare chitosan–polyvinyl alcohol (CP) nanocomposite films. Montmorillonite cloisite Na+ (MMT), organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT), and bentonite (BNT), as layered aluminosilicates, and halloysite nanotubes (HNT), as a tubular nanoclay, were blended with CP films at concentrations of 1.5, 3 and 4.5%. The nanocomposite films were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM/EDX, AFM, tensile strength, and antibacterial tests. SEM/EDX results showed a more uniform distribution of the OMMT and HNT nanoclays in the polymer matrix. AFM images showed a rougher surface for nanocomposite films compared to CP film. Increasing the nanoclay concentration in the films from 1.5 to 4.5% resulted in higher tensile strength for HNT and MMT while the trend was reversed for OMMT and BNT. Among the samples, nanocomposite films composed of OMMT and BNT showed the highest tensile strength at the lowest concentrations (CP-OMMT1.5 99 ± 3.7 MPa, CP-B1.5 81 ± 1.5 MPa). The nanocomposite films prepared from OMMT showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus with an inhibition zone of 15 and 19 mm, respectively. The results of this study showed that BNT and OMMT are promising nanoclays for enhancing the mechanical properties and antibacterial activity of hydrophilic polymers. The results of this research can provide new insights into selecting suitable nanoclays for different applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070255
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 256: Composite Materials with Glass Fiber
           Waste and Blast Furnace Slag

    • Authors: Mihaela Fanache, Leonid Vasiliu, Maria Harja
      First page: 256
      Abstract: Fiberglass is a waste generated in the construction materials industry, which is not dangerous for the environment, but long-term and very long-term storage is expensive. Finding a method of reuse as in creating a useful composite material led to the research work in this study. The impact of waste fiberglass and furnace slag on the characteristics of novel composite materials was examined in this study. The density and mechanical properties of the composite samples were examined to determine the impact of waste fiberglass (WFG) concentration in it. Washed river aggregates were replaced with WFG in various ratios in our laboratory tests. Concrete class C16/20 was utilized, having 0.35–0.7 w. % WFG and 2–10% slag. The obtained material was evaluated for density, workability, and compressive strength. The experiments were carried out in an accredited concrete station laboratory. The density of the resulting materials decreased as the WFG content was increased. The densities were higher than the witness sample, ranging from 2358 to 2405 kg/m3. The findings show that adding WFG and slag to concrete has a positive impact on its characteristics. With the addition of WFG, the mixture became more non-homogenous, but these characteristics can be optimized in future. Because of the differential in density between WFG and natural coarse aggregates, the fresh density of obtained composites dropped as the percentage of WFG increased; this could be an advantage, as the newly obtained material became lighter. The findings show that adding waste to concrete has a detrimental impact on its qualities. The introduction of blast furnace slag up to 5% does not modify the compressive strength, compared to the reference samples, but 10% slag causes a decrease in compressive strength of 4.2%. A proportion of 0.25% WFG causes a slight increase in mechanical strength; therefore, 0.25% WFG and 5% slag increased the compressive strength, the maximum value being obtained for a composite with 0.25% WFG, 5% slag, 5% sand and aggregates. Capitalization of WFG and slag resulted in significant economic and environmental benefits by reducing waste storage costs and production costs, and advantages resulted from the new material.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070256
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 257: Production of Composite Cement Clinker
           Based on Industrial Waste

    • Authors: Aknur Kuandykova, Bakhitzhan Taimasov, Ekaterina Potapova, Bakhitzhan Sarsenbaev, Alexandr Kolesnikov, Meiram Begentayev, Erzhan Kuldeyev, Mukhtar Dauletiyarov, Nurgali Zhanikulov, Baurzhan Amiraliyev, Aidana Abdullin
      First page: 257
      Abstract: The possibility of producing cement clinker using low-energy, resource-saving technologies is studied. The composition of industrial waste for low-energy-intensive production of Portland cement clinker at factories in Southern Kazakhstan is analyzed. The possibility of replacing the deficient iron-containing corrective additive with “Waelz clinker for zinc ores” is shown. “Waeltz clinker from zinc ores” as part of the raw material charge performs several tasks: it is a ferrous corrective additive, works as a mineralizer for clinker formation processes, introduces coal into the charge and allows one to reduce the consumption of natural fuel. The processes of burning raw mixtures, wholly or partially consisting of industrial waste, are completed at 1350 °C. This reduces the consumption of main burner fuel for clinker burning and reduces CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. High-quality cement clinker is obtained based on raw material mixtures with Waeltz clinker from zinc ores from the Achisai Metallurgical Plant, phosphorus slag, coal mining waste from Lenger mines and sodium fluoride. The phase composition and microstructure of low-energy clinkers are revealed. Involving industrial waste in raw material circulation will reduce environmental pollution and improve the environment.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070257
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 258: Multiscale Modeling of Elastic Waves
           in Carbon-Nanotube-Based Composite Membranes

    • Authors: Elaf N. Mahrous, Muhammad A. Hawwa, Abba A. Abubakar, Hussain M. Al-Qahtani
      First page: 258
      Abstract: A multiscale model is developed for vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT)-based membranes that are made for water purification or gas separation. As a consequence of driving fluids through the membranes, they carry stress waves along the fiber direction. Hence, a continuum mixture theory is established for a representative volume element to characterize guided waves propagating in a periodically CNT-reinforced matrix material. The obtained coupled governing equations for the CNT-based composite are found to retain the integrity of the wave propagation phenomenon in each constituent, while allowing them to coexist under analytically derived multiscale interaction parameters. The influence of the mesoscale characteristics on the continuum behavior of the composite is demonstrated by dispersion curves of harmonic wave propagation. Analytically established continuum mixture theory for the CNT-based composite is strengthened by numerical simulations conducted in COMSOL for visualizing mode shapes and wave propagation patterns.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070258
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 259: Analytical Modeling Approaches for the
           Cyclic Behavior of Concrete-Filled Circular Filament Wounded GFRP Tube
           Columns

    • Authors: Sajan Shakya, Alexandra Hain
      First page: 259
      Abstract: Concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes (CFFTs) offer an alternative to traditional reinforced concrete columns for new construction applications due to their high strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance properties. Despite their popularity, there is a lack of accurate analytical models for the cyclic/seismic performance of CFFT columns. This is due to the absence of precise stress–strain models for FRP tubes and confined concrete under cyclic loading. Previous experiments on CFFT columns suggest that even minimal reinforcement (≤1%) provides essential energy dissipation for extreme events. However, existing stress–strain models for FRP-confined concrete often neglect the contribution of longitudinal and transverse steel reinforcement. While some researchers have proposed material models to address this issue, the analytical modeling of confinement effects from both steel reinforcement and FRP tubes, especially under lateral cyclic loading, continues to pose a significant challenge. This study aims to use previously collected experimental data to evaluate current analytical modeling approaches in OpenSeesPy3.5.1.12 to simulate the lateral cyclic behavior of CFFT columns with ±55° glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) fiber orientation. Both the lumped inelasticity and the distributed inelasticity modeling approaches are applied. The performance of various FRP confinement models is compared. The effect of plastic hinge length is also considered in the lumped plasticity approach. The findings suggest that integrating a fiber element section into the plastic hinge zone enhances the efficiency of the distributed inelasticity approach. This method accurately captures the non-linear behavior in the critical region and precisely predicts the shape of the hysteretic curve, all while reducing computational costs. Conversely, the lumped inelasticity modeling approach effectively forecasts energy dissipation and peak load values across the entire cyclic hysteresis curve, offering significant computational savings. Finally, a generalized modeling methodology for predicting the response of CFFTs under cyclic lateral load is proposed and subsequently validated using experimental results found in the existing literature.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070259
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 260: Dynamic FEA Analysis of the Super
           Lightweight External Cryogenic Fuel Tank (SLWT) Made of Aluminium Alloy
           2195–Graphene Nano Composite for Launch Vehicle Aerospace
           Application

    • Authors: Ashwath Pazhani, Syed Saad Salman, M. Venkatraman, Alicia Patel, M. Anthony Xavior, Andre Batako, Jeyapandiarajan Paulsamy, Joel Jayaseelan
      First page: 260
      Abstract: This research presents a comprehensive dynamic finite element analysis (FEA) of a cryogenic fuel tank made from an innovative aluminium/lithium–graphene nano-composite material, assessing its suitability for aerospace launch vehicles carrying cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen. The study focuses on the effects of lightweighting, utilizing 0.5 wt.% reinforced graphene in the Al 2195 matrix, a material poised to revolutionize the aerospace industry. Objectives include developing a digital twin of the fuel tank, CAD modeling to aerospace standards, and conducting ANSYS simulations under launch conditions to evaluate stress, strain, and deformation. Numerical results reveal a significant weight reduction of approximately 19,420 kg and a notable maximum stress reduction of 1.3% compared to traditional Al 2195 alloy tanks. The novelty of this research lies in its pioneering analysis of aluminium/lithium–graphene composites for lightweighting in cryogenic fuel tanks under space launch conditions. Conclusions affirm the composite’s viability, advocating for the development of lighter yet robust aerospace structures and fostering innovation in spacecraft design and materials science.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070260
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 261: Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the
           Shear Bond Strength of Composite Materials to Dentin

    • Authors: Dora Mohenski, Mihaela Vrebac, Eva Klarić Sever, Timor Grego, Kristina Goršeta, Ana Ivanišević
      First page: 261
      Abstract: Ionizing radiation in therapeutic doses alters the composition and properties of dentin and resin composites. This may influence the adhesion of restorative materials to irradiated dentin and compromise the success of the restorative treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the shear bond strength (SBS) of bulk-fill composite materials to dentin. Coronal dentin slabs (N = 90) were embedded in acrylate and randomly assigned to six groups (N = 15) depending on the time of radiation (70 Gy) and material (SDR Plus Bulk Fill Flowable and Tetric EvoFlow Bulk Fill (TET)): (1) control group (CG) SDR; (2) CG TET; (3) radiation + SDR; (4) radiation + TET; (5) SDR + radiation; and (6) TET + radiation. Composite cylinders were bonded to the dentin slabs using Scotchbond Universal Plus Adhesive. The specimens were stored in distilled water and fractured in shear mode after 7 weeks. Radiation before and after restoration resulted in an SBS decrease. The SBS was statistically significantly lower in groups 5 and 6 (p < 0.05). The difference between the bulk-fill composites was not significant (p > 0.05). In the CGs, adhesive fractures prevailed. In groups 3 and 4, cohesive fractures in the dentin were more frequent, and in groups 5 and 6, cohesive fractures in the material. Radiotherapy affects the SBS of bulk-fill composites to dentin. Immediate radiation after restoration resulted in the lowest SBS in both bulk-fill composite materials.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070261
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 262: Hydrolyzed Forms of Cellulose and Its
           Metal Composites for Hydrogen Generation: An Experimental and Theoretical
           Investigation

    • Authors: Omar Faye, Inimfon A. Udoetok, Jerzy A. Szpunar, Lee D. Wilson
      First page: 262
      Abstract: The quest for a smooth transition from fossil fuels to clean and sustainable energy has warranted studies on alternative energy materials. Herein, we report on an experimental and theoretical study focused on hydrogen generation through the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) treated in different media (deionized water, sodium hydroxide) and MCC functionalized with magnesium (MCC-Mg), titanium (MCC-Ti), and niobium (MCC-Nb). The XRD results reveal the decreased crystallinity of MCC due to ball milling along with the formation of metal oxide composites between MCC and various metals (magnesium, titanium, and niobium). Theoretical studies using NVT molecular dynamic simulations with the NH chain thermostat implemented in the Dmol3 provides further support to the experimental results reported herein. The results from the experimental and theoretical studies revealed that ball milling and composite formation with metal species enhanced the kinetics of the hydrolysis of MCC and, consequently, hydrogen generation, while the addition of NaOH and urea inhibited the hydrogen yield.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070262
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 263: Electrochemical Jet Machining of
           Surface Texture: Improving the Strength of Hot-Pressure-Welded
           AA6061-CF/PA66 Joints

    • Authors: Weidong Liu, Yan Luo, Yonghua Zhao, Haipeng Zhou, Sansan Ao, Yang Li
      First page: 263
      Abstract: Diverse industries are witnessing an increase in demand for hybrid structures of metals and carbon-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (CFRTPs). Welding is an essential technique in the manufacture of metal–CFRTP hybrid structures. However, achieving high-strength metal–CFRTP welded joints faces serious challenges due to the considerable disparities in material characteristics. As an effective method to strengthen metal–CFRTP joints, surface texturing on metal is gaining significant attention. This study introduces an emerging surface texturing approach, electrochemical jet machining (EJM) using a film electrolyte jet, for enhancing the performance of AA6061-CF/PA66 hot-pressure-welded (HPW) joints. Parametric effects on surface morphology and roughness in the EJM of AA6061 are investigated. The results show that a rough surface with multiscale pores can be generated on AA6061 by EJM, and that surface morphology can be modulated by adjusting the applied current density and jet translational speed. Subsequently, the effects of different EJM-textured surface morphologies on the performance of HPW joints are examined. Surface textures created by EJM are demonstrated to significantly enhance the mechanical interlocking effect at the bonding interface between AA6061 and CF/PA66, resulting in a substantial increase in joint strength. The maximum joint strength attained in the present work with EJM texturing is raised by 45.29% compared to the joints without surface texturing. Additionally, the joint strength slightly improves as the roughness of EJM-textured surfaces rises, with the exception of rough surfaces that are textured with a combination of low current density and rapid translational speed. Overall, these findings suggest that EJM texturing using a film jet prior to welding is a potential approach for the manufacture of high-performance metal–CFRTP hybrid structures.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070263
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 264: Towards 3D Pore Structure of Porous
           Gypsum Cement Pozzolan Ternary Binder by Micro-Computed Tomography

    • Authors: Girts Bumanis, Laura Vitola, Xiangming Zhou, Danutė Vaičiukynienė, Diana Bajare
      First page: 264
      Abstract: A sophisticated characterisation of a porous material structure has been challenging in material science. Three-dimensional (3D) structure analysis allows the evaluation of a material’s homogeneity, pore size distribution and pore wall properties. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) offers a non-destructive test method for material evaluation. This paper characterises a novel ternary binder’s porous structure using micro-CT. Gypsum–cement–pozzolan (GCP) ternary binders are low-carbon footprint binders. Both natural and industrial gypsum were evaluated as a major components of GCP binders. Porous GCP binder was obtained by a foaming admixture, and the bulk density of the material characterised ranged from 387 to 700 kg/m3. Micro-CT results indicate that pores in the range from 0.017 to 3.0 mm can be effectively detected and described for porous GCP binders. The GCP binder structure proved to be dominant by 0.1 to 0.2 mm micropores. For GCP binders produced with natural gypsum, macropores from 2.2 to 2.9 mm are formed, while GCP binders with phosphogypsum possess pores from 0.2 to 0.6 mm. Micro-CT proved to be an effective instrument for characterising the homogeneity and hierarchical pore structure of porous ternary binders.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070264
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 265: Mechanical Characterization of GFRP
           Tiled Laminates for Structural Engineering Applications: Stiffness,
           Strength and Failure Mechanisms

    • Authors: Jordi Uyttersprot, Wouter De Corte, Wim Van Paepegem
      First page: 265
      Abstract: This study investigates the mechanical properties of tiled laminates, frequently used in FRP bridges, and a completely new class of composites for which currently no experimental literature is available. In this paper, first a microscopic examination of laminates extracted from bridge deck flanges is performed, revealing complex multi-ply structures and tiled laminates in the transverse direction of the bridge deck. The subsequent fabrication of tiled laminates in the transverse (i.e., weak) and longitudinal (i.e., strong) span direction explores stiffness and strength characteristics depending on the stacking angle. It is observed that the stiffness in both directions is only slightly reduced with increasing stacking angles, reaching a maximum decrease of 10%, while the failure strength is significantly reduced, particularly with longitudinal tiling, dropping by approximately 70% for a 2° stacking angle. Transverse tiling demonstrates a more moderate 45% strength reduction due to the presence of some 90° plies. Given the small reduction in the stiffness and the fact that in many applications the design is mainly governed by serviceability (i.e., stiffness) requirements than strength, this strength reduction may be acceptable, considering other advantages of the concept. Additionally, this research sheds light on failure mechanisms, emphasizing the role of ply assembly in stress distribution and highlighting the importance of gradual ply ends in reducing strain concentrations. These findings provide valuable insights for optimizing tiled laminates in structural applications, ensuring their effective and reliable use.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070265
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 266: Comprehensive Utilization of Fossil
           Energy: Fabrication of Fire-Retardant Building Materials from Waste
           Plastic

    • Authors: Zheng Wang, Long Geng, Jiateng Zhao, Wenyuan Qiao, Changhui Liu
      First page: 266
      Abstract: As one of the most common fossil derivatives, plastics are widely used for their exceptional chemical stability, low density, and ease of processing. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the production of waste plastics, coupled with a low recycling rate, resulting in serious environmental pollution. To enhance the use of waste plastics, this research synthesized flame-retardant materials from hypercrosslinked polystyrene with different molar fractions of flame retardants. Waste polystyrene foam was used as the raw material, while aniline, triphenylphosphine, and melamine were employed as flame-retardant additives. The flame-retardant additives were successfully doped into the porous skeleton structure of hypercrosslinked polystyrene through a chemical reaction or physical mixing to achieve in situ flame retardancy, and the materials were shaped by a phenolic resin prepolymer. Then, the samples were characterized in detail, and the results indicate that the addition of a flame retardant enhances the flame retardancy of the material. In addition, the material has excellent thermal insulation performance, with a minimum thermal conductivity of 0.04176 W/(m·K).
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070266
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 267: High-Temperature Synthesis of
           Superconducting MgB2 Materials in a Centrifuge

    • Authors: Sanat Tolendiuly, Jaafar Nur-Akasyah, Sergey Fomenko, Ahmet Turan, Sharafhan Assylkhan, Aigul Abisheva
      First page: 267
      Abstract: There is a wide variety of superconducting materials, but only a few of them are suitable for practical industrial use, and one of the most promising superconductors is MgB2. Its main advantages are a critical temperature close to 40 K, which allows for operation in a cryogenic environment, low cost of precursors, and the ease of manufacture. In this paper, we attempted to obtain superconducting materials based on magnesium diboride in a new way by using a high-temperature centrifuge and then investigated how centrifugal acceleration could affect the superconducting characteristics of the materials in a greater way during combustion synthesis. As a brief result of this research, it was found that the value of centrifugal acceleration affected the critical current density (Jc = 1.4 A/cm2) of the MgB2 composites, although it did not considerably impact the critical transition temperature of the MgB2 materials (remained at around 37.5–38 K).
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070267
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 268: The Study of Functional Glass Fiber
           Veils for Composites Protection: Flame Resistance and Mechanical
           Performance

    • Authors: Chenkai Zhu, Zhiwei Qiao, Hongwei Wang, Changyong Huang
      First page: 268
      Abstract: The flame-retardant performance of carbon fiber-reinforced composites is crucial for ensuring structural stability. Traditional additive flame-retardant methods often struggle to balance structural integrity with fire resistance. Herein, Ni(OH)2 and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) were used as flame-retardant agents and mixed with glass fibers to construct the flame-retardant functional fiber veil which was used as the skin layer on the composite surface for fire protection. The structure performance and flame retardancy of composites were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a cone calorimeter test. The results confirmed that a flame-retardant glass fiber mat could effectively improve the flame-retardant and smoke-suppressive properties of the composite material. Due to the synergistic flame-retardant mechanism of Ni(OH)2 and DOPO, the C-N3-D2 composite with the highest LOI value of 32.3% has shown significant reduction in peak heat release rate (PHRR) and total smoke production (TSP) by 31.3% and 19.5%, respectively. In addition, due to flame-retardant agents only being employed in the skin layer of the composite, the core layer of a carbon fiber-reinforced structure could be protected without structure disruption. This approach maintained consistent interlayer shear strength, highlighting the effectiveness of using a flame-retardant fiber veil as a protective skin layer. This strategy could offer a viable solution for safeguarding high-performance composite materials from fire hazards without compromising their structural integrity.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070268
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 269: Nanofibrous Scaffolds in Biomedicine

    • Authors: Hossein Omidian, Erma J. Gill
      First page: 269
      Abstract: This review explores the design, fabrication, and biomedical applications of nanofibrous scaffolds, emphasizing their impact on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Advanced techniques like electrospinning and 3D printing have enabled precise control over scaffold architecture, crucial for mimicking native tissue structures. Integrating bioactive materials has significantly enhanced cellular interactions, mechanical properties, and the controlled release of therapeutic agents. Applications span bone, cardiovascular, soft tissue, neural regeneration, wound healing, and advanced drug delivery. Despite these advancements, challenges such as scalability, biocompatibility, and long-term stability remain barriers to clinical translation. Future research should focus on developing smart scaffolds and utilizing AI-enhanced manufacturing for more personalized and effective regenerative therapies.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070269
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 270: Application of Palladium Mesoporous
           Carbon Composite Obtained from a Sustainable Source for Catalyzing
           Hydrogen Generation Reaction

    • Authors: Erik Biehler, Qui Quach, Tarek M. Abdel-Fattah
      First page: 270
      Abstract: Alternative fuel sources are necessary in today’s economic and environmental climate. Hydrogen fuel arises as an environmentally friendly and energy dense option; however, the volatility of hydrogen gas makes it dangerous to store and utilize. The evolution of hydrogen from hydrogen feedstock materials may prove to overcome this safety barrier, but a catalyst for this reaction is necessary to optimize production. In this work, a composite catalyst comprised of palladium nanoparticles embedded on mesoporous carbon materials (Pd-MCM) was synthesized and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Powder X-Ray diffraction (P-XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscope (EDS). Various reaction conditions such as concentration of reactant, temperature, and pH were applied in measuring the catalytic activity of Pd-MCM. Results show the catalytic activity of the Pd-MCM composite catalysts increased with increasing concentrations of sodium borohydride, increasing temperature, and lower pH. The reaction involving the Pd-MCM composite had an activation energy of 27.9 kJ mol−1. Reusability trials showed the Pd-MCM composite remained stable for up to five consecutive trials.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070270
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 271: Polymer Microspheres Carrying
           Schiff-Base Ligands for Metal Ion Adsorption Obtained via Pickering
           Emulsion Polymerization

    • Authors: Andrei Honciuc, Oana-Iuliana Negru, Mirela Honciuc, Ana-Maria Solonaru
      First page: 271
      Abstract: Several traditional methods for producing polymer microparticle adsorbents for metal ions exist, such as bulk polymerization followed by milling and crushing the material to micron-size particles, precipitation from organic solvents, and suspension polymerization utilizing surfactants. Alternative methods that are easily scalable and are environmentally friendly are in high demand. This study employs Pickering Emulsion Polymerization Technology (PEmPTech) to synthesize nanostructured polymer microspheres that incorporate Schiff-base ligands, which can be utilized for metal ion adsorption, and specifically Cu(II) ions. Our innovative approach makes use of nanoparticle-stabilized, surfactant-free emulsions/suspensions, enabling the straightforward production of ligand-bearing microspheres while allowing for the precise modulation of the polymer matrix chemistry to maximize adsorption capacities. Through this method, we demonstrate notable enhancements in Cu(II) ion adsorption, which correlates with both the polarity of the monomers used and the concentration of Schiff-base ligands within the microspheres. Notably, our results offer insights into the structure–activity relationships essential for designing tailored adsorbents. This work provides a scalable method to produce high-performance adsorbents and also contributes to sustainable methodologies by excluding harmful surfactants and solvents.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070271
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 272: Development and Evaluation of a Novel
           Method for Reinforcing Additively Manufactured Polymer Structures with
           Continuous Fiber Composites

    • Authors: Sven Meißner, Jiri Kafka, Hannah Isermann, Susanna Labisch, Antonia Kesel, Oliver Eberhardt, Harald Kuolt, Sebastian Scholz, Daniel Kalisch, Sascha Müller, Axel Spickenheuer, Lothar Kroll
      First page: 272
      Abstract: Additively manufactured polymer structures often exhibit strong anisotropies due to their layered composition. Although existing methods in additive manufacturing (AM) for improving the mechanical properties are available, they usually do not eliminate the high degree of structural anisotropy. Existing methods for continuous fiber (cF) reinforcement in AM can significantly increase the mechanical properties in the strand direction, but often do not improve the interlaminar strength between the layers. In addition, it is mostly not possible to deposit cFs three-dimensionally and curved (variable–axial) and, thus, in a path that is suitable for the load case requirements. There is a need for AM methods and design approaches that enable cF reinforcements in a variable–axial way, independently of the AM mounting direction. Therefore, a novel two-stage method is proposed in which the process steps of AM and cF integration are decoupled from each other. This study presents the development and validation of the method. It was first investigated at the specimen level, where a significant improvement in the mechanical properties was achieved compared to unreinforced polymer structures. The Young’s modulus and tensile strength were increased by factors of 9.1 and 2.7, respectively. In addition, the design guidelines were derived based on sample structures, and the feasibility of the method was demonstrated on complex cantilevers.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070272
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 273: The Effect of Chopped Carbon Fibers on
           the Mechanical Properties and Fracture Toughness of 3D-Printed PLA Parts:
           An Experimental and Simulation Study

    • Authors: Ahmed Ali Farhan Ogaili, Ali Basem, Mohammed Salman Kadhim, Zainab T. Al-Sharify, Alaa Abdulhady Jaber, Emad Kadum Njim, Luttfi A. Al-Haddad, Mohsin Noori Hamzah, Ehsan S. Al-Ameen
      First page: 273
      Abstract: The incorporation of fiber reinforcements into polymer matrices has emerged as an effective strategy to enhance the mechanical properties of composites. This study investigated the tensile and fracture behavior of 3D-printed polylactic acid (PLA) composites reinforced with chopped carbon fibers (CCFs) through experimental characterization and finite element analysis (FEA). Composite samples with varying CCF orientations (0°, 0°/90°, +45°/−45°, and 0°/+45°/−45°/90°) were fabricated via fused filament fabrication (FFF) and subjected to tensile and single-edge notched bend (SENB) tests. The experimental results revealed a significant improvement in tensile strength, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness compared to unreinforced PLA. The 0°/+45°/90° orientation exhibited a 3.6% increase in tensile strength, while the +45°/−45° orientation displayed a 29.9% enhancement in elastic modulus and a 29.9% improvement in fracture toughness (259.12 MPa) relative to neat PLA (199.34 MPa√m). An inverse correlation between tensile strength and fracture toughness was observed, attributed to mechanisms such as crack deflection, fiber bridging, and fiber pull-out facilitated by multi-directional fiber orientations. FEA simulations incorporating a transversely isotropic material model and the J-integral approach were conducted using Abaqus, accurately predicting fracture toughness trends with a maximum discrepancy of 8% compared to experimental data. Fractographic analysis elucidated the strengthening mechanisms, highlighting the potential of tailoring CCF orientation to optimize mechanical performance for structural applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070273
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 274: Effect of Excessive Clamping Force on
           Bolted CFRP Composite Plates

    • Authors: Alaa El-Sisi, Hani Salim, Iqbal Alshalal, Mahmoud Nawar, Mohamed H. El-Feky
      First page: 274
      Abstract: Friction-type bolted joints are widely used in both the civil and aerospace industries. Uncontrolled excessive bolt clamping force can cause damage to the laminated fiber-reinforced polymeric (FRP) composite through the thickness and damage the joint before applying the service loads. The effect of the friction coefficient (between 0 and 0.3), bolt clearance, joint type, and other parameters on failure modes and the maximum bolt clamping force of the carbon FRP lapped joint is studied. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model consisting of a bolt, a washer, a laminate FRP composite plate, and steel plates was developed for the simulation of the double- (3DD) and single (3DS)-lapped bolted joint. The FE model was validated by using experimental results and was able to predict the experimental results by a difference of between 2.2 and 6.7%. The joint capacity of the clamping force was found to be greatly increased by adopting the double lap technique, which involves placing an FRP composite plate between two steel plates. Also, it was recommended to use an internal washer diameter less than or equal to the FRP composite plate hole diameter since a larger washer clearance can produce higher contact pressure and reduce the resistance by 22%. In addition, reducing the bolt head diameter can lead to a 65% reduction in the 3DS joint clamping strength.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070274
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 275: Flax–Reinforced Vitrimer Epoxy
           Composites Produced via RTM

    • Authors: Patricio Martinez, Steven Nutt
      First page: 275
      Abstract: Composite laminates were produced by RTM using similar glass and flax fabrics and both vitrimer epoxy and aerospace-grade epoxy, both formulated for liquid molding. Tensile and flexural properties were measured and compared, revealing that the vitrimer composites exhibited equivalent performance in flexural strength and tensile modulus, but slightly lower performance in tensile strength relative to reference epoxy composites. In general, glass–fiber composites outperformed flax–fiber composites in tension. However, both glass and flax–fiber composites yielded roughly equivalent flexural strength and tensile modulus-to-weight ratios. Flax fabrics were recovered from composites by matrix dissolution, and a second-life laminate showed full retention of the mechanical properties relative to those produced from fresh flax. Finally, a demonstration of re-forming was undertaken, showing that simple press-forming can be used to modify the composite shape. However, re-forming to a flat configuration resulted in local fiber damage and a decrease in mechanical properties. An alternative forming method was demonstrated that resulted in less fiber damage, indicating that further refinements might lead to a viable forming and re-forming process.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070275
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 276: A Proposal for a Carbon
           Fibre-Manufacturing Life-Cycle Inventory: A Case Study from the
           Competitive Sailing Boat Industry

    • Authors: Lucas Jacquet, Antoine le Duigou, Olivier Kerbrat
      First page: 276
      Abstract: The competitive sailing boat industry uses carbon fibre for high-performance purposes. Nevertheless, this material is known to cause environmental issues during its manufacturing. We can currently observe, based on the literature, difficulty integrating a reliable, justified, and transparent inventory of carbon-fibre production for LCA applications of high-performance composite materials. The current study aims to gain a better understanding of carbon fibre’s environmental impacts by suggesting a justified, reliable, and transparent inventory, based on the life-cycle assessment methodology. It also aims at providing a LCA of high-performance composites. An EcoInvent flows inventory is suggested, based on the literature presenting primary inventories. It is then discussed in terms of data quality, flows under study, and indicators calculated. Eventually, the inventory is used to assess the environmental impact of carbon fibre-reinforced composites applied to an industrial example representative of the competitive sailing boat industry: a hydrofoil mould. Regarding results on carbon fibres’ scale and impacts, indicators commonly highlighted by the literature, were calculated in this study (GWP = 72 kgCO2eq and CED = 1176 MJ), as well as other indicators. These indicators are two to five times higher than the inventories suggested in the literature, due to high heat-production value, production scales, or the quality of the fibre under study. The composite scale results show a major contribution from carbon fibre compared to other flows under study, highlighting the need to suggest a reliable inventory of carbon-fibre production.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070276
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 277: Minimizing Porosity in 17-4 PH
           Stainless Steel Compacts in a Modified Powder Metallurgical Process

    • Authors: Tamás Mikó, Dionysios Markatos, Tamás I. Török, Gábor Szabó, Zoltán Gácsi
      First page: 277
      Abstract: Nowadays, powder-based manufacturing processes are recognized as cost-efficient methods frequently employed for producing parts with intricate shapes and tight tolerances in large quantities. However, like any manufacturing method, powder-based technologies also have several disadvantages. One of the most significant issues lies in the degree of porosity. By modifying the morphology of the gas-atomized spherical 17-4PH stainless steel powder via prior ball milling and then raising both the pressure of cold compaction (1.6 GPa) and sintering temperature (1275 °C), the porosity could be reduced considerably. In our novel powder metallurgical (PM) experimental process, an exceptionally high green density of 92% could be reached by employing die wall lubrication instead of internal lubrication and utilizing induction heating for rapid sintering. After sintering (at temperatures of 1200, 1250, and 1275 °C), the samples aged in the H900 condition were then mechanically tested (Charpy impact, HV hardness, and tensile tests) as a function of porosity. Sintering at 1275 °C for one hour enabled porosity reduction to below 4%, resulting in 1200 MPa yield strength and 1350 MPa ultimate tensile strength with significant (16%) fracture strain. These values are comparable to those of the same alloy products fabricated via ingot metallurgy (IM) or additive manufacturing (AM).
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070277
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 278: Infusion of Thick-Walled Fiber Metal
           Laminates with Aligned Holes in the Metal Foils

    • Authors: Arne Hindersmann, Constantin Bäns, Lutz Beyland
      First page: 278
      Abstract: The rotor blades of wind turbines are becoming increasingly longer, which increases the diameter at the blade connection. Transport problems are the result, as the rotor blades no longer fit under highway bridges, for example. The increase in diameter can be prevented by increasing the bearing strength of the laminate using fiber metal laminates (FMLs). Individual layers of fiber material are replaced by metal foils in FMLs. This work is focused on the infusion of thick-walled FMLs, with infiltration experiments being carried out in-plane and out-of-plane. For the out-of-plane infusion tests, the metal foils are perforated and it is investigated whether the holes should be arranged alternately or aligned in the metal foils. It has been shown that greater laminate thicknesses can be realized with aligned holes. For the determination of voids and dry-spots, the metal foils are treated with a release agent before infusion and after curing the laminate can be demolded ply by ply. The samples made of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) and steel/aluminum measure 500 mm by 800 mm by 20 mm.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070278
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 279: Thermal, Mechanical and Electrical
           Properties of Ag Nanoparticle–Polymethyl Methacrylate Composites
           Under Different Service Temperatures

    • Authors: Xin-Gang Chen, Yang-Fei Zhang
      First page: 279
      Abstract: Ag-nanoparticle-reinforced polymethyl methacrylate (AgNP/PMMA) composites are widely used in healthcare, electronics, construction, transportation and many other fields. As the service temperature fluctuates easily, it is necessary to study the temperature effect on the properties of AgNP/PMMA composites. In this work, a preparation method of mixing and hot-pressing was used to fabricate multifunctional AgNP/PMMA composites that are suitable for large-scale industrial production. AgNPs are found to disperse homogeneously in the PMMA matrix. The thermal conductivity of the composite with 15 vol% AgNPs is 116.19% higher than that of PMMA and decreases as the temperature rises. Flexural strength increases first and then decreases with the rising of AgNP content and service temperature, while the flexural modulus decreases gradually. The minimum electrical resistivity of the composite achieves 1.37 × 10−3 Ω·m, with a low percolation threshold of 5 vol%, an improvement of nine orders of magnitude over PMMA. The results demonstrate that the service temperature has a significant effect on the comprehensive properties of AgNP/PMMA composites.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070279
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 280: Woven Fabrics for Composite
           Reinforcement: A Review

    • Authors: Indraneel R. Chowdhury, John Summerscales
      First page: 280
      Abstract: Fibres in different textile forms (woven, knitted, stitched, and non-crimp) are used to reinforce composites for multifaced applications, including automotive, aerospace, marine, rail, energy, construction, and defence sectors. Textile fabric-based fibre reinforcements for composites possess some outstanding features, such as good dimensional stability, subtle conformability, deep draw moldability/processability, lightweightness, high strength and stiffness, and low cost. The greatest advantage of textile fibre-reinforced composites is the freedom to tailor their strength and stiffness properties for specific applications. Therefore, the design of composites involves defining the fabric geometry, stacking sequence, and orientation of fibres to optimise the system. Compared to knitted, stitched, and non-crimp fabrics, woven fabric-based fibre-reinforced composites are widely used in the industry. The properties of woven fabric-reinforced composites depend on several factors, such as types of fibre, compositions, polymeric matrices, and fibre/matrix interfacial strength. Some of the advantages are reduced preforming process steps, good impact and delamination resistance, and thermo-mechanical properties. This review has been written to provide detailed information and discussions, including the fabrication processes, relationship between fabric structure and composite properties, and morphological characteristics encompassing the current state-of-the-art in woven fabrics for composite reinforcement.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8070280
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 192: Effect of Primer and Fibre Orientation
           on Softwood–Hardwood Bonding

    • Authors: Mahbube Subhani, Ho Yin Lui
      First page: 192
      Abstract: Softwood is widely employed in construction and faces high demand. Australia is grappling with substantial timber scarcity, specifically related to radiata pine, which is the dominant structural timber in the construction sector. However, Australia has a significant hardwood population, which can be utilized to reduce the high demand for radiata pine. This paper aims to investigate the bond properties of both Australian softwood (radiata pine) and hardwood (shining gum). It also discusses the potential to combine softwood and hardwood in glue or cross-laminated timber by evaluating the bond properties of the radiata pine–shining gum interface. For hardwood, the effect of primer is also investigated to determine its efficacy in improving failure mode, bond strength, and stiffness. Lastly, both glulam and cross-laminated timber bonding scenarios are simulated for bond testing by examining the effect of relative fibre orientation on the bond properties of the aforementioned species individually and in combination. Instead of conventional block shear testing, which is predominantly used for same-species bond testing, push-out testing is adopted in this study. However, a comparison with block shear testing is also made in this article. The results indicated that the use of primer on hardwood reduced the inconsistencies in the bond properties and improved wood-side failure rates. It was also concluded that the effect of fibre orientation in a CLT scenario with combined hardwood and softwood failure modes can vary significantly, which leads to a higher standard deviation in the results. Nevertheless, this study outlines the challenges and opportunities for producing hardwood–softwood hybrid glue or cross-laminated timber.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060192
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 193: Impact Performance of 3D Orthogonal
           Woven Composites: A Finite Element Study on Structural Parameters

    • Authors: Wang Xu, Mohammed Zikry, Abdel-Fattah M. Seyam
      First page: 193
      Abstract: This study uses the finite element method (FEM) to investigate the effect of key structural parameters on the impact resistance of E-glass 3D orthogonal woven (3DOW) composites subjected to low-velocity impact. These structural parameters include the number of y-yarn layers, the path of the binder yarn (z-yarn), and the density of the x-yarn. Using ABAQUS, yarn-level finite element (FE) models are created based on the measured geometrical parameters and validated for energy absorption and damage behavior from experimental data gathered from the previous study. The results from finite element analysis (FEA) indicate that the x-yarn density and the binder path substantially influenced the composites’ damage behavior and impact performance. Increasing x-yarn density in 3DOW leads to a 15% increase in energy absorption compared to models with reduced x-yarn densities. Moreover, as the x-yarn density increases, crack lengths at the back face of the resin matrix decrease in the y-yarn direction but increase in the x-yarn direction. The basket weave structure absorbs less energy than plain and 2 × 1 twill structures due to the less constrained weft primary yarns. These results underscore the importance of these structural parameters in optimizing 3DOW composite for better impact performance, providing valuable insights for the design of advanced composite structures.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060193
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 194: Influence of Dry-Mixing and Solvent
           Casting Blending Techniques on the Mechanical and Biological Behavior of
           Novel Biocompatible Poly(ε-caprolactone)/Alumina-Toughened
           Zirconia Scaffolds Obtained by 3D Printing

    • Authors: Mattia Di Maro, Riccardo Pedraza, Alessandro Mosca Balma, Giovanna Gomez d’Ayala, Giovanni Dal Poggetto, Giulio Malucelli, Ilaria Roato, Donatella Duraccio, Federico Mussano, Maria Giulia Faga
      First page: 194
      Abstract: This work focuses on the study and comparison of two mixing methods for the dispersion of Alumina-Toughened Zirconia (ATZ) within the polymer matrix of Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The dry-mixing method using solvent-free impact milling (M) and the solvent casting method with chloroform (SC) were investigated. Samples were produced by 3D printing, and specimens were printed at increasing ATZ loadings (namely, 10, 20, and 40 wt.%). The chemico-physical, mechanical, and cell interaction characteristics of the materials prepared with both mixing methods were studied. Solvent mixing allowed better dispersion of the ATZ in the polymer matrix with respect to dry mixing. In addition, dry mixing affected the molecular weight of the PCL/ATZ composites much more than the solvent casting method. For these reasons, materials obtained by solid mixing exhibited the worst mechanical performance with respect to those obtained by solvent casting, which showed increased Young’s moduli with increasing ATZ amounts. The in vitro biological response elicited in a mesenchymal stem cell model seemed to be influenced by the mixing method, with a preference for the composites obtained through solvent mixing and containing 20 or 40 wt.% of ATZ.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060194
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 195: Valorization of Cork and High-Density
           Polyethylene and Polypropylene Wastes in Cork–Plastic Composites:
           Their Morphology, Mechanical Performance, and Fire Properties

    • Authors: Svetlana Petlitckaia, Virginie Tihay-Felicelli, Laurent Ferry, Sylvain Buonomo, Camille Luciani, Yann Quilichini, Paul-Antoine Santoni, Elisabeth Pereira, Toussaint Barboni
      First page: 195
      Abstract: The recycling of waste materials is a way of limiting over-consumption and optimizing the value of resources. Within the framework of a circular economy, this can be applied to post-consumer plastic wastes, but also to biobased by-products. Hence, this work deals with the design of composite materials by combining recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP) coming from bottle caps and virgin cork of insufficient quality for cork stoppers. Different fractions (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%) of virgin cork were incorporated into recycled polymers (HDPEr and PPr). These composites were prepared without a coupling agent or fire retardant. The morphology and mechanical properties of the different conditionings were studied and compared. The thermal decomposition and the fire behavior of the composites were also investigated. Microscopy revealed the poor adhesion between the cork particles and polymer matrices. However, this limited interaction affected only the tensile strength of the PPr composites, while that of the HDPEr composites remained almost constant. The addition of cork was shown to reduce the time to ignition, but also to promote charring and reduce the heat released during the composite’s combustion. The feasibility of composites based on cork and HDPEr/PPr waste opens the way for their reuse.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060195
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 196: Performance and Life Cycle Assessment
           of Composites Reinforced with Natural Fibers and End-of-Life Textiles

    • Authors: Mina Arya, Mikael Skrifvars, Pooria Khalili
      First page: 196
      Abstract: The growing need for materials that are eco-friendly and sustainable in the industrial sector has shifted focus from synthetic fossil to natural fibers, alongside the utilization of recycled polymer textiles. This research introduces a novel method for using end-of-life textiles, such as polyester and polyamide fabrics, in the production of composite materials, aiming to lessen textile waste and enhance material longevity. The mechanical attributes of flax fabric (FF), flax–recycled polyamide fabric (F/RPA), and flax–recycled polyester fabric (F/RPES) composite laminates are assessed through tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, and Charpy impact tests. The study revealed that the addition of end-of-life synthetic fibers improves tensile strength, while the trend in modulus values suggests that flax provides a high degree of stiffness to the composites, which is moderated by the addition of synthetic fibers. This effect is consistent across both tensile and flexural testing, although the impact on stiffness is more significant in bending. The inclusion of polyester fibers in the composite laminate resulted in significant enhancements, with an 11.1% increase in interlaminar shear maximum force, a 17.4% improvement in interlaminar shear strength, and a 67.1% rise in un-notch impact energy, compared to composites made with only flax fiber (FF). The microscopic examination uncovered the internal structure and demonstrated a clear, strong bond between the polyester and polyamide fiber layers with the flax fibers. Additionally, the life cycle assessment revealed that the F/RPES composite had less environmental impact than FF and F/RPA in all 18 categories analyzed. This indicates that the environmental footprint of producing F/RPES is smaller than that of both FF and F/RPA.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060196
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 197: Investigation of Thermomechanical and
           Dielectric Properties of PLA-CA 3D-Printed Biobased Materials

    • Authors: Morgan Lecoublet, Mohamed Ragoubi, Nathalie Leblanc, Ahmed Koubaa
      First page: 197
      Abstract: Renewable dielectric materials have attracted the attention of industries and stakeholders, but such materials possess limited properties. This research focused on studying polylactic acid (PLA)/cellulose acetate (CA) blends produced by 3D printing to facilitate their integration into the electrical insulation field. The dielectric findings showed that a blend containing 40% of CA by weight had a dielectric constant of 2.9 and an electrical conductivity of 1.26 × 10−11 S·cm−1 at 100 Hz and 20 °C while exhibiting better mechanical rigidity in the rubbery state than neat PLA. In addition, it was possible to increase the electrical insulating effect by reducing the infill ratio at the cost of reduced mechanical properties. The differential scanning calorimetry, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and dynamic mechanical analysis results showed that the PLA plasticizer reduced the energy required for PLA relaxations. These preliminary results demonstrated the benefits of using a combination of PLA, CA, and 3D printing for electrical insulation applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060197
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 198: Microstructure Evolution of
           Polyacrylonitrile-Based Fibers during Thermal Pre-Oxidation

    • Authors: Yue Sun, Yanxiang Wang, Lanzhong Wang, Yongbo Wang, Bohan Ding, Jinghe Guo, Shichao Dai, Yuxia Wang
      First page: 198
      Abstract: In this work, pre-oxidized polyacrylonitrile fibers are treated with ultrasonic etching and solution etching to produce ultra-thin sections. The evolution of the fibers’ microstructure in the pre-oxidation process is observed, and the transformation model of the microstructure of the pre-oxidized fibers is proposed. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the microstructure changes of the fibers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to observe the chemical structure transformation and crystallization degree of the fibers in the pre-oxidation process. The results revealed that pre-oxidized fibers exhibited a smooth surface, while their interior consisted of fibrils. The longitudinal microfibrils were connected by the transverse microfibrils and amorphous regions. The fracture morphology of the fibers shifted from ductile to brittle, and the cross-section gradually became smoother. The linear molecular chain of PAN transformed into a ring structure as pre-oxidation progressed, subsequently leading to the cross-linking of this ring structure into an orderly trapezoidal configuration. The connection between the fibrils was enhanced, and the fiber structure became more compact and stable.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060198
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 199: Rheological Behavior Features of
           Feedstocks with a Two-Component Wax–Polyolefin Binder Compared to
           Analogs Based on Polyoxymethylene

    • Authors: Alexander N. Muranov, Viktor R. Lysenko, Maxim A. Kocharov
      First page: 199
      Abstract: Despite the large number of studies devoted to different compositions of polymer binders for PIM technology, the actual task is still a comparative analysis of the properties of different types of binders to determine their advantages and disadvantages and optimize the compositions used. In this regard, this study aims at the identification and comparative analysis of the rheological properties of the most demanded feedstocks with binders based on polyoxymethylene and a wax–polyolefin mixture under the condition of using identical steel powder filler. The rate of change in the volume fraction of the liquid phase of the binder in the compared feedstocks with temperature change was determined by the calculation–experimental method. As shown, the temperature dependence of the viscosity of feedstocks with a binder based on a polymer blend depends on factors with variable power, i.e., the viscosity change with temperature occurs by different mechanisms with their relaxation spectra. Thus, the principle of temperature–time superposition for feedstocks with multicomponent binders is not applicable, and the study of the viscosity of such materials should involve a wide range of shear rates and temperatures using experimental methods. Capillary rheometry was used to measure the flow curves of feedstocks based on polyoxymethylene and wax–polyolefin binders. The analysis of flow curves of feedstocks showed that feedstocks with a binder of solution–thermal type of debinding have significantly lower viscosity, which is an advantage for molding thin-walled products. However, their difference of 1.5 times sensitivity to the shear rate gradient leads to their lower resistance to “jets” and liquation of components because of shear rate gradients when molding products with elements of different cross-sectional areas.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060199
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 200: In Situ PANI–Graphite
           Nanochain-like Structures and Their Application as Supercapacitive
           Electrodes

    • Authors: Samuel E. Kayode, Olaolu S. Awobifa, Marco A. Garcia-Lobato, María Téllez Rosas, Mario Hoyos, Francisco J. González
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Composite materials based on polyaniline and graphite were prepared using in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer without any previous treatment. Three monomer/graphite weight ratios during polymerization were studied, which were 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The composite materials showed a nanochain-like structure whose dimensions vary with the graphite content. Materials were deposited over a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate to evaluate its capacitive performance. The electrochemical measurements carried out in a 0.1 M aqueous solution of H2SO4 showed that PANI-Gr1 composite electrode exhibits a capacitance of 238 F·g−1 at 0.5 A·g−1 within a potential window of 0–0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl. At a current density of 4.0 A·g−1, the PANI-Gr1 composite shows an energy density of 3.0 Wh·kg−1 that is 30% higher than pure PANI, results due to an increase in electrical conductivity concomitant with the morphology change and surface area increase. Composite materials showed promising properties as easily processable and scalable electrodes for supercapacitors.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060200
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 201: Advances in Embedded Sensor
           Technologies for Impact Monitoring in Composite Structures

    • Authors: Lucas Braga Carani, Johnson Humphrey, Md Mostafizur Rahman, Okenwa I. Okoli
      First page: 201
      Abstract: Embedded sensor technologies have emerged as pivotal tools in redefining structural health monitoring (SHM) within composite materials, addressing a critical need in the composite structure industry. Composites, by their layered nature, are particularly vulnerable to internal delamination and micro-cracks from impacts, which can propagate and lead to catastrophic failures. Traditional inspection methods often fail to detect internal damage and these undetected damages can lead to reduced performance and potential system failures. Embedded sensors offer a solution capable of detecting a spectrum of damages, from barely visible impact damages (BVID) and subtle low-energy impacts to pronounced impact-related deformations, all in real-time. Key sensors, such as Piezoelectric transducers (PZTs), Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs), and other potential sensors, have been discussed as potential detection techniques in this review. This review discusses a comprehensive picture of the progress and current scenario of different embedded sensors for SHM of composite structures. The growth of embedded sensor technologies, current limitations, and future requirements focusing on sensor materials have been discussed in this review. Finally, challenges and opportunities for the development of a sustainable SHM system have been discussed in this paper.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060201
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 202: Thermal Emissivity and Heat Capacity
           of Composite Metal Foam

    • Authors: Nigel Amoafo-Yeboah, Afsaneh Rabiei
      First page: 202
      Abstract: Composite metal foam (CMF) is a new class of material based on a mixture of metal matrix composites and metal foams. While the mechanical properties of CMF are well studied, its thermal properties, particularly at extreme temperatures, are yet to be evaluated and established. This study investigates the specific heat capacity of stainless-steel composite metal foam at temperatures up to 1200 °C while comparing data obtained using the laser flash method and a differential scanning calorimetry method (DSC). Moreover, it outlines a detailed procedure for investigating the surface emissivity of composite metal foam (CMF) as a function of the emissivity of separate components (spheres and matrix). It uses experimental and analytical procedures to show how emissivity is directly affected by surface roughness, temperature, sphere curvature and viewing angles. The CMF used in this study consists of 316L stainless steel matrix and stainless-steel hollow spheres with varying sphere sizes.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060202
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 203: Enhancing Hydrogels with Quantum Dots

    • Authors: Hossein Omidian, Renae L. Wilson
      First page: 203
      Abstract: This manuscript explores the interdisciplinary integration of quantum dot–hydrogel composites and smart materials and their applications across a spectrum of fields, including biomedical engineering, environmental sensing, and energy harvesting. It covers the synthesis of novel materials like fluorescent hydrogel nanocomposites that display enhanced chemical stability, mechanical strength, and thermal resistance, highlighting their utility in environmental monitoring and catalysis. In the biomedical sector, innovations include hydrogel composites for targeted drug delivery and advanced therapies such as photothermal DNA hydrogels for tumor treatment. This review also discusses the application of these materials in imaging, diagnostics, and the development of smart sensors capable of detecting various biological and environmental changes. Its scope further extends to optoelectronics and the design of energy-efficient systems, underscoring the versatile functionalities of hydrogels in modern technological applications. Challenges remain in scaling up these technologies for commercial use and ensuring their long-term stability and safety, necessitating future research focused on sustainable, scalable solutions that can be integrated into existing systems.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060203
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 204: Mechanisms of Component Degradation
           and Multi-Scale Strategies for Predicting Composite Durability: Present
           and Future Perspectives

    • Authors: Paulo Ricardo Ferreira Rocha, Guilherme Fonseca Gonçalves, Guillaume dos Reis, Rui Miranda Guedes
      First page: 204
      Abstract: Composite materials, valued for their adaptability, face challenges associated with degradation over time. Characterising their durability through traditional experimental methods has shown limitations, highlighting the need for accelerated testing and computational modelling to reduce time and costs. This study presents an overview of the current landscape and future prospects of multi-scale modelling for predicting the long-term durability of composite materials under different environmental conditions. These models offer detailed insights into complex degradation phenomena, including hydrolytic, thermo-oxidative, and mechano-chemical processes. Recent research trends indicate a focus on hygromechanical models across various materials, with future directions aiming to explore less-studied environmental factors, integrate multiple stressors, investigate emerging materials, and advance computational techniques for improved predictive capabilities. The importance of the synergistic relationship between experimental testing and modelling is emphasised as essential for a comprehensive understanding of composite material behaviour in diverse environments. Ultimately, multi-scale modelling is seen as a vital contributor to accurate predictions of environmental effects on composite materials, offering valuable insights for sustainable development across industries.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060204
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 205: Metaheuristic Optimization of
           Functionally Graded 2D and 3D Discrete Structures Using the Red Fox
           Algorithm

    • Authors: J. S. D. Gaspar, M. A. R. Loja, J. I. Barbosa
      First page: 205
      Abstract: The growing applicability of functionally graded materials is justified by their ability to contribute to the development of advanced solutions characterized by the material customization, through the selection of the best parameters that will confer the best mechanical behaviour for a given structure under specific operating conditions. The present work aims to attain the optimal design solutions for a set of illustrative 2D and 3D discrete structures built from functionally graded materials using the Red Fox Optimization Algorithm, where the design variables are material parameters. From the results achieved one concludes that the optimal selection and distribution of the different materials’ mixture and the different exponents associated with the volume fraction law significantly influence the optimal responses found. To note additionally the good performance of the coupling between this optimization technique and the finite element method used for the linear static and free vibration analyses.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060205
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 206: Experimental Characterization of
           Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) Systems Applied on
           Calcarenite Stone: Adoption of Non-Standard Setup for Double-Shear Bond
           Tests

    • Authors: Maria Concetta Oddo, Liborio Cavaleri, Catherine Papanicolaou, Lidia La Mendola
      First page: 206
      Abstract: The use of Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) systems is an innovative method for strengthening structures, particularly masonry, while addressing environmental and economic concerns. Despite their widespread use, characterizing FRCM composites poses challenges due to their complex mechanical behavior and considerable variability in properties. The available standardized testing methods exhibit some inconsistencies, underscoring the need for reliable characterization procedures. This paper presents an experimental study on the bond behavior between FRCM materials and calcarenite stone using a non-standard setup for double shear bond tests. Different FRCM systems are considered, varying the matrix composition and fabric nature. The experimental results are evaluated in terms of maximum stress, slip and data dispersion, alongside comparisons with double shear tests on larger samples and single-lap shear. These findings provide insights into how the mortar nature influences the stress-slip curves, strength, ductility and failure modes. The experimental study demonstrates the repeatability and robustness, particularly in terms of peak strength, of the non-standard setup configuration utilized in the study. The study highlights the importance of reliable characterization procedures for FRCM materials, especially in bond behavior assessments, emphasizing the need for further research to enhance our understanding of their application in structural reinforcement.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060206
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 207: Multifunctional Anatase–Silica
           Photocatalytic Material for Cements and Concretes

    • Authors: Valeria Strokova, Yulia Ogurtsova, Ekaterina Gubareva, Sofya Nerovnaya, Marina Antonenko
      First page: 207
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to study the influence of multifunctional anatase–silica photocatalytic materials (ASPMs) with various photocatalytic and pozzolanic activities on the properties of white portland cement and fine-grained concrete. ASPMs were synthesized by a sol–gel method, during which the levels of photocatalytic and pozzolanic activity were regulated by a certain amount of solvent. ASPMb, obtained with the use of a smaller amount of solvent, was characterized by increased pozzolanic activity due to the lower degree of coating of the surface of diatomite particles with titanium dioxide and the higher content of an opal–cristobalite–tridymite-phase and Bronsted acid sites. They promoted the reaction of diatomite with portlandite of cement stone and allowed significant decreases in the strength of cement–sand mortar to be avoided when replacing 15% of the cement with ASPMs. This allowed self-cleaning fine-grained concrete to be produced, which, after forced carbonization, simulating the natural aging of the product during operation, retained the ability of self-cleaning without changes. ASPMc, produced with the use of a larger amount of solvent with a more uniform distribution of titanium dioxide on the surface of diatomite, allowed fine-grained concrete with a high self-cleaning ability to be obtained, but with a lesser manifestation of the pozzolanic effect.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060207
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 208: Anthranilic Acid: A Versatile Monomer
           for the Design of Functional Conducting Polymer Composites

    • Authors: Rachel McCormick, Emily Buckley, Paul J. Donnelly, Victoria Gilpin, Regan McMath, Robert B. Smith, Pagona Papakonstantinou, James Davis
      First page: 208
      Abstract: Polyaniline has been utilized in various applications, yet its widespread adoption has often been impeded by challenges. Composite systems have been proposed as a means of mitigating some of these limitations, and anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid) has emerged as a possible moderator for use in co-polymer systems. It offers improved solubility and retention of electroactivity in neutral and alkaline media, and, significantly, it can also bestow chemical functionality through its carboxylic acid substituent, which can greatly ease post-polymer modification. The benefits of using anthranilic acid (as a homopolymer or copolymer) have been demonstrated in applications including corrosion protection, memory devices, photovoltaics, and biosensors. Moreover, this polymer has been used as a versatile framework for the sequestration of metal ions for water treatment, and, critically, these same mechanisms serve as a facile route for the production of catalytic metallic nanoparticles. However, the widespread adoption of polyanthranilic acid has been limited, and the aim of the present narrative review is to revisit the early promise of anthranilic acid and assess its potential future use within modern smart materials. A critical evaluation of its properties is presented, and its versatility as both a monomer and a polymer across a spectrum of applications is highlighted.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060208
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 209: Effects of Nanofillers and Synergistic
           Action of Carbon Black/Nanoclay Hybrid Fillers in Chlorobutyl Rubber

    • Authors: Tomy Muringayil Joseph, Hanna J. Maria, Martin George Thomas, Józef T. Haponiuk, Sabu Thomas
      First page: 209
      Abstract: Nanocomposites based on chlorobutyl rubber (CIIR) have been made using a variety of nanofillers such as carbon black (CB), nanoclay (NC), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon black/nanoclay hybrid filler systems. The hybrid combinations of CB/nanoclay are being employed in the research to examine the additive impacts on the final characteristics of nanocomposites. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), together with resistivity values and mechanical property measurements, have been used to characterise the structural composition of CIIR-based nanocomposites. AFM results indicate that the addition of nanoclay into CIIR increased the surface roughness of the material, which made the material more adhesive. The study found a significant decrease in resistivity in CIIR–nanoclay-based composites and hybrid compositions with nanoclay and CB. The higher resistivity in CB composites, compared to CB/nanoclay, suggests that nanoclay enhances the conductive network of carbon black. However, GO-incorporated composites failed to create conductive networks, which this may have been due to the agglomeration. The study also found that the modulus values at 100%, 200%, and 300% elongation are the highest for clay and CB/clay systems. The findings show that nanocomposites, particularly clay and clay/CB hybrid nanocomposites, may produce polymer nanocomposites with high electrical conductivity. Mechanical properties correlated well with the reinforcement provided by nanoclay. Hybrid nanocomposites with clay/CB had increased mechanical properties because of their enhanced compatibility and higher filler–rubber interaction. Nano-dispersed clay helps prevent fracture growth and enhances mechanical properties even more so than CB.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060209
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 210: Multi-Objective Optimization of Novel
           Aluminum Welding Fillers Reinforced with Niobium Diboride Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Andrés F. Calle-Hoyos, Norman A. Burgos-León, Luisa I. Feliciano-Cruz, David Florián-Algarín, Christian Vázquez Rivera, Jorge D. De Jesús-Silva, Oscar Marcelo Suárez
      First page: 210
      Abstract: New and innovative technologies have expanded the quality and applications of aluminum welding in the maritime, aerospace, and automotive industries. One such technology is the addition of nanoparticles to aluminum matrices, resulting in improved strength, operating temperature, and stiffness. Furthermore, researchers continue to assess pertinent factors that improve the microstructure and mechanical characteristics of aluminum welding by enabling the optimization of the manufacturing process. Hence, this research explores alternatives, namely cost-effective aluminum welding fillers reinforced with niobium diboride nanoparticles. The goal has been to improve weld quality by employing multi-objective optimization, attained through a central composite design with a response surface model. The model considered three factors: the amount (weight percent) of nanoparticles, melt stirring speed, and melt stirring time. Filler hardness and porosity percentage served as response variables. The optimal parameters for manufacturing this novel filler for the processing conditions studied are 2% nanoparticles present in a melt stirred at 750 rpm for 35.2 s. The resulting filler possessed a 687.4 MPA Brinell hardness and low porosity, i.e., 3.9%. Overall, the results prove that the proposed experimental design successfully identified the optimal processing factors for manufacturing novel nanoparticle-reinforced fillers with improved mechanical properties for potential innovative applications across diverse industries.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060210
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 211: Physical, Mechanical and
           Microstructural Characteristics of Perlite-Based Geopolymers Modified with
           Mineral Additives

    • Authors: Natalia I. Kozhukhova, Roman A. Glazkov, Marina S. Ageeva, Marina I. Kozhukhova, Ivan S. Nikulin, Irina V. Zhernovskaya
      First page: 211
      Abstract: One of the promising raw materials for the synthesis of geopolymers is perlite, which is a natural low-calcium aluminosilicate. This research studied the physical, mechanical and microstructural characteristics of perlite-based geopolymers modified with different mineral additives that were prepared using different methods of introducing the alkali components and curing conditions. The experimental results of the consolidated perlite-based geopolymer pastes showed that curing conditions and the method of introducing the alkali component into the geopolymer matrix had a minimal effect on the average density while demonstrating a significant boost in compressive strength. So, after thermal treatment, the compressive strength increased by 0.63 to 11.4 times for the mixes when fresh alkali solution was used and by 0.72 to 12.8 times for the mixes with the 24 h conditioned alkali solution. Maximum-strength spikes from 1.1 MPa to 13.2 MPa and from 0.7 MPa to 9.7 MPa were observed for the mixes with kaolin when prepared with fresh and conditioned alkali solutions, respectively. It was also observed that thermal treatment facilitates the compaction of the matrix structure by 18% and 1% for the non-modified mix and the mix modified with Portland cement. Perlite-based geopolymers modified with Portland cement and citrogypsum demonstrated a significant reduction in the initial and final setting times with both methods of introducing the alkali solution. On the surface of mixes modified with citrogypsum, regardless of the curing conditions and method of introducing the alkali component, an efflorescence substance was observed. The microstructural analysis of the consolidated geopolymer perlite-based pastes containing citrogypsum demonstrated a loose structure and the presence of efflorescence, which can be associated with a retardation in interaction processes between alkali cations and the aluminosilicate component. EDS analysis demonstrated that the presence of such elements as oxygen, sodium and sulfur may indicate the efflorescence of unreacted sodium hydroxide (NaOH), citrogypsum (CaSO4) and the products of their interaction in the form of crystalline hydrates of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4).
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060211
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 212: Gypsum–Cement–Pozzolan
           Composites for 3D Printing: Properties and Life Cycle Assessment

    • Authors: Genadijs Sahmenko, Liga Puzule, Alise Sapata, Peteris Slosbergs, Girts Bumanis, Maris Sinka, Diana Bajare
      First page: 212
      Abstract: Over the past decade, 3D printing with concrete has been widely adopted worldwide. The primary drivers for this innovation are the reduction in manual labor and the more efficient use of natural resources. New materials that are suitable for 3D printing are developed, which are characterized by rapid setting and robust physical and mechanical properties. In this study, for the first time, ternary gypsum–cement–pozzolanic (GCP) composites were developed and evaluated for use in 3D printing. These composites are associated with durability in water as Portland cement (PC) while maintaining the rapid hardening properties of gypsum. Two types of secondary gypsum—recycled plasterboard gypsum (RG) and phosphogypsum (PG)—were used as the calcium hemihydrate component. The compressive strength test showed that 37 MPa can be achieved, which is comparable to that of traditional PC-based 3D printable mixtures. For the first time in a 3D print test, it was experimentally proved that GCP mixtures have good stability and buildability up to 35 layers. According to Life Cycle Analysis, elaborated material gives a carbon footprint reduction of up to 40%, compared to traditional PC mortar, thus supporting the sustainable use of this innovative composite.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060212
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 213: Development of High-Sensitivity
           Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Strain Sensors
           through Solution Electrospinning Process Technique

    • Authors: Athanasios Kotrotsos, Nikolaos Syrmpopoulos, Prokopios Gavathas, Sorina Moica, Vassilis Kostopoulos
      First page: 213
      Abstract: In this study, nanofibers obtained through the electrospinning process are explored for strain-sensing applications. Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) flexible structures were fabricated using the solution electrospinning process (SEP) technique. Subsequently, these structures were nanomodified with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through immersion into an ultrasonicated suspension containing 0.3 wt% SWCNTs. The nanomodification aimed to impart an electrically conductive network to the structures. Micro-tensile tests and electrical resistance measurements were conducted to characterize the apparent mechanical and electrical properties, respectively. The fabricated structures demonstrated potential as wearable strain sensors for monitoring changes in strain across various applications. The samples exhibited excellent performance, high sensitivity, outstanding mechanical properties, and a broad stretching range. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations provided qualitative insights into the activated conductive pathways during operation.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060213
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 214: A Study of the Moisture Absorption
           Characteristics of Vinyl Ester Polymer and Unidirectional Glass Fibre
           Vinyl Ester Laminates

    • Authors: James Thomason, Georgios Xypolias
      First page: 214
      Abstract: Vinyl esters are increasingly being used as the matrix polymer in fibre-reinforced composites for demanding large applications which experience long-term exposure to moist and wet conditions. This paper presents the results of a study of ageing due to moisture absorption in vinyl ester polymer and glass fibre–vinyl ester laminates. The moisture uptake kinetics of the two neat VE polymers, cured at different conditions, and their glass-reinforced composites has been characterised by gravimetric methods. These studies have been carried out using submersion in water at 23 °C and 50 °C and exposure to high relative humidity moisture conditions at room temperature. A dynamic mechanical analysis characterisation of the glass transition temperatures of both the aged matrix and the composite is also presented.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060214
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 215: Mechanical Performance of Recycled 3D
           Printed Sustainable Polymer-Based Composites: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Ioannis Filippos Kyriakidis, Nikolaos Kladovasilakis, Eleftheria Maria Pechlivani, Konstantinos Tsongas
      First page: 215
      Abstract: The development of efficient waste valorization strategies has emerged as an important field in the overall efforts for alignment with the environmental goals that have been set by the European Union (EU) Green Deal regarding the development of sustainable circular economy models. Additive manufacturing has emerged as a sustainable method for secondary life product development with the main advantages of it being a form of net-zero waste production and having the ability to successfully transport complex design to actual products finding applications in the industry for rapid prototyping or for tailored products. The insertion of eco-friendly sustainable materials in these processes can lead to significant reduction in material footprints and lower energy demands for the manufacturing process, helping achieve Sustainable Development Goal 12 (SDG12) set by the EU for responsible production and consumption. The aim of this comprehensive review is to state the existing progress regarding the incorporation of sustainable polymeric composite materials in additive manufacturing (AM) processes and identify possible gaps for further research. In this context, a comprehensive presentation of the reacquired materials coming from urban and industrial waste valorization processes and that are used to produce sustainable composites is made. Then, an assessment of the printability and the mechanical response of the constructed composites is made, by taking into consideration some key thermal, rheological and mechanical properties (e.g., viscosity, melting and degradation temperature, tensile and impact strength). Finally, existing life cycle analysis results are presented regarding overall energy demands and environmental footprint during the waste-to-feedstock and the manufacturing processes. A lack of scientific research was observed, regarding the manifestation of novel evaluation techniques such as dynamic mechanical analysis and impact testing. Assessing the dynamic response is vital for evaluating whether these types of composites are adequate for upscaling and use in real life applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060215
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 216: Friction Stir Processed AA5754-Al2O3
           Nanocomposite: A Study on Tribological Characteristics

    • Authors: M. Nafea M. Rohim, Mahmoud E. Abdullah, Moustafa M. Mohammed, Andrzej Kubit, Hamed Aghajani Derazkola
      First page: 216
      Abstract: This study investigates the tribological properties of an AA 5754 aluminum alloy composite reinforced with the nanopowder of Al2O3, fabricated using the friction stir processing (FSP) technique with blind holes. The aim is to analyze the effects of varying the tool rotational speed (rpm) and blind hole diameter on the wear and friction behavior of the produced composite. A pin-on disk test is conducted under dry conditions and room temperature to assess the tribological properties against steel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is employed to examine the worn and wear surfaces of the produced composites post test. The results indicate that increasing the applied load results in a decrease in the coefficient of friction (COF), with values ranging from 0.775 to 0.852 for 10 N and 0.607 to 0.652 for 20 N. Moreover, the wear rate diminishes with higher Al2O3 content and optimal FSP tool rotation (1280 rpm). Hardness analysis reveals variations between 33–42 HV and 35–39 HV, influenced by nanoparticle distribution. The composite demonstrates superior wear resistance compared to raw AA5754 aluminum due to its reinforced nature. However, high FSP tool rotation rates lead to abrasive wear and surface cracks. These findings offer insights into optimizing FSP parameters to enhance the tribological performance of nano-reinforced aluminum alloys.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060216
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 217: Electrochemical Enrichment of
           Biocharcoal Modified on Carbon Electrodes for the Detection of Nitrite and
           Paraxon Ethyl Pesticide

    • Authors: Anurag Adiraju, Amina Brahem, Tianqi Lu, Ammar Al-Hamry, Yu Zhou, Leixin Wei, Aditya Jalasutram, Christoph Tegenkamp, Kamel Halouani, Olfa Kanoun
      First page: 217
      Abstract: Biocharcoal (BioC), a cost-effective, eco-friendly, and sustainable material can be derived from various organic sources including agricultural waste. However, to date, complex chemical treatments using harsh solvents or physical processes at elevated temperatures have been used to activate and enhance the functional groups of biochar. In this paper, we propose a novel easy and cost-effective activation method based on electrochemical cycling in buffer solutions to enhance the electrochemical performance of biocharcoal derived from almond shells (AS-BioC). The novel electrochemical activation method enhanced the functional groups and porosity on the surface of AS-BioC, as confirmed by microscopic, spectroscopic characterizations. Electrochemical characterization indicated an increase in the conductivity and surface area. A modified SPCE with activated AS-BioC (A.AS-BioC/SPCE), shows enhanced electrochemical performance towards oxidation and reduction of nitrite and paraxon ethyl pesticide, respectively. For both target analytes, the activated electrode demonstrates high electrocatalytic activity and achieves a very LOD of 0.38 µM for nitrite and 1.35 nM for ethyl paraxon with a broad linear range. The sensor was validated in real samples for both contaminants. Overall, the research demonstrates an innovative technique to improve the performance of AS-BioC to use as a modifier material for electrochemical sensors.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060217
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 218: Calcium Orthophosphate (CaPO4)
           Containing Composites for Biomedical Applications: Formulations,
           Properties, and Applications

    • Authors: Sergey V. Dorozhkin
      First page: 218
      Abstract: The goal of this review is to present a wide range of hybrid formulations and composites containing calcium orthophosphates (abbreviated as CaPO4) that are suitable for use in biomedical applications and currently on the market. The bioactive, biocompatible, and osteoconductive properties of various CaPO4-based formulations make them valuable in the rapidly developing field of biomedical research, both in vitro and in vivo. Due to the brittleness of CaPO4, it is essential to combine the desired osteologic properties of ceramic CaPO4 with those of other compounds to create novel, multifunctional bone graft biomaterials. Consequently, this analysis offers a thorough overview of the hybrid formulations and CaPO4-based composites that are currently known. To do this, a comprehensive search of the literature on the subject was carried out in all significant databases to extract pertinent papers. There have been many formulations found with different material compositions, production methods, structural and bioactive features, and in vitro and in vivo properties. When these formulations contain additional biofunctional ingredients, such as drugs, proteins, enzymes, or antibacterial agents, they offer improved biomedical applications. Moreover, a lot of these formulations allow cell loading and promote the development of smart formulations based on CaPO4. This evaluation also discusses basic problems and scientific difficulties that call for more investigation and advancements. It also indicates perspectives for the future.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060218
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 219: Conditioning Influence of Kaolinite
           Matrices on Flexural Strength of Raw Pressed Slurry Collected from Ceramic
           Tile Production Wastewater

    • Authors: Simona Elena Avram, Lucian Barbu Tudoran, Stanca Cuc, Gheorghe Borodi, Bianca Violeta Birle, Ioan Petean
      First page: 219
      Abstract: Kaolinite is able to assure the high binding affinity of the filler particles of raw ceramic bodies. It acts as a matrix that strongly holds the other constituents’ particles in a compact structure. The slurry samples were characterized by XRD, mineralogical microscopy and SEM coupled with an EDX elemental analysis. The slurry collected from the ceramic tile production wastewaters had a significant amount of kaolinite (36%), mostly fine particles of 3 µm, less surrounding quartz (37%) and mullite (19%) particles of 5–100 µm in diameter and traces of lepidocrocite (8%). It is a dense paste with a relative moisture of 25%. The square bar of the slurry as received, pressed at a load of 350 N, had a flexural strength of 0.61 MPa. Increasing the moisture to 33% using regular water, followed by mechanical attrition at 2000 rpm for 5 min, resulted in a porous bar with a flexural strength of 0.09 MPa; by increasing the attrition speed to 6000 rpm, the microstructural homogenization was improved and the flexural strength was about 0.68 MPa. It seems that regular water does not assure an optimal moisture for the kaolinite matrix conditioning. Therefore, we used technological water at pH = 10, a moisture of 33% and attrition at 6000 rpm for 5 min, and the bar pressed at a load of 350 N had a flexural strength of 1.17 MPa. The results demonstrate that the bar moistened with technological water and an attrition regime assured a proper conditioning for the kaolinite matrix, achieving the optimal binding of the quartz and mullite particles under the pressing load. Bars with the optimal mixture were pressed at several loads, including 70, 140, 210 and 350 N, and the flexural strength was progressively increased from 0.56 MPa to 1.17 MPa. SEM fractography coupled with atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the optimal moisture facilitated a proper kaolinite particle disposal regarding the quartz and mullite filler particles, and the progressive load assured the strong binding of the finest kaolinite platelets onto their surface.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060219
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 220: Biochar Production and Its Potential
           Application for Biocomposite Materials: A Comprehensive Review

    • Authors: Guillermina Feliz Florian, Mohamed Ragoubi, Nathalie Leblanc, Bechara Taouk, Lokmane Abdelouahed
      First page: 220
      Abstract: Biochar, an organic, porous, and carbon-rich material originating from biomass via pyrolysis, showcases compelling attributes and intrinsic performances. Its appeal as a reinforcement material for biocomposites, as well as its auspicious electrical properties, has gained more attention, and makes biochar a versatile candidate for applications ranging from energy storage to catalytic devices. This scientific review undertakes a comprehensive exploration of biochar, spanning production methodologies, physicochemical intricacies, and critical process parameters. The focus of this paper extends to optimization strategies for biochar properties tailored to specific applications, with a dedicated inquiry into diverse production methods and activation strategies. This review’s second phase delves into a meticulous analysis of key properties within biochar-based composites, emphasizing limitations and unique performance characteristics crucial for diverse applications. By synthesizing a substantial body of research, this review aims to catalyze future investigations by pinpointing areas that demand attention in upcoming experiments, ultimately emphasizing the profound potential of biochar-based materials across technical and scientific domains.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060220
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 221: Mechanical Properties and Thermal
           Conductivity of Y-Si and Gd-Si Silicides: First-Principles Calculations

    • Authors: Kexue Peng, Panxin Huang, Guifang Han, Huan Liu, Weibin Zhang, Weili Wang, Jingde Zhang
      First page: 221
      Abstract: The traditional Si bonding layer in environmental barrier coatings has a low melting point (1414 °C), which is a significant challenge in meeting the requirements of the next generation higher thrust-to-weight ratio aero-engines. To seek new bonding layer materials with higher melting points, the mechanical properties of Y-Si and Gd-Si silicides were calculated by the first-principles method. Subsequently, empirical formulae were employed to compute the sound velocities, Debye temperatures, and the minimum coefficients of thermal conductivity for the YSi, Y5Si4, Y5Si3, GdSi, and Gd5Si4. The results showed that Y5Si4 has the best plasticity and ductility among all these materials. In addition, Gd5Si4 has the minimum Debye temperature (267 K) and thermal conductivity (0.43 W m−1 K−1) compared with others. The theoretical calculation results indicate that some silicides in the Y-Si and Gd-Si systems possess potential application value in high-temperature bonding layers for thermal and/or environmental barrier coating.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060221
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 222: Comparing Degradation Mechanisms,
           Quality, and Energy Usage for Pellet- and Filament-Based Material
           Extrusion for Short Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Composites with Recycled
           Polymer Matrices

    • Authors: Marah Baddour, Chiara Fiorillo, Lynn Trossaert, Annabelle Verberckmoes, Arthur Ghekiere, Dagmar R. D’hooge, Ludwig Cardon, Mariya Edeleva
      First page: 222
      Abstract: Short carbon fiber (sCF)-based polymer composite parts enable one to increase in the material property range for additive manufacturing (AM) applications. However, room for technical and material improvement is still possible, bearing in mind that the commonly used fused filament fabrication (FFF) technique is prone to an extra filament-making step. Here, we compare FFF with direct pellet additive manufacturing (DPAM) for sCF-based composites, taking into account degradation reactions, print quality, and energy usage. On top of that, the matrix is based on industrial waste polymers (recycled polycarbonate blended with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer and recycled propylene), additives are explored, and the printing settings are optimized, benefiting from molecular, rheological, thermal, morphological, and material property analyses. Despite this, DPAM resulted in a rougher surface finish compared to FFF and can be seen as a faster printing technique that reduces energy consumption and molecular degradation. The findings help formulate guidelines for the successful DPAM and FFF of sCF-based composite materials in view of better market appreciation.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060222
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 223: Does the Layer Configuration of Loofah
           (Luffa cylindrica) Affect the Mechanical Properties of Polymeric
           Composites'

    • Authors: Edgley Alves de Oliveira Paula, Rafael Rodolfo de Melo, Felipe Bento de Albuquerque, Fernanda Monique da Silva, Mário Vanoli Scatolino, Alexandre Santos Pimenta, Edjane Alves de Oliveira Paula, Talita Dantas Pedrosa, Ricardo Alan da Silva Vieira, Francisco Rodolfo Junior
      First page: 223
      Abstract: The arrangement of layers of natural long fibers that compose a polymeric composite can result in a final material with greater mechanical strength, in addition to replacing synthetic glass and carbon fibers. This study proposed different configurations of layers of loofah fibers (Luffa cylindrica) to produce reinforced polymeric–polyester composites, determining their potential mechanical properties such as flexural strength and Rockwell hardness. The layers were arranged by varying parallel and perpendicularly the direction of the loofah fibers pieces. The reinforcement decreased the density of all composites, with the lowest value, 1.03 g cm−3, indicated by the configuration 90°/0°/90°. The composites in the configuration 0°/90°/0° presented the highest value among the reinforced compositions (10.8 MPa), in addition to the highest rigidity value during bending tests (774.8 MPa). In the Rockwell hardness tests, the treatment reinforced with fibers in the configuration 90°/90°/90° had the highest value among all experimental treatments with a value of 86.9 HHR. The configuration angle of the loofah layers has a significant impact on the mechanical performance of the composites and should be taken into account in their confection. Furthermore, composites reinforced with loofah fibers in different configurations have physical–mechanical properties that qualify them for non-structural applications in indoor environments.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060223
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 224: Design of a Lightweight Origami
           Composite Crash Box: Experimental and Numerical Study on the Absorbed
           Energy in Frontal Impacts

    • Authors: Alberto Ciampaglia, Luca Patruno, Raffaele Ciardiello
      First page: 224
      Abstract: Origami-shaped composite structures are currently being explored for their ability to absorb energy in a progressive and controlled manner. In vehicle passive safety applications, this prevents the occurrence of peak forces that could potentially cause injuries to vehicle passengers. The work presents the design of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) crash box for a Formula Student race car, using a numerical model validated by experimental tests. An initial characterization of the material is conducted according to the standards. Following, six origami samples are manufactured and subjected to crash tests to gather accurate experimental data. The numerical model is validated on the tests and used for the design of the race car’s impact attenuator. The designed crash box meets the Formula Student requirements while reducing the total mass by 14% and the maximum deceleration of 21% compared with the previous design. The study confirms the potential use of origami structures to improve crashworthiness while reducing vehicle weight.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060224
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 225: Development, Dielectric Response, and
           Functionality of ZnTiO3/BaTiO3/Epoxy Resin Hybrid Nanocomposites

    • Authors: Anastasios C. Patsidis, Eleftherios I. Koufakis, Georgios N. Mathioudakis, Orestis Vryonis, Georgios C. Psarras
      First page: 225
      Abstract: In the present work, hybrid nanocomposites of an epoxy resin reinforced with ZnTiO3 and BaTiO3 nanoparticles, at various filler contents, were fabricated and studied. The successful integration of ceramic nanofillers and the fine distribution of nanoparticles were confirmed via X-ray Diffraction patterns and Scanning Electron Microscopy images, respectively. Dielectric properties and related relaxation phenomena were investigated via Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy in a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. Data analysis showed that dielectric permittivity increases with filler content, although optimum performance does not correspond to the maximum ZnTiO3 content. Four relaxation processes were observed and attributed to interfacial polarization (IP) (at low frequencies and high temperatures), glass-to-rubber transition (α-relaxation) of the epoxy matrix (at intermediate frequencies and temperatures), and local rearrangements of polar side groups of the macromolecules (β-relaxation) and small flexible groups of the main polymer chain (γ-relaxation) occurring at low temperatures and high frequencies. The ability of hybrid nanocomposites to store and retrieve energy was studied under dc conditions by employing a charging/discharging sequence. The stored and retrieved energy increases with filler content and charging voltage. The optimum ability of energy recovering, shown by the epoxy/7 phr ZnTiO3/7 phr BaTiO3 nanocomposite, ranges between 30 and 50 times more than the matrix, depending on the time instant. The employed nanoparticles induce piezoelectric properties in the nanocomposites, as found by the increase in the piezoelectric coefficient with filler content.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060225
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 226: Development and Evaluation of
           3D-Printed PLA/PHA/PHB/HA Composite Scaffolds for Enhanced
           Tissue-Engineering Applications

    • Authors: Motahareh Sadat Raziyan, Arvydas Palevicius, Dariusz Perkowski, Sigita Urbaite, Giedrius Janusas
      First page: 226
      Abstract: Recently, tissue engineering has been revolutionised by the development of 3D-printed scaffolds, which allow one to construct a precise architecture with tailored properties. In this study, three different composite materials were synthesised using a combination of polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in varying weight percentages. Morphological properties were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy showing a uniform distribution of HA particles throughout the matrix, indicating good compatibility between the materials. Furthermore, the printed scaffolds were tested under pressure using a load cell to examine mechanical strength. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed favorable dispersion, biological compatibility together with enhanced bioactivity within the PHB/PHA/PLA/HA composite matrixes. Thus, this paper demonstrates the successful design and implementation of these composite structures for tissue-engineering applications and highlights the effective development of biocompatible scaffold designs with improved functionality.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060226
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 227: Competitive Adsorption of Aqueous
           Cd(II) and Pb(II) Solutions onto Silicas Synthesized with Saponin as
           Template Agent

    • Authors: Claudia-Maria Simonescu, Florina Dumitru, Bianca Zărnescu, Daniela Cristina Culiţă, Anca Răzvan, Ovidiu Oprea, Roxana Truşcă, Eugeniu Vasile
      First page: 227
      Abstract: The aim of the research was to prepare silica adsorbents using an environmentally friendly pathway, a template synthesis with saponin biosurfactant as a structure-directing agent. The adsorbents prepared in this way exhibit improved adsorption properties while maintaining environmental innocuousness. For the preparation of porous silica, the biosurfactant template sol–gel method was used with tetraethoxysilane as a silica precursor. The silica adsorbents were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption and SEM/EDX microscopy, TEM/HRTEM microscopy, and thermogravimetric analyses. Batch tests were carried out to remediate Pb(II)/Cd(II) ions in single/binary aqueous solutions, and the effect of the surfactant on the adsorption properties was assessed. The optimal adsorption parameters (pH, contact time, initial concentration of metal ions) have been determined. The adsorption was fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and kinetic models. Mathematical modeling of the retention process of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from binary solutions indicated a competitive effect of each of the two adsorbed metal ions. The experimental results demonstrated that saponin has the effect of modifying the silica structure through the formation of pores, which are involved in the retention of metal ions from aqueous solutions and wastewater.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060227
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 228: Bio-Inspired Helicoidal Composite
           Structure Featuring Graded Variable Ply Pitch under Transverse Tensile
           Loading

    • Authors: Hossein Malekinejad, Ricardo J. C. Carbas, Alireza Akhavan-Safar, Eduardo A. S. Marques, Maria Ferreira, Lucas F. M. da Silva
      First page: 228
      Abstract: Biostructures found in nature exhibit remarkable strength, toughness, and damage resistance, achieved over millions of years. Observing nature closely might help develop laminates that resemble natural structures more closely, potentially improving strength and mimicking natural principles. Bio-inspired Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) investigated thus far exhibit consistent pitch angles between layers, whereas natural structures display gradual variations in pitch angle rather than consistency. Therefore, this study explores helicoidal CFRP laminates, focusing on the Non-Linear Rotation Angle (NLRA) or gradual variation to enhance composite material performance. In addition, it compares the strength and failure mechanisms of the gradual configuration with conventional helicoidal and unidirectional (UD) laminates, serving as references while conducting transverse tensile tests (out-of-plane tensile). The findings highlight the potential of conventional and gradual helicoidal structures in reinforcing CFRP laminates, increasing the failure load compared to unidirectional CFRP laminate by about 5% and 17%, respectively. In addition, utilizing bio-inspired configurations has shown promising improvements in toughness compared to traditional unidirectional laminates, as evidenced by the increased displacement at failure. The numerical and experimental analyses revealed a shift in crack path when utilizing the bio-inspired helicoidal stacking sequence. Validated by experimental data, this alteration demonstrates longer and more intricate crack propagation, ultimately leading to increased transverse strength.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060228
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 229: The Use of Externally Bonded Fibre
           Reinforced Polymer Composites to Enhance the Seismic Resilience of Single
           Shear Walls: A Nonlinear Time History Assessment

    • Authors: Ali Abbaszadeh, Omar Chaallal
      First page: 229
      Abstract: In medium- to high-rise buildings, single shear walls (SSWs) are often used to resist lateral force due to wind and earthquakes. They are designed to dissipate seismic energy mainly through plastic hinge zones at the base. However, they often display large post-earthquake deformations that can give rise to many economic and safety concerns within buildings. Hence, the primary objective of this research study is to minimize residual deformations in existing SSWs located in the Western and Eastern seismic zones of Canada, thereby enhancing their resilience and self-centering capacity. To that end, four SSWs of 20 and 15 stories, located in Vancouver and Montreal, were meticulously designed and detailed per the latest Canadian standards and codes. The study assessed the impact of three innovative strengthening schemes on the seismic response of these SSWs through 2D nonlinear time history (NLTH) analysis. All three strengthening schemes involved the application of Externally Bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-FRP) to the shear walls. Accordingly, a total of 208 NLTH analyses were conducted to assess the effectiveness of all strengthening configurations. The findings unveiled that the most efficient technique for reducing residual drift in SSWs involved applying three layers of vertical FRP sheets to the extreme edges of the wall, full FRP wrapping the walls, and full FRP wrapping of the plastic hinge zone. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that implementing these strengthening schemes may lead to an increase in bending moment and base shear force demands within the walls.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060229
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 230: Keratinous Natural Fibres as
           Sustainable Flame Retardants and Reinforcements in Polymer Composites

    • Authors: Avishek Mishra, Nam Kyeun Kim, Debes Bhattacharyya
      First page: 230
      Abstract: Natural fibres have been used as fibre reinforcements in composites as they offer eco-friendly and economic advantages, but their susceptibility to deterioration when exposed to heat and flames has limited their practical application in fibre-reinforced polymeric composites. Fire-reaction properties have been explored in reasonable detail for plant fibres, but a gap exists in the understanding of animal fibre-reinforced composites. Understanding the thermal and fire reactions of these keratin-rich animal fibres is crucial for material selection and advancing composite product development. The current paper critically discusses the existing research landscape and suggests future research directions. The use of keratinous fibres in composites can definitely improve their thermal stability and fire performance, but it also appears to adversely affect the composite’s mechanical performance. The main part of this paper focuses on the flame-retardant treatment of keratinous fibres and polymer composites, and their behaviour under fire conditions. The final part of this paper includes a brief look at the environmental impact of the treatment methods; the overall processing of keratinous fibre-reinforced composites is also presented to gain further insight.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060230
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 231: Low Magnetic Field Induced Extrinsic
           Strains in Multifunctional Particulate Composites: An Interrupted
           Mechanical Strengthening in 3D-Printed Nanocomposites

    • Authors: Andiol Mucolli, Alden Midmer, Marinos Manolesos, Salem Aldosari, Cristian Lira, Hamed Yazdani Nezhad
      First page: 231
      Abstract: The current paper reports on the quantification of the effect of magnetic fields on the mechanical performance of ferromagnetic nanocomposites in situ during basic standard tensile testing. The research investigates altering the basic mechanical properties (modulus and strength) via the application of a contact-less magnetic field as a primary attempt for a future composites strengthening mechanism. The nanocomposite specimens were fabricated using filament-based 3D printing and were comprised of ferromagnetic nanoparticle-embedded thermoplastic polymers. The nanoparticles were iron particles dispersed at 21 wt.% (10.2 Vol.%) inside a polylactic acid (PLA) polymer, characterised utilising optical microscopy and 3D X-ray computed tomography. The magnetic field was stationary and produced using permanent neodymium round-shaped magnets available at two field strengths below 1 Tesla. The 3D printing was a MakerBot Replicator machine operating based upon a fused deposition method, which utilised 1.75 mm-diameter filaments made of iron particle-based PLA composites. The magnetic field-equipped tensile tests were accompanied by a real-time digital image correlation technique for localized strain measurements across the specimens at a 10-micron pixel resolution. It was observed that the lateral magnetic field induces a slight Poisson effect on the development of extrinsic strain across the length of the tensile specimens. However, the effect reasonably interferes with the evolution of strain fields via the introduction of localised compressive strains attributed to accumulated magnetic polarisation at the magnetic particles on an extrinsic scale. The theory overestimated the moduli by a factor of approximately 3.1. To enhance the accuracy of its solutions for 3D-printed specimens, it is necessary to incorporate pore considerations into the theoretical derivations. Additionally, a modest 10% increase in ultimate tensile strength was observed during tensile loading. This finding suggests that field-assisted strengthening can be effective for as-received 3D-printed magnetic composites in their solidified state, provided that the material and field are optimally designed and implemented. This approach could propose a viable method for remote field tailoring to strengthen the material by mitigating defects induced during the 3D printing process.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060231
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 232: Selected Mechanical Properties of
           Dental Hybrid Composite with Fluorine, Hydroxyapatite and Silver Fillers

    • Authors: Zofia Kula, Leszek Klimek, Katarzyna Dąbrowska, Cristina Bettencourt Neves, João Carlos Roque
      First page: 232
      Abstract: In recent years, hydroxyapatite, as a ceramic material, has been a subject of growing interest due to its optimal biological properties, which are useful especially in medical and dental applications. It has been increasingly used in dentistry as a filler in composites. Nevertheless, research has shown a deterioration of their mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the content of hydroxyapatite together with fluorine and silver on the mechanical properties of a hybrid composite used in conservative dentistry. The authors compared specimens of commercial hybrid composite with specimens of experimental hybrid composite containing 2 wt% and 5 wt% of hydroxyapatite powder with fluorine and silver. The composite specimens were subjected to hardness and impact strength measurements, as well as bending, compression, and tribological wear tests. The research results indicate that the mechanical properties of composites are influenced by the type and amount of filler used. Composite containing 2 wt% of hydroxyapatite powder along with calcium fluoride and silver provided acceptable results.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8060232
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 181: New Accomplishments on the Equivalence
           of the First-Order Displacement-Based Zigzag Theories through a Unified
           Formulation

    • Authors: Marco Di Sciuva, Matteo Sorrenti
      First page: 181
      Abstract: The paper presents a critical review and new accomplishments on the equivalence of the first-order displacement-based zigzag theories for laminated composite and sandwich structures. Zigzag theories (ZZTs) have widely spread among researchers over the last few decades thanks to their accuracy in predicting the response of multilayered composite and sandwich structures while retaining the simplicity of their underlying equivalent single-layer (ESL) theory. The displacement field consists of two main contributions: the global one, able to describe the overall structural behaviour, and the local layer-wise one that considers the transverse shear continuity at the layer interfaces that describe the “zigzag” displacement pattern typical of multilayered structures. In the framework of displacement-based linear ZZTs, various assumptions have been made on the local contribution, and different theories have been deduced. This paper aims to provide a unified formulation for first-order ZZTs, highlighting some common aspects and underlying equivalencies with existing formulations. The mathematical demonstrations and the numerical examples prove the equivalence of the approaches to characterising local zigzag enrichment. Finally, it is demonstrated that the kinematic assumptions are the discriminants of the ZZTs’ accuracy.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8050181
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 182: Comparative Investigation of Thermal
           Properties Improvement of Nano-Enhanced Organic Phase Change Materials

    • Authors: Aravindh Madhavankutty Ambika, Gopi Kannan Kalimuthu, Veerakumar Chinnasamy
      First page: 182
      Abstract: Thermal energy storage (TES) using phase change materials (PCMs) is one of the potential solutions for stockpiling thermal energy and utilizing it for different applications, which results in effective energy usage. The main drawback of organic PCMs in practical applications is poor heat transfer due to low thermal conductivity (TC). Therefore, investigations into nano-enhanced PCMs are being explored to improve their thermophysical properties. In this work, the various thermophysical characteristics of nano-enhanced lauryl alcohol as a PCM were investigated using carbon-based and metallic nanoparticles. The results indicated that the addition of nanoparticles improved its thermal properties and affected other physical properties, such as viscosity. The latent heat was degraded with the addition of nanoparticles. The results revealed that by adding MWCNTs and CuO nanoparticles, a maximum of 82.6% and 49.6% improvement in TC was achieved, respectively. The maximum drop in latent heat during melting and freezing for the PCM with MWCNTs was about 10.1% and 9.3%, respectively, whereas for the PCM with CuO, they were about 11% and 10.3%, respectively. The lowest supercooling for the PCM with MWCNTs and CuO nanoparticles was 8.6 and 8.3 °C, respectively. The present work confirms that nano-enhanced PCMs can be a potential material for storing thermal energy for various applications.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8050182
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 183: Unveiling the Influential Factors and
           Heavy Industrial Applications of Graphene Hybrid Polymer Composites

    • Authors: Zulfiqar Ali, Saba Yaqoob, Jinhong Yu, Alberto D’Amore
      First page: 183
      Abstract: Graphene hybrid-filler polymer composites have emerged as prominent materials that revolutionize heavy industries. This review paper encapsulates an in-depth analysis of different influential factors, such as filler/graphene type, aspect ratios, dispersion methods, filler-matrix compatibility, fiber orientation, synergistic effects, different processing techniques, and post-curing conditions, which affect the processing and properties of graphene hybrid polymer composites, as well as their resultant applications. Additionally, it discusses the substantial role of graphene reinforcement with other fillers, such as carbon nanotubes, silica, nano-clays, and metal oxides, to produce functionalized hybrid polymer composites with synergistically enhanced tailored properties, offering solutions for heavy industries, including aerospace, automotive, electronics, and energy harvesting. This review concludes with some suggestions and an outlook on the future of these composite materials by emphasizing the need for continued research to fully optimize their potential.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8050183
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 184: Mechanical Characterization of Hybrid
           

    • Authors: Mohamad Yusuf Bin Salim, Ali Farokhi Nejad, Mohd Yazid Yahya, Tobias Dickhut, Seyed Saeid Rahimian Koloor
      First page: 184
      Abstract: Hybrid composite materials have been widely used to advance the mechanical responses of fiber-reinforced composites by utilizing different types of fibers and fillers in a single polymeric matrix. This study incorporated three types of fibers: basalt woven fiber and steel (AISI304) wire meshes with densities of 100 and 200. These fibers were mixed with epoxy resin to generate plain composite laminates. Three fundamental mechanical tests (tensile, compression, and shear) were conducted according to the corresponding ASTM standards to characterize the steel wire mesh/basalt/epoxy FRP composites used as plain composite laminates. To investigate the flexural behavior of the hybrid laminates, various layer configurations and thickness ratios were examined using a design of experiments (DoE) matrix. Hybrid samples were chosen for flexural testing, and the same procedure was employed to develop a finite element (FE) model. Material properties from the initial mechanical testing procedure were integrated into plain and hybrid composite laminate simulations. The second FE model simulated the behavior of hybrid laminates under flexural loading; this was validated through experimental data. The results underwent statistical analysis, highlighting the optimal configuration of hybrid composite laminates in terms of flexural strength and modulus; we found an increase of up to 25% in comparison with the plain composites. This research provides insights into the potential improvements offered by hybrid composite laminates, generating numerical models for predicting various laminate configurations produced using hybrid steel wire mesh/basalt/epoxy FRP composites.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8050184
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 185: Properties of Composites Based on
           Polylactide Filled with Cork Filler

    • Authors: Mariusz Fabijański
      First page: 185
      Abstract: Introducing fillers into polymeric materials is one of the methods of modifying the properties or reducing the costs of polymeric materials. Thanks to their use, it is possible to obtain new materials with interesting mechanical and chemical properties. Some features are often improved among the new materials obtained, while others deteriorate. In this work, an attempt was made to obtain a polymer composite based on PLA filled with cork flour in amounts of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 30% by weight. The processing and sample preparation process using injection molding technology was assessed and the basic mechanical properties were assessed. The research shows that it is possible to obtain PLA products with a cork filler without the mixing process on an extruder, but only by using an injection molding machine and appropriately selecting the parameters of the technological process. Tests of mechanical properties showed deterioration of parameters, but not to such an extent that the obtained composites were disqualified from use in products that are not subject to heavy mechanical loads. The undoubted advantage of the obtained materials is maintaining their so-called “green” character and thus the ability to biodegrade.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8050185
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 186: Influence of Silica Nanoparticles on
           the Physical Properties of Random Polypropylene

    • Authors: Evangelia Delli, Dimitrios Gkiliopoulos, Evangelia Vouvoudi, Dimitrios N. Bikiaris, Thomas Kehagias, Konstantinos Chrissafis
      First page: 186
      Abstract: Random polypropylene is considered an alternative material to regular polypropylene for applications where improved impact and creep resistance, as well as stiffness, are required. Random polypropylene nanocomposites reinforced with dimethyldichlorosilane-treated silica particles were prepared using meltmixing. The effect of varying the nanoparticles’ content on the structural, mechanical, damping and thermal behavior of the nanocomposites was investigated. The results indicated the improved deformation potential, fracture toughness, and energy storage capacity of the matrix with increasing the filler content. It was observed that the use of high filler fractions limited the reinforcing efficiency of the SiO2 nanoparticles due to the formation of large agglomerates. The nanoparticles’ segregation was initially advised by modeling Young’s modulus but was also confirmed by electron imaging. Examination of the thermal properties of the nanocomposites indicated the limited effect of the nanoparticles on the melting behavior along with the thermal stability of the matrix. These results confirmed the usage of silica nanoparticles as a way of further improving the mechanical and thermomechanical properties of random polypropylene.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8050186
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 187: Analytical and Experimental Behaviour
           of GFRP-Reinforced Concrete Columns under Fire Loading

    • Authors: Ana Almerich-Chulia, Pedro Martin-Concepcion, Jesica Moreno-Puchalt, Jose Miguel Molines-Cano
      First page: 187
      Abstract: Fire engineering endeavours to mitigate injury or the loss of life in the event of a fire. This is achieved primarily through fire prevention, containment, and extinguishment measures. Should prevention fail, the structural integrity of buildings, coupled with effective evacuation strategies, becomes paramount. While glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) materials have demonstrated efficacy in reinforcing concrete elements, their performance under fire conditions, notably in comparison to steel, necessitates a deeper understanding for structural applications. This study experimentally and numerically investigates the fire performance of GFRP-reinforced concrete (RC) columns subjected to only fire load without additional external loads. The research aims to ascertain the fire resistance based on the thickness of the concrete coating and the ultimate tensile strength of GFRP rebars after 90 min of fire exposure. Four GFRP-RC columns were subjected to a standardized fire curve on all sides in the experimental program. In the analytical program, a theoretical model was developed using the heat transfer module of the COMSOL software. The results of both analyses were very close, indicating the reliability of the procedure used. Based on the findings, recommendations regarding the fire resistance of GFRP-RC columns were formulated for structural applications. Results from this research provide the civil engineering community with data that will help them continue using FRP materials as internal reinforcement for concrete.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8050187
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 188: Effect of the Incorporation of Olive
           Tree Pruning Sawdust in the Production of Lightweight Mortars

    • Authors: Marina Oya-Monzón, Dolores Eliche-Quesada, M. Dolores La Rubia
      First page: 188
      Abstract: In order to reduce energy consumption in buildings, this study used olive pruning sawdust (OTPS) instead of natural sand in the production of lightweight mortars. Different percentages of natural sand substitution were tested: 0, 10, 25, and 50% by volume of sand over 7 and 28 days of curing time. Additionally, the influence of a chemical pretreatment in an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide on the OTPS was also evaluated to mineralize the wood before its addition to the mortar mixture. Mortars with OTPS incorporations were characterized by volumetric shrinkage, bulk density, and capillary water absorption. Mechanical behavior was tested through compression and flexural tests. The addition of this byproduct decreased bulk density and increased mortar porosity. Pretreating olive pruning sawdust with an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide was effective for wood mineralization, resulting in physical and mechanical properties superior to mortars without pretreatment. The results showed that a maximum addition of 10% by volume of OTPS treated with calcium hydroxide solution produced lighter mortars with similar mechanical properties to the control mortar. Adding higher amounts of pretreated olive pruning (25–50% by volume) led to a more pronounced deterioration of mechanical properties.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8050188
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 189: The Conversion of Li2SnO3 Li-Ion
           Hybrid Supercapacitors from Pastes Containing LiCl-SnCl2 Liquid Precursors
           Using an Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet

    • Authors: Hong-Kai Chen, Heng-Min Chang, Bo-Yan Hong, Shuo-En Yu, I-Chih Ni, Chih-I Wu, Cheng-Che Hsu, I-Chun Cheng, Jian-Zhang Chen
      First page: 189
      Abstract: We fabricate lithium tin-based oxide Li2SnO3 on carbon cloth from a gel-state precursor containing LiCl and SnCl2·2H2O using a nitrogen atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ). APPJ treatment provides both a high-temperature environment for the conversion of precursor into Li2SnO3 and nitrogen plasma reactive species for electrode surface modification. Here, the best electrochemical performance for the Li2SnO3 Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors (Li–HSCs) is achieved with 480 s of APPJ processing. The areal capacity of the 480 s APPJ-processed Li2SnO3 Li–HSCs reached 46.113 mC/cm2. The results indicate that APPJ is an effective tool for the rapid conversion processing of Li2SnO3 electrodes for Li–HSCs.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8050189
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 190: Mechanical Analysis and Simulation of
           Wood Textile Composites

    • Authors: Claudia L. von Boyneburgk, Dimitri Oikonomou, Werner Seim, Hans-Peter Heim
      First page: 190
      Abstract: Wood Textile Composites (WTCs) represent a new and innovative class of materials in the field of natural fiber composites. Consisting of fabrics made from willow wood strips (Salix americana) and polypropylene (PP), this material appears to be particularly suitable for structural applications in lightweight construction. Since the threads of the fabric are significantly oversized compared to classic carbon or glass rovings, fundamental knowledge of the mechanical properties of the material is required. The aim of this study was to investigate whether WTCs exhibit classic behavior in terms of fiber composite theory and to classify them in relation to comparable composite materials. It was shown that WTCs meet all the necessary conditions for fiber-reinforced composites in tensile, bending, and compression tests and can be classified as natural-fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites. In addition, it was investigated whether delamination between the fiber and matrix can be simulated by using experimentally determined mechanical data as input. Using finite element analysis (FEA), it was shown that the shear stress components of a stress tensor in the area of the interface between the fiber and matrix are responsible for delamination in the composite material. It was also shown that the resistance to shear stress depends on the geometric conditions of the reinforcing fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8050190
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • J. Compos. Sci., Vol. 8, Pages 191: Mechanical Characterization of
           

    • Authors: Laurent Mezeix, Prateek Gupta, Christophe Bouvet, Komkrisd Wongtimnoi
      First page: 191
      Abstract: The use of composites in the aerospace industry has been increasing exponentially. However, conventional epoxy resins, derived from petroleum sources, are not sustainable, making them non-degradable and environmentally harmful. In order to foster a sustainable environment, replacing conventional thermoset epoxies with bio-sourced carbon epoxies is imperative. With the enhancement in technology, it is possible to combine vegetable oils or bio-based copolymers with resins to make it recyclable in nature. Hence, it is necessary to study bio-based epoxies and carry out material characterization and see how they behave differently from conventional epoxies. This study examines the mechanical properties of different types of epoxy resins, which includes conventional, recyclable, and non-recyclable bio-epoxies. Tensile, bending, fracture toughness, and compression tests are performed in accordance with ASTM and ISO standards. The results show that the recyclable bio-epoxy exhibits comparable or superior properties when compared with conventional and non-recyclable bio-epoxies, particularly in terms of impact resistance. Recyclable epoxy, examined in the current study, shows a 73% higher strain energy release rate as compared to conventional epoxy. These results suggest that bio-epoxies could serve as a viable alternative to conventional epoxy.
      Citation: Journal of Composites Science
      PubDate: 2024-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jcs8050191
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alfarama Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
BJHS Themes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Instruments     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Science and Technology Journal of Namibia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access  
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 168)
Journal of the Indian Institute of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Unsolved Questions     Open Access  
Jurnal Sains Dasar     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Logo STI Science, Technology and Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Maskana     Open Access  
MethodsX     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
National Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Natural Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Naturen     Full-text available via subscription  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Studies in Science Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nova     Open Access  
Open Conference Proceedings Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Orbis Cógnita : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Patterns     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
People and Nature     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Población y Desarrollo - Argonautas y caminantes     Open Access  
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, The     Full-text available via subscription  
QScience Connect     Open Access  
Quantum Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Rafidain Journal of Science     Open Access  
Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Reportes Científicos de la FaCEN     Open Access  
Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Research Integrity and Peer Review     Open Access  
Research Policy : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Respuestas     Open Access  
Revista Bases de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Revista Cientifica Guillermo de Ockham     Open Access  
Revista Conhecimento Online     Open Access  
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
Revista Politécnica     Open Access  
Revista Tecnológica     Open Access  
Revista UniVap     Open Access  
SAINSTIS     Open Access  
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Sci     Open Access  
Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5078)
Science & Diplomacy     Free   (Followers: 3)
Science Advances     Free   (Followers: 44)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science Heritage Journal     Open Access  
Science World Journal     Open Access  
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ScienceRise     Open Access  
Sciences du jeu     Open Access  

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