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ISSN (Online) 2410-390X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 14: Fast Timing Detectors and Applications in
           Cosmic Ray Physics and Medical Science

    • Authors: Christophe Royon, William d’Assignies D., Florian Gautier, Tommaso Isidori, Nicola Minafra, Alexander Novikov
      First page: 14
      Abstract: We use fast silicon detectors and the fast sampling method originally developed for high energy physics for two applications: cosmic ray measurements in collaboration with NASA and dose measurements during flash beam cancer treatment. The cosmic ray measurement will benefit from the fast sampling method to measure the Bragg peak where the particle stops in the silicon detector and the dose measurement is performed by counting the number of particles that enter the detector.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7020014
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 15: Design and Manufacture of a Test Device for
           Radiosynthesizer Vacuum Pumps

    • Authors: Victor Amador Diaz, Scott E. Snyder, Amy L. Vavere
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Vacuum pump wear is the most prevalent failure mode of the IBA Synthera® automated radiochemistry system. Rebuilding or replacing the pump causes equipment downtime and increases the radiation exposure of the service personnel. We built a dedicated test device to assess new or rebuilt pumps prior to installation, thus reducing downtime and radiation exposure during repairs. The Testbed incorporates a microprocessor that actuates the pump, valves, and pressure sensor; communicates with the user through lights, buttons, and an alphanumeric screen; and outputs test results to a laptop. The Testbed increases productivity and safety in the radiochemistry laboratory.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7020015
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 16: Quenching Circuit Discriminator
           Architecture Impact on a Sub-10 ps FWHM Single-Photon Timing Resolution

    • Authors: Frédéric Nolet, Valérie Gauthier, Samuel Parent, Frédéric Vachon, Nicolas Roy, Nicolas St-Jean, Serge A. Charlebois, Jean-François Pratte
      First page: 16
      Abstract: In the field of radiation instrumentation, there is a desire to reach a sub-10 ps FWHM timing resolution for applications such as time-of-flight positron emission tomography, time-of-flight positron computed tomography and time-resolved calorimetry. One of the key parts of the detection chain for these applications is a single-photon detector and, in recent years, the first single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with a sub-10 ps timing resolution was presented. To reach such a timing resolution, the SPAD was read out by an operational amplifier operated in open-loop as a comparator. This paper presents a comparison between comparators and inverters to determine which type of leading-edge discriminator can obtain the best single-photon timing resolution. Six different quenching circuits (QCs) implemented in TSMC 65 nm are tested with SPADs of the same architecture and in the same operation conditions. This allows us to compare experimental results between the different QCs. This paper also presents a method to measure the SPAD signal slope, the SPAD excess voltage variation and simulations to determine the added jitter of different leading-edge discriminators. For some discriminator architectures, a cascode transistor was required to increase the maximum excess voltage of the QC. This paper also presents the impact on the single-photon timing resolution of adding a cascode transistor for a comparator or an inverter-based discriminator. This paper reports a 6.3 ps FWHM SPTR for a SPAD read out by a low-threshold comparator and a 6.8 ps FWHM SPTR for an optimized 1 V inverter using a cascode transistor for a higher excess voltage.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7020016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 4: Angle-Resolved Time-of-Flight Electron
           Spectrometer Designed for Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Electron Scattering
           and Diffraction

    • Authors: Motoki Ishikawa, Kakuta Ishida, Reika Kanya, Kaoru Yamanouchi
      First page: 4
      Abstract: We developed an apparatus for measuring kinetic energy and two-dimensional angular distributions of femtosecond laser-assisted electron scattering (LAES) signals with a high detection efficiency, consisting of a photocathode-type ultrashort pulsed electron gun, a gas injection nozzle, an angle-resolved time-of-flight analyzer, and a time-and-position sensitive electron detector. We also established an analysis method for obtaining the kinetic energy and two-dimensional angular distributions of scattered electrons from raw data of their flight times and the detected positions at the detector recorded using the newly developed apparatus. From the measurement of the LAES processes of Ar atoms in a femtosecond near-infrared intense laser field, we obtained a two-dimensional angular distribution image of the LAES signals and showed that the detection efficiency of the LAES signals was raised by a factor of 40 compared with that achieved before in 2010.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010004
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 5: A Cross-Line Structured Light Scanning
           System Based on a Measuring Arm

    • Authors: Dayong Tai, Zhixiong Wu, Ying Yang, Cunwei Lu
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The measurement system proposed in this paper, using a measuring arm and line structured light, has a wide range of applications. To improve the scanning efficiency, the system outlined in this paper uses two single-line structured lights to form crosshair structured light, which we combine with a measuring arm to form a comprehensive scanning measurement system. The calibration method of Zhengyou Zhang and a calibration board are used to complete parameter calibration of the sensors and cameras, as well as hand–eye calibration of the measuring arm. For complex curved-surface objects, this system extracts the cross-line structured light optical center location, which suffers from ambiguity. Therefore, we introduce the use of periodic control of the two line structured light sources in order to resolve the light extraction polysemy. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed system can effectively satisfy the function of crosshair structured light scanning of large, complex surfaces.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010005
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 6: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of
           Instruments in 2022

    • Authors: Instruments Editorial Office Instruments Editorial Office
      First page: 6
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010006
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 7: Characterization and On-Field Performance of
           the MuTe Silicon Photomultipliers

    • Authors: Jesús Peña-Rodríguez, Juan Sánchez-Villafrades, Hernán Asorey, Luis A. Núñez
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The Muon Telescope, MuTe, is an instrument for imaging volcanoes in Colombia. It consists of a scintillator tracking system and a water Cherenkov detector for particle energy measurement. The Muon Telescope operates autonomously in high-altitude environments where the temperature gradient reaches up to 10 ∘C. In this work, we characterize the telescope silicon photomultipliers’ breakdown voltage, gain, and noise for temperature variations spanning 0 to 40 ∘C. We demonstrate that the discrimination threshold for the Muon Telescope hodoscope must be above 5 photo-electrons to avoid contamination due to dark count, crosstalk, and afterpulsing. We also assess the detector counting rate depending on day-night temperature variations.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010007
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 8: A Non-Inductive Magnetic Eye-Tracker: From
           Dipole Tracking to Gaze Retrieval

    • Authors: Valerio Biancalana, Piero Chessa
      First page: 8
      Abstract: We analyze the information that can be retrieved from the tracking parameters produced by an innovative wearable eye tracker. The latter is based on a permanent-magnet marked corneal lens and by an array of magnetoresistive detectors that measure the magnetostatic field in several positions in the eye proximity. We demonstrate that, despite missing information due to the axial symmetry of the measured field, physiological constraints or measurement conditions make possible to infer complete eye-pose data. Angular precision and accuracy achieved with the current prototypical device are also assessed and briefly discussed. The results show that the instrumentation considered is suitable as a new, moderately invasive medical diagnostics for the characterization of ocular movements and associated disorders.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010008
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 9: A Beam Monitor for Ion Beam Therapy Based on
           HV-CMOS Pixel Detectors

    • Authors: Alexander Dierlamm, Matthias Balzer, Felix Ehrler, Ulrich Husemann, Roland Koppenhöfer, Ivan Perić, Martin Pittermann, Bogdan Topko, Alena Weber, Stephan Brons, Jürgen Debus, Nicole Grau, Thomas Hansmann, Oliver Jäkel, Sebastian Klüter, Jakob Naumann
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Particle therapy is a well established clinical treatment of tumors. More than one hundred particle therapy centers are in operation world-wide. The advantage of using hadrons like protons or carbon ions as particles for tumor irradiation is the distinct peak in the depth-dependent energy deposition, which can be exploited to accurately deposit doses in the tumor cells. To guarantee this, high accuracy in monitoring and control of the particle beam is of the utmost importance. Before the particle beam enters the patient, it traverses a monitoring system which has to give fast feedback to the beam control system on position and dose rate of the beam while minimally interacting with the beam. The multi-wire chambers mostly used as beam position monitors have their limitations when a fast response time is required (drift time). Future developments such as MRI-guided ion beam therapy pose additional challenges for the beam monitoring system, such as tolerance of magnetic fields and acoustic noise (vibrations). Solid-state detectors promise to overcome these limitations and the higher resolution they offer can create additional benefits. This article presents the evaluation of an HV-CMOS detector for beam monitoring, provides results from feasibility studies in a therapeutic beam, and summarizes the concepts towards the final large-scale assembly and readout system.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010009
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 10: RF Design and Measurements of a C-Band
           Prototype Structure for an Ultra-High Dose-Rate Medical Linac

    • Authors: Lucia Giuliano, Fabio Bosco, Martina Carillo, Giuseppe Felici, Luca Ficcadenti, Andrea Mostacci, Mauro Migliorati, Luigi Palumbo, Bruno Spataro, Luigi Faillace
      First page: 10
      Abstract: In this paper, we illustrate the RF design and measurements of a C-band prototype structure for an Ultra High Dose Rate medical linac. (1) Background: FLASH Radiotherapy (RT) is a revolutionary new technique for cancer cure. It releases ultra-high radiation dose rates (above 100 Gy/s) in microsecond short pulses. In order to obtain a high dose in a very short time, accelerators with high-intensity currents (the order of 100 mA peak currents) have to be developed. In this contest, Sapienza University, in collaboration with SIT-Sordina IORT Technology spa, is developing a new C-band linac to achieve the FLASH regime. (2) Methods: We performed the RF electromagnetic design of the prototype of the C band linac using CST STUDIO Suite Code and the RF low power RF test at Sapienza University of Rome. The measurements of the field in the cavity have been done with the bead-pull technique. (3) Results: This device is a nine-cell structure operating on the π/2 mode at 5.712 GHz (C-band). We report and discuss the test measurement results on a full-scale copper prototype, showing good agreement with CST RF simulations. A tuning procedure has been implemented in order to ensure proper operating frequency and to reach a field profile flatness of the order of a few percent. (4) Conclusions: The prototype of a C-band linac for FLASH applications was successfully tested with low RF power at Sapienza University. The fabrication and ad hoc tuning procedures have been optimized and discussed in the paper.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010010
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 11: Commissioning Results of the New Compact
           ECR Ion Source for Electrostatic Storage Ring at KACST

    • Authors: Suliman Alshammari, Abdullh Jabr, Saad Jaddua, Abdulhakim Alabadusalam
      First page: 11
      Abstract: A compact microwave ECR ion source with low operating power was tested and commissioned for the ion injector line in the multipurpose low-energy ELASR storage ring facility at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh. The compact ECR ion source can deliver singly charged ions with an energy of up to 50 keV and a beam current of up to 50 μA or up to 500 µA with a larger extraction aperture. The plasma in the ECR chamber is driven by a simple transmitter antenna, making the overall size of the ion source only 6 cm in diameter, which is relatively small when compared with other ECR systems. Additionally, the source operates without a high-voltage platform, which significantly reduces the overall footprint and simplifies the system operation. In this paper, the mechanical design and modeling of the ECR ion source are introduced, and the layout of the first part of the beam line is presented along with the numerical simulation results. In addition, the experimental results obtained for the first generated ion beam and commissioning of the ECR ion source are introduced and discussed.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010011
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 12: Upgrade of Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on

    • Authors: Wenping Guo, Yuan Huang, Chunhua Liu, Zhen Feng, Zhipei Hou, Wenyan Zhai, Hisamichi Funaba, Ichihiro Yamada, Yonggao Li, Zhongbin Shi
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The Thomson scattering diagnostic of the HL-2A tokamak device was upgraded to improve its multi-point diagnostic capability, including new collection optics, fibers bundles, and data analysis code. The small old collection lens was replaced by a six-piece lens with a Cooke optical design. The aperture of its first standard sphere face is 310.125 mm, which successfully increases the amount of collected scattering light by about three times. The new collection optic module allows for up to twenty-six spatial points. A kind of Y-type fiber bundle has also been used to ensure that the fiber end-face matches the image of the laser beam exactly. Additionally, the new data analysis code can provide preview results in seconds. Finally, the multi-point Te diagnostic ability has been significantly improved.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010012
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 13: Cosmic-Ray Tomography for Border Security

    • Authors: Sarah Barnes, Anzori Georgadze, Andrea Giammanco, Madis Kiisk, Vitaly A. Kudryavtsev, Maxime Lagrange, Olin Lyod Pinto
      First page: 13
      Abstract: A key task for customs workers is the interception of hazardous, illegal and counterfeit items in order to protect the health and safety of citizens. However, it is estimated that only a small fraction of cargo is inspected and an even smaller fraction of trafficked goods are detected. Today, the most widely used technology for scanning vehicles, ranging from vans and trucks to railcars, is γ ray and X-ray radiography. New technologies are required to overcome current technological shortcomings, such as the inability to detect the target material composition, the usage of harmful ionising radiation sources and the resultant low throughput. Cosmic ray tomography (CRT) is a promising technology for cargo screening. Cosmic ray muons have average energies of around 10,000 times larger than a typical X-ray and therefore can penetrate relatively large and dense materials. By analysing muon scattering, it is possible to identify materials hidden inside shielding that is too thick or deep for other imaging methods. CRT is also completely passive, exploiting naturally occurring secondary cosmic radiation, and is therefore safe for humans and animals. Contrary to conventional X-ray- or γ-ray-based imaging techniques, CRT also allows material differentiation and anomaly localisation within the cargo or vehicle through the provision of 3D images. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art technology in CRT, critically assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the method, and suggesting further directions for development.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2023-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010013
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 1: 6LiF Converters for Neutron Detection:
           Production Procedures and Detector Tests

    • Authors: Antonio Massara, Simone Amaducci, Luigi Cosentino, Fabio Longhitano, Carmelo Marchetta, Gaetano Elio Poma, Martina Ursino, Paolo Finocchiaro
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Several methods to detect thermal neutrons make use of the naturally occurring 6Li isotope, as it has a rather high cross-section for neutron capture followed by a decay into an alpha particle and a triton. Due to the high chemical reactivity of lithium, the use of the stable isotopic salt 6LiF is generally preferred to the pure 6Li. The typical method for depositing thin layers of 6LiF on suitable substrates, therefore creating so-called neutron converters, is evaporation under vacuum. The evaporation technique, as well as a newly developed chemical deposition process, are described along with their benefits and drawbacks, and the results of neutron detection tests performed with the two types of converters coupled to silicon diodes show convenient performances.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010001
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 2: Muon Radiography Investigations in Boreholes
           with a Newly Designed Cylindrical Detector

    • Authors: Mariaelena D’Errico, Fabio Ambrosino, Luigi Cimmino, Vincenzo Masone, Marco Mirra, Giulio Saracino, Lorenzo Roscilli
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Muons are constantly produced in cosmic-rays and reach the Earth surface with a flux of about 160 particles per second per square meter. The abundance of muons with respect to other cosmic particles and their capability to cross dense materials with low absorption rate allow them to be exploited for large scale geological or human-made object imaging. Muon radiography is based on similar principles as X-ray radiography, measuring the surviving rate of muons escaping the target and relating it to the mass distribution inside the object. In the course of decades, after the first application in 1955, the methodology has been applied in several different fields. Muography allows us to measure the internal density distribution of the investigated object, or to simply highlight the presence of void regions by observing any excess of muons. Most of these applications require the detector to be installed below the rock being probed. In case that possible installation sites are not easily accessible by people, common instrumentation cannot be installed. A novel borehole cylindrical detector for muon radiography has been recently developed to deal with these conditions. It has been realized with a cylindrical geometry to fit typical borehole dimensions. Its design maximizes the geometrical acceptance, minimizing the dead spaces by the use of arc-shaped scintillators. The details of the construction and preliminary results of the first usage are described in this paper.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-12-27
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010002
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 7, Pages 3: A Burn-in Test Station for the ATLAS
           Phase-II Tile-Calorimeter Low-Voltage Power Supply Transformer-Coupled
           Buck Converters

    • Authors: Ryan Peter Mckenzie
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic tile-calorimeter (TileCal) Low-Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) falls under the high-luminosity LHC upgrade project. This article serves to provide an overview of the development of a burn-in test station for a Phase-II upgrade LVPS component known as a Brick. These Bricks are radiation hard transformer-coupled buck converters that function to step-down bulk 200 V DC power to the 10 V DC power required by the on-detector electronics. To ensure the high reliability of the Bricks, once installed within the TileCal, a burn-in test station has been designed and built. The Burn-in procedure subjects the Bricks to sub-optimal operating conditions that function to accelerate their aging as well as to stimulate failure mechanisms. This results in elements of the Brick that would fail prematurely within the TileCal failing within the burn-in station or to experience performance degradation that can be detected by followup testing effectively screening out the ’weak’ sub-population. The burn-in station is of a fully custom design in both its hardware and software. The development of the test station will be explored and the preliminary burn-in procedure to be employed will be presented. The commissioning of the burn-in station will be presented along with a summary and outlook of the project.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments7010003
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 43: The (Un)reasonable Effectiveness of Neural
           Network in Cherenkov Calorimetry

    • Authors: Nural Akchurin, Christopher Cowden, Jordan Damgov, Adil Hussain, Shuichi Kunori
      First page: 43
      Abstract: We report a greater than factor of two improvement in the hadronic energy resolution of a simulated Cherenkov calorimeter by estimating the energy with machine learning over traditional techniques. The prompt signal formation and energy threshold properties of Cherenkov radiation provide identifiable features that machine learning techniques can exploit to produce a superior model for energy reconstruction. We simulated a quartz-fiber calorimeter via the GEANT4 framework to study the reconstruction techniques in single events. We compared the machine learning-based reconstruction performance to the traditional simple sum of signal and dual-readout techniques that use both Cherenkov and scintillation signals. We describe why this game-changing approach to Cherenkov hadron calorimetry excels and our plans for a dedicated beam test to validate these findings with a fast, radiation-hard hadron calorimeter prototype.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040043
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 44: Energy Resolution Studies in Simulation for
           the IDEA Dual-Readout Calorimeter Prototype

    • Authors: Andreas Loeschcke Centeno on behalf of the IDEA Dual-Readout
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Precision measurements of Z, W, and H decays at the next generation of circular lepton colliders will require excellent energy resolution for both electromagnetic and hadronic showers. The resolution is limited by event-to-event fluctuations in the shower development, especially in the hadronic system. Compensating for this effect can greatly improve the achievable energy resolution. Furthermore, the resolution can benefit greatly from the use of particle-flow algorithms, which requires the calorimeters to have a high granularity. The approach of dual-readout calorimetry has emerged as a candidate to fulfil both of these requirements by allowing to reconstruct the fluctuations in the shower development event-by-event and offering a high transverse granularity. An important benchmark of such a calorimeter is the electromagnetic energy resolution; a prototype of the IDEA calorimeter has been built for use in testbeams. In parallel, a simulation of this prototype has been developed in Geant4 for a testbeam environment. Here, we outline how this simulation was used to study the electromagnetic energy resolution and conclude that a resolution of 14%/E is achievable.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040044
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 45: Development of an Argon Light Source as a
           Calibration and Quality Control Device for Liquid Argon Light Detectors

    • Authors: Mehmet Tosun, Burak Bilki, Fatma Boran, Furkan Dolek, Kutlu Kagan Sahbaz
      First page: 45
      Abstract: The majority of future large-scale neutrino and dark matter experiments are based on liquid argon detectors. Since liquid argon is also a very effective scintillator, these experiments also have light detection systems. The liquid argon scintillation wavelength of 127 nm is most commonly shifted to the visible range by special wavelength shifters or read out by the 127 nm sensitive photodetectors that are under development. The effective calibration and quality control of these active media is still a persisting problem. In order to respond to this need, we developed an argon light source which is based on plasma generation and light transfer across a MgF2 window. The light source was designed as a small, portable and easy-to-operate device to enable the acquisition of performance characteristics of several square meters of light detectors. Here, we report on the development of the light source and its performance characteristics.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040045
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 46: Using Artificial Intelligence in the
           Reconstruction of Signals from the PADME Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    • Authors: Kalina Dimitrova, on behalf of the PADME collaboration
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The PADME apparatus was built at the Frascati National Laboratory of INFN to search for a dark photon (A′) produced via the process e+e−→A′γ. The central component of the PADME detector is an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of 616 BGO crystals dedicated to the measurement of the energy and position of the final state photons. The high beam particle multiplicity over a short bunch duration requires reliable identification and measurement of overlapping signals. A regression machine-learning-based algorithm has been developed to disentangle with high efficiency close-in-time events and precisely reconstruct the amplitude of the hits and the time with sub-nanosecond resolution. The performance of the algorithm and the sequence of improvements leading to the achieved results are presented and discussed.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040046
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 47: Machine Learning Techniques for Calorimetry

    • Authors: Polina Simkina
      First page: 47
      Abstract: The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general purpose detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the products of proton–proton collisions at the center of mass energy up to 13.6 TeV are reconstructed. The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is one of the crucial components of the CMS since it reconstructs the energies and positions of electrons and photons. Even though several Machine Learning (ML) algorithms have been already used for calorimetry, with the constant advancement of the field, more and more sophisticated techniques have become available, which can be beneficial for object reconstruction with calorimeters. In this paper, we present two novel ML algorithms for object reconstruction with the ECAL that are based on graph neural networks (GNNs). The new approaches show significant improvements compared to the current algorithms used in CMS.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040047
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 48: Secondary Emission Calorimetry

    • Authors: Burak Bilki, Kamuran Dilsiz, Hasan Ogul, Yasar Onel, David Southwick, Emrah Tiras, James Wetzel, David Roberts Winn
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Electromagnetic calorimetry in high-radiation environments, e.g., forward regions of lepton and hadron collider detectors, is quite challenging. Although total absorption crystal calorimeters have superior performance as electromagnetic calorimeters, the availability and the cost of the radiation-hard crystals are the limiting factors as radiation-tolerant implementations. Sampling calorimeters utilizing silicon sensors as the active media are also favorable in terms of performance but are challenged by high-radiation environments. In order to provide a solution for such implementations, we developed a radiation-hard, fast and cost-effective technique, secondary emission calorimetry, and tested prototype secondary emission sensors in test beams. In a secondary emission detector module, secondary emission electrons are generated from a cathode when charged hadron or electromagnetic shower particles penetrate the secondary emission sampling module placed between absorber materials. The generated secondary emission electrons are then multiplied in a similar way as the photoelectrons in photomultiplier tubes. Here, we report on the principles of secondary emission calorimetry and the results from the beam tests performed at Fermilab Test Beam Facility as well as the Monte Carlo simulations of projected, large-scale secondary emission electromagnetic calorimeters.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040048
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 49: Preliminary Results from ADRIANO2 Test

    • Authors: Corrado Gatto, Gerald C. Blazey, Alexandre Dychkant, Jeffrey W. Elam, Michael Figora, Todd Fletcher, Kurt Francis, Ao Liu, Sergey Los, Cole Le Mahieu, Anil U. Mane, Juan Marquez, Michael J. Murray, Erik Ramberg, Christophe Royon, Michael J. Syphers, Robert W. Young, Vishnu Zutshi
      First page: 49
      Abstract: A novel high-granularity, dual-readout calorimetric technique (ADRIANO2) is under development as part of the research program of T1604 Collaboration. (Talk Presented at the 19th International Conference on Calorimetry in Particle Physics (CALOR 2022), University of Sussex, Sussex, UK, 16–20 May 2022). The building block of such a calorimeter consists of a pair of optically isolated, small size tiles made of scintillating plastic and lead glass. The prompt Čerenkov light from the glass can be exploited to perform high resolution timing measurements, while the high granularity provides good resolution of the spatial components of the shower. Dual-readout compensation and particle flow techniques can be applied simultaneously to the scintillation and to the Čerenkov section, providing excellent energy resolution as well as PID particle identification. These characteristics make ADRIANO2 a 6-D detector, suited for High Energy as well as High Intensity experiments. A report on the status of the ADRIANO2 project, preliminary measurements of light yield, and current and future R&D plans by T1604 Collaboration are discussed.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040049
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 50: TAO—The Taishan Antineutrino

    • Authors: Hans Theodor Josef Steiger
      First page: 50
      Abstract: The Taishan Antineutrino Observatory (TAO or JUNO-TAO) is a satellite detector for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO). JUNO aims at simultaneously probing the two main frequencies of three-flavor neutrino oscillations, as well as their interference related to the mass ordering, at a distance of ~53 km from two powerful nuclear reactor complexes in China. Located near the Taishan-1 reactor, TAO independently measures the antineutrino energy spectrum of the reactor with unprecedented energy resolution. The TAO experiment will realize a neutrino detection rate of about 2000 per day. In order to achieve its goals, TAO is relying on cutting-edge technology, both in photosensor and liquid scintillator (LS) development which is expected to have an impact on future neutrino and Dark Matter detectors. In this paper, the design of the TAO detector with a special focus on calorimetry is discussed. In addition, an overview of the progress currently being made in the R&D for a photosensor and LS technology in the frame of the TAO project will be presented.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040050
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 51: The SiD Digital ECal Based on Monolithic
           Active Pixel Sensors

    • Authors: James E. Brau, Martin Breidenbach, Alexandre Habib, Lorenzo Rota, Caterina Vernieri
      First page: 51
      Abstract: The SiD detector concept capitalizes on high granularity in its tracker and calorimeter to achieve the momentum resolution and particle flow calorimetry physics goals in a compact design. The collaboration has had a long interest in the potential for improved granularity in both the tracker and ECal with an application of monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and a study of MAPS in the SiD ECal was described in the ILC TDR. Work is progressing on the MAPS application in an upgraded SiD design with a prototyping design effort for a common SiD tracker/ECal design based on stitched reticules to achieve 10 × 10 cm2 sensors with 25 × 100 micron2 pixels. Application of large area MAPS in these systems would limit delicate and expensive bump-bonding, provide possibilities for better timing, and should be significantly cheaper than the TDR concept due to being a more conventional CMOS foundry process. The small pixels significantly improve shower separation. Recent simulation studies confirm previous performance projections, indicating electromagnetic energy resolution based on digital hit cluster counting provides better performance than the SiD TDR analog design based on 13 mm2 pixels. Furthermore, the two shower separation is excellent down to the millimeter scale. Geant4 simulation results demonstrate these expectations.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040051
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 52: Tracker-in-Calorimeter (TIC) Project: A
           Calorimetric New Solution for Space Experiments

    • Authors: Gabriele Bigongiari , Oscar Adriani , Giovanni Ambrosi , Philipp Azzarello , Andrea Basti , Eugenio Berti, Bruna Bertucci , Lorenzo Bonechi , Massimo Bongi , Sergio Bottai , Mirko Brianzi , Paolo Brogi, Guido Castellini , Enrico Catanzani , Caterina Checchia , Raffaello D’Alessandro , Sebastiano Detti , Matteo Duranti , Noemi Finetti , Valerio Formato , Maria Ionica , Paolo Maestro , Fernando Maletta , Pier Simone Marrocchesi , Nicola Mori , Lorenzo Pacini , Paolo Papini , Sergio Bruno Ricciarini, Gianluigi Silvestre , Piero Spillantini , Oleksandr Starodubtsev, Francesco Stolzi, Jung Eun Suh , Arta Sulaj , Alessio Tiberio, Elena Vannuccini 
      First page: 52
      Abstract: A space-based detector dedicated to measurements of γ-rays and charged particles has to achieve a balance between different instrumental requirements. A good angular resolution is necessary for the γ-rays, whereas an excellent geometric factor is needed for the charged particles. The tracking reference technique of γ-ray physics is based on a pair-conversion telescope made of passive material (e.g., tungsten) coupled with sensitive layers (e.g., silicon microstrip). However, this kind of detector has a limited acceptance because of the large lever arm between the active layers, needed to improve the track reconstruction capability. Moreover, the passive material can induce fragmentation of nuclei, thus worsening charge reconstruction performances. The Tracker-In-Calorimeter (TIC) project aims to solve all these drawbacks. In the TIC proposal, the silicon sensors are moved inside a highly-segmented isotropic calorimeter with a couple of external scintillators dedicated to charge reconstruction. In principle, this configuration has a good geometrical factor, and the angle of the γ-rays can be precisely reconstructed from the lateral profile of the electromagnetic shower sampled, at different depths in the calorimeter, by silicon strips. The effectiveness of this approach has been studied with Monte Carlo simulations and validated with beam test data of a small prototype.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040052
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 53: The Impact of Crystal Light Yield
           Non-Proportionality on a Typical Calorimetric Space Experiment: Beam Test
           Measurements and Monte Carlo Simulations

    • Authors: Lorenzo Pacini, Oscar Adriani, Eugenio Berti, Pietro Betti, Gabriele Bigongiari, Lorenzo Bonechi, Massimo Bongi, Sergio Bottai, Paolo Brogi, Guido Castellini, Caterina Checchia, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Sebastiano Detti, Noemi Finetti, Paolo Maestro, Pier Simone Marrocchesi, Nicola Mori, Miriam Olmi, Paolo Papini, Claudia Poggiali, Sergio Ricciarini, Piero Spillantini, Oleksandr Starodubtsev, Francesco Stolzi, Alessio Tiberio, Elena Vannuccini
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Calorimetric space experiments were employed for the direct measurements of cosmic-ray spectra above the TeV region. According to several theoretical models and recent measurements, relevant features in both electron and nucleus fluxes are expected. Unfortunately, sizable disagreements among the current results of different space calorimeters exist. In order to improve the accuracy of future experiments, it is fundamental to understand the reasons of these discrepancies, especially since they are not compatible with the quoted experimental errors. A few articles of different collaborations suggest that a systematic error of a few percentage points related to the energy-scale calibration could explain these differences. In this work, we analyze the impact of the nonproportionality of the light yield of scintillating crystals on the energy scale of typical calorimeters. Space calorimeters are usually calibrated by employing minimal ionizing particles (MIPs), e.g., nonshowering proton or helium nuclei, which feature different ionization density distributions with respect to particles included in showers. By using the experimental data obtained by the CaloCube collaboration and a minimalist model of the light yield as a function of the ionization density, several scintillating crystals (BGO, CsI(Tl), LYSO, YAP, YAG and BaF2) are characterized. Then, the response of a few crystals is implemented inside the Monte Carlo simulation of a space calorimeter to check the energy deposited by electromagnetic and hadronic showers. The results of this work show that the energy scale obtained by MIP calibration could be affected by sizable systematic errors if the nonproportionality of scintillation light is not properly taken into account.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040053
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 54: Upgrade of ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter
           for the High-Luminosity LHC

    • Authors: Pavel Starovoitov
      First page: 54
      Abstract: The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is a sampling hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment, with steel as the absorber and plastic scintillators as the active medium. The High-Luminosity phase of the LHC, delivering five times the LHC’s nominal instantaneous luminosity, is expected to begin in 2029. TileCal will require new electronics to meet the requirements of a 1 MHz trigger, higher ambient radiation, and to ensure better performance under high pile-up conditions. Both the on- and off-detector TileCal electronics will be replaced during the shut-down of 2026–2028. The photomultiplier tube (PMT) signals from every TileCal cell will be digitized and sent directly to the back-end electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of the trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision in the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. The modular front-end electronics feature radiation-tolerant, commercial, off-the-shelf components and a redundant design to maintain system performance in case of single points of failure. The timing, control, and communication interface with the off-detector electronics is implemented with modern Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and high-speed fiber optic links running up to 9.6 Gb/s. The TileCal upgrade program has included extensive R&D and test beam studies. A Demonstrator module with reverse compatibility with respect to the existing system was inserted in ATLAS in August 2019 for testing in actual detector conditions. The ongoing developments for on- and off-detector systems, together with expected performance characteristics and results of test-beam campaigns with the electronics prototypes, will be discussed.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040054
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 55: Noble Liquid Calorimetry for FCC-ee

    • Authors: Nicolas Morange
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Noble liquid calorimeters have been successfully used in particle physics experiments for decades. The project presented in this article is that of a new noble liquid calorimeter concept, where a novel design allows us to fulfil the stringent requirements on calorimetry of the physics programme of the electron-positron Future Circular Collider at CERN. High granularity is achieved through the design of specific readout electrodes and high-density cryostat feedthroughs. Excellent performance can be reached through new very light cryostat design and low electronics noise. Preliminary promising performance is achieved in simulations, and ideas for further R&D opportunities are discussed.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040055
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 56: Optimization of the Composition of
           Toluene-Based Liquid Scintillator

    • Authors: Dmitriy Beznosko, Elijah Holloway, Alexander Iakovlev
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Scintillators in general and organic liquid scintillator specifically are widely used as a medium for the detection of charged particles for numerous applications in science, medicine, engineering, and other areas. The composition of the scintillator affects not only its direct performance characteristics, but also the overall cost. Optimization of this composition provides the ability to design particle detectors with an optimized light yield and emission spectra of the detection medium while optimizing the expenses at the same time. This article describes work on toluene-based liquid scintillator component optimization, where PPO is used as a fluor and POPOP as a shifter. The light yield vs. concentration and the changes in the output spectra will be presented. The empirical fit of the output spectrum using the measured contributions of the components is discussed. Further plans include the light attenuation measurements for different compositions.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040056
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 57: Hadron-Induced Radiation Damage in Fast
           Heavy Inorganic Scintillators

    • Authors: Chen Hu, Fan Yang, Liyuan Zhang, Ren-Yuan Zhu, Jon Kapustinsky, Xuan Li, Michael Mocko, Ron Nelson, Steve Wender, Zhehui Wang
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Fast and heavy inorganic scintillators with suitable radiation tolerance are required to face the challenges presented at future hadron colliders of high energy and intensity. Up to 5 GGy and 5 × 1018 neq/cm2 of one-MeV-equivalent neutron fluence is expected by the forward calorimeter at the Future Hadron Circular Collider. This paper reports the results of an investigation of proton- and neutron-induced radiation damage in various fast and heavy inorganic scintillators, such as LYSO:Ce crystals, LuAG:Ce ceramics, and BaF2 crystals. The experiments were carried out at the Blue Room with 800 MeV proton fluence up to 3.0 × 1015 p/cm2 and at the East Port with one MeV equivalent neutron fluence up to 9.2 × 1015 neq/cm2, respectively, at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Experiments were also carried out at the CERN PS-IRRAD proton facility with 24 GeV proton fluence up to 8.2 × 1015 p/cm2. Research and development will continue to develop LuAG:Ce ceramics and BaF2:Y crystals with improved optical quality, F/T ratio, and radiation hardness.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040057
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 58: Enhanced Proton Tracking with ASTRA Using
           Calorimetry and Deep Learning

    • Authors: César Jesús-Valls, Marc Granado-González, Thorsten Lux, Tony Price, Federico Sánchez
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Recently, we proposed a novel range detector concept named ASTRA. ASTRA is optimized to accurately measure (better than 1%) the residual energy of protons with kinetic energies in the range from tens to a few hundred MeVs at a very high rate of O(100 MHz). These combined performances are aimed at achieving fast and high-quality proton Computerized Tomography (pCT), which is crucial to correctly assessing treatment planning in proton beam therapy. Despite being a range telescope, ASTRA is also a calorimeter, opening the door to enhanced tracking possibilities based on deep learning. Here, we review the ASTRA concept, and we study an alternative tracking method that exploits calorimetry. In particular, we study the potential of ASTRA to deal with pile-up protons by means of a novel tracking method based on semantic segmentation, a deep learning network architecture that performs classification at the pixel level.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040058
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 59: SiPMs for Dual-Readout Calorimetry

    • Authors: Romualdo Santoro
      First page: 59
      Abstract: A new fibre-sampling dual-readout calorimeter prototype has been qualified on beam at two facilities (DESY and CERN) using electrons from 1 to 100 GeV. The prototype was designed to almost fully contain electromagnetic showers and a central module (highly granular readout) was equipped with 320 Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) spaced by 2 mm and individually read out. The test beams performed in 2021, allowed to qualify the readout boards used to operate the SiPMs, to define the calibration procedure and to measure the light yield for scintillating and Cherenkov signals produced by the shower development. This paper reports the first results obtained with the highly granular readout and discusses the ongoing R&D to address some open questions concerning the mechanical integration and the scalable readout scheme that will allow to build and operate the next prototype designed for hadronic showers containment.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040059
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 60: The Mu2e Crystal Calorimeter: An Overview

    • Authors: Nikolay Atanov, Vladimir Baranov, Leo Borrel, Caterina Bloise, Julian Budagov, Sergio Ceravolo, Franco Cervelli, Francesco Colao, Marco Cordelli, Giovanni Corradi, Yuri Davydov, Stefano Di Falco, Eleonora Diociaiuti, Simone Donati, Bertrand Echenard, Carlo Ferrari, Antonio Gioiosa, Simona Giovannella, Valerio Giusti, Vladimir Glagolev, Francesco Grancagnolo, Dariush Hampai, Fabio Happacher, David Hitlin, Matteo Martini, Sophie Middleton, Stefano Miscetti, Luca Morescalchi, Daniele Paesani, Daniele Pasciuto, Elena Pedreschi, Frank Porter, Fabrizio Raffaelli, Alessandro Saputi, Ivano Sarra, Franco Spinella, Alessandra Taffara, Anna Maria Zanetti, Ren Yuan Zhu
      First page: 60
      Abstract: The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for the standard model-forbidden, charged lepton flavour-violating conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of an aluminium nucleus. The distinctive signal signature is represented by a mono-energetic electron with an energy near the muon’s rest mass. The experiment aims to improve the current single-event sensitivity by four orders of magnitude by means of a high-intensity pulsed muon beam and a high-precision tracking system. The electromagnetic calorimeter complements the tracker by providing high rejection power in muon to electron identification and a seed for track reconstruction while working in vacuum in presence of a 1 T axial magnetic field and in a harsh radiation environment. For 100 MeV electrons, the calorimeter should achieve: (a) a time resolution better than 0.5 ns, (b) an energy resolution <10%, and (c) a position resolution of 1 cm. The calorimeter design consists of two disks, each loaded with 674 undoped CsI crystals read out by two large-area arrays of UV-extended SiPMs and custom analogue and digital electronics. We describe here the status of construction for all calorimeter components and the performance measurements conducted on the large-sized prototype with electron beams and minimum ionizing particles at a cosmic ray test stand. A discussion of the calorimeter’s engineering aspects and the on-going assembly is also reported.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040060
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 61: Polarimetry for 3He Ion Beams from
           Laser–Plasma Interactions

    • Authors: Chuan Zheng, Pavel Fedorets, Ralf Engels, Chrysovalantis Kannis, Ilhan Engin, Sören Möller, Robert Swaczyna, Herbert Feilbach, Harald Glückler, Manfred Lennartz, Heinz Pfeifer, Johannes Pfennings, Claus M. Schneider, Norbert Schnitzler, Helmut Soltner, Markus Büscher
      First page: 61
      Abstract: We present a compact polarimeter for 3He ions with special emphasis on the analysis of short-pulsed beams accelerated during laser–plasma interactions. We discuss the specific boundary conditions for the polarimeter, such as the properties of laser-driven ion beams, the selection of the polarization-sensitive reaction in the polarimeter, the representation of the analyzing-power contour map, the choice of the detector material used for particle identification, as well as the production procedure of the required deuterated foil-targets. The assembled polarimeter has been tested using a tandem accelerator delivering unpolarized 3He ion beams, demonstrating good performance in the few-MeV range. The statistical accuracy and the deduced figure-of-merit of the polarimetry are discussed, including the count-rate requirement and the lower limit of accuracy for beam-polarization measurements at a laser-based ion source.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040061
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 62: Crilin: A Semi-Homogeneous Calorimeter for
           a Future Muon Collider

    • Authors: Sergio Ceravolo, Francesco Colao, Camilla Curatolo, Elisa Di Meco, Eleonora Diociaiuti, Donatella Lucchesi, Daniele Paesani, Nadia Pastrone, Gianantonio Pezzullo, Alessandro Saputi, Ivano Sarra, Lorenzo Sestini, Diego Tagnani
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Calorimeters, as other detectors, have to face the increasing performance demands of the new energy frontier experiments. For a future Muon Collider the main challenge is given by the Beam Induced Background that may pose limitations to the physics performance. However, it is possible to reduce the BIB impact by exploiting some of its characteristics by ensuring high granularity, excellent timing, longitudinal segmentation and good energy resolution. The proposed design, the Crilin calorimeter, is an alternative semi-homogeneous ECAL barrel for the Muon Collider based on Lead Fluoride Crystals (PbF2) with a surface-mount UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) readout with an optimized design for a future Muon Collider.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040062
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 63: Mechanical Design of an Electromagnetic
           Calorimeter Prototype for a Future Muon Collider

    • Authors: Daniele Paesani, Alessandro Saputi, Ivano Sarra
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Measurement of physics processes at new energy frontier experiments requires excellent spatial, time, and energy resolutions to resolve the structure of collimated high-energy jets. In a future Muon Collider, beam-induced backgrounds (BIB) represent the main challenge in the design of the detectors and of the event reconstruction algorithms. The technology and the design of the calorimeters should be chosen to reduce the effect of the BIB, while keeping good physics performance. Several requirements can be inferred: (i) high granularity to reduce the overlap of BIB particles in the same calorimeter cell; (ii) excellent timing (of the order of 100 ps) to reduce the out-of-time component of the BIB; (iii) longitudinal segmentation to distinguish the signal showers from the fake showers produced by the BIB. Moreover, the calorimeter should operate in a very harsh radiation environment, withstanding yearly a neutron flux of 1014 n1MeV /cm2 and a dose of 100 krad. Our proposal consists of a semi-homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter based on Lead Fluoride Crystals (PbF2) readout by surface-mount UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs): the Crilin calorimeter. In this paper, we report the mechanical design for the development of a small-scale prototype, consisting of 2 layers of 3 × 3 crystals.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040063
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 64: The CMS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger for the

    • Authors: Piyush Kumar, Bhawna Gomber
      First page: 64
      Abstract: The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) provides an opportunity for a pioneering physics program to harness an integrated luminosity of 4000 fb−1 of ten years of operations. This large volume of collision data will help in high precision measurements of the Standard Model (SM) and the search for new and rare physics phenomena. The harsh environment of 200 proton–proton interactions poses a substantial challenge in the collection of these large datasets. The HL-LHC CMS Level-1 (L1) trigger, including the calorimeter trigger, will receive a massive upgrade to tackle the challenge of a high-bandwidth and high pileup environment. The L1 trigger is planned to handle a very high bandwidth (∼63 Tb/s) with an output rate of 750 kHz, and the desired latency budget is 12.5 μs. The calorimeter trigger aims to process the high-granular information from the new end-cap detector called the high-granularity calorimeter (HGCAL) and the barrel calorimeter. The HL-LHC trigger prototyped boards are equipped with large modern-day FPGAs and high-speed optical links (∼28 Gb/s), which helps in the parallel and rapid computation of the calorimeter trigger algorithms. This article discusses the proposed design and expected performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger system.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040064
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 65: Towards a Large Calorimeter Based on Lyso
           Crystals for Future High Energy Physics

    • Authors: Patrick Schwendimann, Andrea Gurgone, Angela Papa
      First page: 65
      Abstract: The state-of-the-art research at the intensity frontier of particle physics aims to find evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model by searching for faint signals in a vast amount of background. To this end, detectors with excellent resolution in all kinematic variables are required. For future calorimeters, a very promising material is LYSO, due to its short radiation length, fast decay time and good light yield. In this article, the simulation of a calorimeter assembled from multiple large LYSO crystals is presented. Although there is still a long way to go before crystals of that size can be produced, the results suggest an energy resolution of 1%, a position resolution around 5 mm and a time resolution of about 30 ps for photons and positrons with an energy of 55 MeV. These results would put such a calorimeter at the technology forefront in precision particle physics.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040065
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 66: Analysis of Secondary Particles as a
           Compliment to Muon Scattering Measurements

    • Authors: Maximilian Pérez Prada, Sarah Barnes, Maurice Stephan
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Cosmic ray tomography is an emerging imaging technique utilizing an ambient source of radiation. One common tomography method is based on the measurement of muons scattered by the examined objects, which allows the reconstruction and discrimination of materials with different properties. From the interaction of air shower particles induced through cosmic rays with the material to be scanned, secondary particles, predominantly photons, neutrons and electrons, can be produced, which carry complementary information about the objects and their materials. However, this information is currently not fully exploited or only studied in coincidence with the incoming air shower particles. Therefore, this work presents a novel approach utilizing only the information from secondary particles to reconstruct and discriminate objects made out of a variety of materials. It also includes a detailed analysis of the kinematics of secondary particles and their dependency on material characteristics. In addition, a reconstruction algorithm to produce 3D maps of the examined volume from the measurement of secondary particles is introduced. This results in a successful reconstruction and differentiation of objects in various geometrical compositions.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040066
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 67: Novel Ultrafast Lu2O3:Yb Ceramics for
           Future HEP Applications

    • Authors: Chen Hu, Liyuan Zhang, Ren-Yuan Zhu, Lakshmi Soundara Pandian, Yimin Wang, Jarek Glodo
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Inorganic scintillators activated by charge transfer luminescence Yb3+ are considered promising ultrafast material to break the ps timing barrier for future high energy physics applications. Inorganic scintillators in ceramic form are potentially more cost-effective than crystals because of their lower fabrication temperature and no need for aftergrowth mechanical processing. This paper reports an investigation on Lu2O3:Yb and Lu2xY2(1−x)O3:Yb scintillating ceramic samples fabricated by Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc. All samples show X-ray excited luminescence peaked at 370 nm. Ultrafast decay time of 1.1 ns was observed by using a microchannel plate-photomultiplier tube-based test bench at Caltech. Considering its intrinsic high density (9.4 g/cm3), Lu2O3:Yb ceramics are promising for future time of fight application for high energy physics experiments.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040067
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 68: Mu2e Crystal Calorimeter Readout
           Electronics: Design and Characterisation

    • Authors: Nikolay Atanov, Vladimir Baranov, Leo Borrel, Caterina Bloise, Julian Budagov, Sergio Ceravolo, Franco Cervelli, Francesco Colao, Marco Cordelli, Giovanni Corradi, Yuri Davydov, Stefano Di Falco, Eleonora Diociaiuti, Simone Donati, Bertrand Echenard, Carlo Ferrari, Antonio Gioiosa, Simona Giovannella, Valerio Giusti, Vladimir Glagolev, Francesco Grancagnolo, Dariush Hampai, Fabio Happacher, David Hitlin, Matteo Martini, Sophie Middleton, Stefano Miscetti, Luca Morescalchi, Daniele Paesani, Daniele Pasciuto, Elena Pedreschi, Frank Porter, Fabrizio Raffaelli, Alessandro Saputi, Ivano Sarra, Franco Spinella, Alessandra Taffara, Anna Maria Zanetti, Ren-Yuan Zhu
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The Mu2e experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory will search for the charged-lepton flavour-violating neutrinoless conversion of negative muons into electrons in the Coulomb field of an Al nucleus. The conversion electron with a monoenergetic 104.967 MeV signature will be identified by a complementary measurement carried out by a high-resolution tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter, improving by four orders of magnitude the current single-event sensitivity. The calorimeter—composed of 1348 pure CsI crystals arranged in two annular disks—has a high granularity, 10% energy resolution and 500 ps timing resolution for 100 MeV electrons. The readout, based on large-area UV-extended SiPMs, features a fully custom readout chain, from the analogue front-end electronics to the digitisation boards. The readout electronics design was validated for operation in vacuum and under magnetic fields. An extensive radiation hardness certification campaign certified the FEE design for doses up to 100 krad and 1012 n1MeVeq/cm2 and for single-event effects. A final vertical slice test on the final readout chain was carried out with cosmic rays on a large-scale calorimeter prototype.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040068
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 69: Performance Study of Virtual Frisch Grid
           CdZnTeSe Detectors

    • Authors: Utpal N. Roy, Giuseppe S. Camarda, Yonggang Cui, Ralph B. James
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Nuclear detectors for x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy and imaging are a vital tool in many homeland security, medical imaging, astrophysics and other applications. Most of these applications require room-temperature operation due to the operational constraints imposed by a cryogenic cooling system. CdZnTe (CZT) has been the main material with the desired detection properties, and CZT crystals have been used commercially for three decades. However, CdZnTe still suffers from long-standing issues of high densities of performance-limiting intrinsic defects such as Te inclusions and networks of dislocation walls (sub-grain boundaries). A recently invented new quaternary material CdZnTeSe showed excellent material properties for radiation detection. The material was found to be free from dislocation networks, possess reduced Te inclusions, and have better compositional homogeneity. Virtual Frisch grid detectors were fabricated from crystals taken from a CdZnTeSe ingot that was grown by the traveling heater method. The detectors were fabricated from an as-grown ingot, bypassing the post-growth annealing process commonly practiced for industrial-grade CZT. The performances of the detectors were studied with different Frisch grid lengths using an amplifier shaping time ranging from 1–6 µs. The detectors showed high-quality spectroscopic performance with an as-measured energy resolution of ~1.1% at 662 keV for an optimum Frisch grid length of 3 mm. The charge collection was observed to enhance for longer Frisch grids.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040069
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 70: Design and Test-Beam Results of the FoCal-H
           Demonstrator Prototype

    • Authors: Radoslav Simeonov
      First page: 70
      Abstract: The forward calorimeter (FoCal) of ALICE, planned to be operational for LHC Run 4, will cover the pseudorapidity range 3.4 ≤η≤ 5.8 allowing to probe the unexplored region of Bjorken-x down to 10−6. The hadronic section of the FoCal (FoCal-H) will be based on copper capillary tubes and scintillating fibers inside, with light read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). A “proof of concept” demonstration prototype was built and tested in the H6 beamline at the CERN SPS in the beginning of October, 2021, exposing it to an unseparated charged particle beam with energy in the interval 20 GeV–80 GeV. The design of the prototype as well as the results of the energy reconstruction are presented and the validation with a GEANT4-based simulation is discussed.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040070
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 71: L1 Triggering on High-Granularity
           Information at the HL-LHC

    • Authors: Louis Portalès
      First page: 71
      Abstract: The CMS collaboration is building a high-granularity calorimeter (HGCAL) for the endcap regions as part of its planned upgrade for the High-Luminosity LHC. The calorimetric data will form part of the Level-1 trigger (hardware) of the CMS experiment, reducing the event rate from the nominal 40 MHz to 750 kHz with a decision time (latency) of 12.5 microseconds. In addition to basic tracking information, which will also be available in the Level-1 trigger system, the use of particle-flow techniques will be facilitated as part of the trigger system. Around 1-million “trigger channels” are read at 40 MHz from the HGCAL, presenting a significant challenge in terms of data manipulation and processing for the trigger system: the trigger data volumes will be an order of magnitude above those currently handled at CMS. In addition, the high luminosity will result in an average of 140 (or more) interactions per bunch crossing that produce a huge background rate in the forward region and these will need to be efficiently rejected by the trigger algorithms. Furthermore, the reconstruction of particle clusters used for particle flow in high hit-rate events presents a complex computational problem associated with the trigger. We present the status of the trigger architecture and design, as well as the algorithmic concepts needed in order to tackle these major issues.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040071
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 72: Design, Construction and Characterization
           of Sealed Tube Medium Power CO2 Laser System

    • Authors: Muddasir Naeem, Tayyab Imran, Mukhtar Hussain, Arshad Saleem Bhatti
      First page: 72
      Abstract: A low-cost medium-power carbon dioxide (CO2) laser system is designed, constructed, and characterized to produce coherent, monochromatic laser radiation in the infrared region. The laser cavity is simulated and designed by using ZEMAX optic studio. A switch-mode high-tension pump source is designed and constructed using a flyback transformer and simulated using NI Multisim to study the voltage behavior at different node points. A prototype cooling system/chiller is designed and built using thermo-electric coolers (TEC) to remove the excess heat produced during laser action. Various parameters, such as pumping mechanism, chiller stability, efficiency, output power, and current at different applied voltages, are studied. The chiller efficiency at different output powers of the laser is analyzed, which clearly shows that the chiller’s cooling rate is good enough to compensate for the heat generated by the laser system. The center wavelength of the carbon dioxide laser is 10.6 μm with an FWHM of 1.2 nm simulated in the ZEMAX optic studio. The output beam penetration through salt rock (NaCl), wood, and acrylic sheet (PMMA) at various output powers is analyzed to measure the penetration depth rate of the CO2 laser.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040072
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 73: Lessons Learned from the Module Production
           for the First CMS Silicon Tracker

    • Authors: Alan Honma
      First page: 73
      Abstract: A personal view of some of the more important lessons learned from the module production for the CMS silicon tracker. This work took place from about 2002–2005. The focus is on areas where I had strong personal involvement; therefore, the tasks of hybrid production, hybrid assembly, and the wire bonding of modules and hybrids are emphasized. This article will first give a general description of the silicon tracker project and how the module production was organized. Then, there will be description of several of the key issues or problems during the production and how they were resolved. Some recommendations for future similar large-scale productions will be given.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040073
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 74: Gaseous Detectors for Field Applications:
           Quality Control, Thermal and Mechanical Stability

    • Authors: Ádám Gera, Gábor Nyitrai, Gergely Surányi, Gergő Hamar, Dezső Varga
      First page: 74
      Abstract: A cosmic muon imaging system is essentially a particle tracking detector as known from experimental High Energy Physics. The Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) once revolutionized this field of science, and as such it is a viable choice as the core element of an imaging system. Long term construction and operation experience was gathered from a Japanese–Hungarian collaboration that gave rise to the MWPC-based Muon Observatory System (MMOS), and is being used in Japan at the Sakurajima volcano. The present paper attempts to draw conclusions on the thermal and mechanical limits of the system, based on controlled measurements and detailed simulations. High temperature behavior and effects of thermal cycling and conditioning are presented, which appear to consistently allow one to propose quality control criteria. Regarding mechanical stability, the relation between gluing quality (tensile strength) and expected stress from vibration (during transportation) determines the safety factor to avoid damages. Both of these are presented and quantified in the paper using a conservative and austere approach, with mechanical simulations validated with experimental modal testing data. One can conclude that mechanical stress during industrial standard air freight shipping conditions is nearly a factor of three below the calculated maximum stress.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040074
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 75: The CALICE SiW ECAL Technological
           Prototype—Status and Outlook

    • Authors: Roman Pöschl
      First page: 75
      Abstract: The next generation of collider detectors will make full use of Particle Flow Algorithms, requiring high-precision tracking and full imaging calorimeters. The latter, thanks to granularity improvements by two to three orders of magnitude compared to existing devices, have been developed during the past 15 years by the CALICE collaboration and are now reaching maturity. This contribution will focus on the commissioning of a 15-layer prototype of a highly granular silicon–tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter that comprises 15,360 readout cells. The prototype was exposed in November 2021 and March 2022 to beam tests at DESY and in June 2022 to a beam test at the SPS at CERN. The test at CERN has been carried out in combination with the CALICE Analogue Hadron Calorimeter. The contribution will give a general overview of the prototype and will highlight technical developments necessary for its construction.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040075
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 76: A Thermal Sublimation Generator of 131mXe

    • Authors: Karolina Kulesz, Nikolay Azaryan, Mikołaj Baranowski, Mateusz Jerzy Chojnacki, Ulli Köster, Razvan Lica, Sorin Gabriel Pascu, Renaud Blaise Jolivet, Magdalena Kowalska
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Stable and unstable isotopes of the heavy noble gas xenon find use in various medical applications. However, apart from 133Xe, used for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, radioactive isotopes of xenon are currently complicated to obtain in small quantities. With the GAMMA-MRI project in mind, we investigated a thermal sublimation generator of the long-lived excited state (isomer) 131mXe. This production method utilized the decay of 131I, obtained commercially from a hospital supplier in the form of Na131I powder. Heat treatments of the Na131I powder and cryogenic trapping of released 131mXe allowed us to collect up to 88% of the produced xenon. Our method provides an isomeric mixture of 131mXe and 131Xe. With improvements in scalability and chemical purification, this method could be a cost-effective source of 131mXe for small-scale experiments.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040076
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 77: Muography for Inspection of Civil

    • Authors: Subhendu Das, Sridhar Tripathy, Priyanka Jagga, Purba Bhattacharya, Nayana Majumdar, Supratik Mukhopadhyay
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Aging infrastructure is a threatening issue throughout the world. Long exposure to oxygen and moisture causes premature corrosion of reinforced concrete structures leading to the collapse of the structures. As a consequence, real-time monitoring of civil structures for rust becomes critical in avoiding mishaps. Muon scattering tomography is a non-destructive, non-invasive technique which has shown impressive results in 3D imaging of civil structures. This paper explores the application of advanced machine learning techniques in identifying a rusted reinforced concrete rebar using muon scattering tomography. To achieve this, we have simulated the performance of an imaging prototype setup, designed to carry out muon scattering tomography, to precisely measure the rust percentage in a rusted rebar. We have produced a 2D image based on the projected 3D scattering vertices of the muons and used the scattering vertex density and average deviation angle per pixel as the distinguishing parameter for the analysis. A filtering algorithm, namely the Pattern Recognition Method, has been employed to eliminate background noise. Since this problem boils down to whether or not the material being analyzed is rust, i.e., a classification problem, we have adopted the well-known machine learning algorithm Support Vector Machine to identify rust in the rusted reinforced cement concrete structure. It was observed that the trained model could easily identify 30% of rust in the structure with a nominal exposure of 30 days within a small error range of 7.3%.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040077
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 78: Atmospheric Muon Flux Measurement Near
           Earth’s Equatorial Line

    • Authors: Cristian Borja, Carlos Ávila, Gerardo Roque, Manuel Sánchez
      First page: 78
      Abstract: We report measurements of muon flux over the sky of the city of Bogotá at 4∘35′56′′ north latitude, 74∘04′51′′ west longitude, and an altitude of 2657 m above sea level, carried out with a hodoscope composed of four stations of plastic scintillators located equidistant over a distance of 4.8 m. Measurements were taken at different zenith (θ) angles within the range 1.5∘≤θ≤90∘, the muon flux data is statistically consistent with a cos2θ dependence, with a χ2 per degree of freedom near unity. If instead, we fit to a cosnθ we obtain n=2.145±0.046 with a lower χ2 per degree of freedom. Integrating the muon flux distribution as a function of the zenith angle over the solid angle of the upper Earth’s hemisphere allows an estimation of the atmospheric vertical muon rate at the altitude and latitude of Bogota obtaining a value of 255.1±5.8m−2s−1. This estimate is consistent with an independent direct measurement of the vertical muon flux with all detectors stacked horizontally. These measurements play a key role in the further development of detectors, aimed to perform muon imaging of Monserrate Hill, located in Bogotá, where the detectors will be placed at similar locations to those used in the present study.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040078
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 79: Metrological Characterization of a CO2
           Laser-Based System for Inscribing Long-Period Gratings in Optical Fibers

    • Authors: Sebastian Valencia-Garzón, Erick Reyes-Vera, Jorge Galvis-Arroyave, Jose Montoya, Nelson Gomez-Cardona
      First page: 79
      Abstract: A CO2 laser-based system was studied and implemented to produce asymmetric long period fiber gratings (LPFG) with a large attenuation peak, high reproducibility, and high stability. The first half of this study provides a mathematical uncertainty model of the CO2 laser-based approach that takes into account various mechanical and thermal effects that impact this production technique. This is the first time that metrological analysis and modeling are performed on the CO2 laser-based engraving technique. Following that, the engraved system’s quality was assessed using a microscopic approach to confirm mechanical characteristics such as grating period, engraved spot width, and penetration depth, demonstrating that, if the thermal and mechanical components of the overall system are correctly managed, it is feasible to have very low inaccuracy. Lastly, the LPFG performance as temperature and strain sensors was tested, and the findings show that they had good linearity in both circumstances. Thus, the temperature sensor had a maximal sensitivity of 58 pm/∘C when measuring temperature changed from 20 to 97 ∘C, but the strain sensor had sensitivity of 43 pm/με when measuring strain variations from 5.59 to 25 με. As a result, the model and results presented in this paper can be utilized to create a platform for the metrological management of lengths involved in the process of manufacturing LPFGs, devices that are widely employed in the creation of sensors and communications devices.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040079
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 80: Measuring the Beam Energy in Proton Therapy
           Facilities Using ATLAS IBL Pixel Detectors

    • Authors: Isabelle Schilling, Claus Maximilian Bäcker, Christian Bäumer, Carina Behrends, Marius Hötting, Jana Hohmann, Kevin Kröninger, Beate Timmermann, Jens Weingarten
      First page: 80
      Abstract: The accurate measurement of the beam range in the frame of quality assurance (QA) is a requirement for clinical use of a proton therapy machine. Conventionally used detectors mostly estimate the range by measuring the depth dose distribution of the protons. In this paper, we use pixel detectors designed for individual particle tracking in the high-radiation environment of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The detector measures the deposited energy in the sensor for individual protons. Due to the limited dynamic energy range of the readout chip, several ways to measure the proton energy or range are examined. A staircase phantom is placed on the detector to perform an energy calibration relative to the NIST PSTAR stopping power database. In addition, track length measurements are performed using the detector aligned parallel with the beam axis to investigate the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) per pixel along the trajectory of individual protons. In this proof-of-principle study, we show that this radiation hardness detector can successfully be used to determine the initial proton energy for protons impinging on the sensor with an energy below 44 MeV after the range shifters. It becomes clear that an improvement of the energy resolution of the readout chip is required for clinical use.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040080
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 81: Experimental Studies of Microwave Tubes
           with Components of Electron–Optical and Electrodynamic Systems
           Implemented Using Novel 3D Additive Technology

    • Authors: Mikhail D. Proyavin, Mikhail V. Morozkin, Naum S. Ginzburg, Andrej N. Denisenko, Maxim V. Kamenskiy, Valentina E. Kotomina, Vladimir N. Manuilov, Alexey A. Orlovskiy, Ivan V. Osharin, Nikolay Y. Peskov, Andrei V. Savilov, Vladislav Y. Zaslavsky
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Novel additive technology of the Chemical Metallization of Photopolymer-based Structures (CMPS) is under active elaboration currently at the IAP RAS (Nizhny Novgorod). The use of this technology has made it possible to implement components of electron–optical and electrodynamic systems for high-power microwave vacuum tubes, such as a gyrotron and a relativistic Cherenkov maser, the design and experimental studies of which are described in this paper. Within the framework of the gyrotron developments, we carried out a simulation of the distribution of the heat load on the collector of high-power technological gyrotron taking into account secondary emission. The prospect of a significant reduction in the maximum power density of the deposited electron beam was shown. The experimental study of the gyrotron collector module manufactured using CMPS technology demonstrated high potential for its further implementation. Recent results of theoretical and experimental studies of a spatially extended Ka-band Cherenkov maser are presented. In this oscillator, the 2D-periodical slow-wave structure made by the proposed technology was applied and a narrow-band generation regime was observed with a sub-GW power level. The design and simulations of a novel selective electrodynamic system for a high-harmonic gyrotron with the planned application of the CMPS technology are discussed.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6040081
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 20: A Compact Avalanche-Transistor-Based Pulse
           Generator for Transcranial Infrared Light Stimulation (TILS) Experiments

    • Authors: Abraham Lopez, Haley N. Strong, Kendra I. McGlothen, Dustin J. Hines, R. Jacob Baker
      First page: 20
      Abstract: A pulse generator using an avalanche transistor operating in current-mode second breakdown driving a 780 nm laser diode is reported. The laser diode is mounted on the skull of a mouse and used in transcranial infrared light stimulation (TILS) experiments. The output current pulse width is approximately 2 ns in an attempt to generate a true impulse-like optical pulse excitation for the TILS experiments.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 21: Two Prism Critical Angle Refractometry with
           Attenuating Media

    • Authors: Spyridon Koutsoumpos, Panagiotis Giannios, Konstantinos Moutzouris
      First page: 21
      Abstract: We present a concept that enables the determination of the complex refractive index of attenuating media from two critical angles, measured sequentially at two interfaces between a single sample and two different prisms. The proposed method is general in that it applies with s and p polarisation states, thus it is suited for the characterisation of isotropic as well as anisotropic media. Uncertainty analysis indicates that relative error in the determination of the real (imaginary) index can be less than 10−4 (in the order of 10%), respectively.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 22: Modern Trends in Neutron Scattering
           Instrument Technologies

    • Authors: Georg Ehlers, Morris L. Crow, Yacouba Diawara, Franz X. Gallmeier, Xiaosong Geng, Garrett E. Granroth, Raymond D. Gregory, Fahima F. Islam, Robert O. Knudson, Fankang Li, Matthew S. Loyd, Bogdan Vacaliuc
      First page: 22
      Abstract: This article reviews some current trends that can be observed in the development of neutron scattering instrument technologies. While the number of neutron scattering facilities worldwide and the number of beam days they offer are largely stable, their scientific impact is increasing through improving instrumental capabilities, new and more versatile instruments, and more efficient data collection protocols. Neutron beams are becoming smaller but more intense, and instruments are being designed to utilize more ‘useful’ neutrons in unit time. This article picks and discusses a few recent developments in the areas of integrated source and instrument design, use of computational tools, new detectors, and experiment automation.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 23: Upgrade of the HIVIPP Deposition Apparatus
           for Nuclear Physics Thin Targets Manufacturing

    • Authors: Sara Cisternino, Hanna Skliarova, Piergiorgio Antonini, Juan Esposito, Liliana Mou, Lorenzo Pranovi, Gaia Pupillo, Gabriele Sciacca
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The High Energy Vibrational Powder Plating (HIVIPP) technique allows for the preparation of targets starting from refractory metal powders with negligible material losses during the process, thus preserving the expensive isotope-enriched materials. An upgraded HIVIPP apparatus was developed at the Legnaro National Laboratory of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN-LNL), and it is reported in this work. Particular attention was paid to the design of the sample holder, the automation of the power supply, and the control of the process, all with the aim of obtaining a versatile and reliable apparatus. Several tests have been carried out and the related results are reported proving the flexibility of the apparatus and the process reproducibility. The main result is a ‘ready to use’ technology at INFN-LNL for the preparation of isotopically enriched refractory metal targets that cannot be manufactured using standard techniques.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 24: Atmospheric and Geodesic Controls of Muon
           Rates: A Numerical Study for Muography Applications

    • Authors: Amélie Cohu, Matias Tramontini, Antoine Chevalier, Jean-Christophe Ianigro, Jacques Marteau
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Muon tomography or muography is an innovative imaging technique using atmospheric muons. The technique is based on the detection of muons that have crossed a target and the measurement of their attenuation or deviation induced by the medium. Muon flux models are key ingredients to convert tomographic and calibration data into the 2D or 3D density maps of the target. Ideally, they should take into account all possible types of local effects, from geomagnetism to atmospheric conditions. Two approaches are commonly used: semi-empirical models or Monte Carlo simulations. The latter offers the advantage to tackle down many environmental and experimental parameters and also allows the optimization of the nearly horizontal muons flux, which remains a long-standing problem for many muography applications. The goal of this paper is to identify through a detailed simulation what kind of environmental and experimental effects may affect the muography imaging sensitivity and its monitoring performance. The results have been obtained within the CORSIKA simulation framework, which offers the possibility to tune various parameters. The paper presents the simulation’s configuration and the results obtained for the muon fluxes computed in various conditions.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 25: Performance and Calibration of the ATLAS
           Tile Calorimeter

    • Authors: Davidek
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling device is made of steel plates acting as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The wavelength-shifting fibers collect the light from scintillators and carry it to the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns and stored on detector until a trigger decision is received. The TileCal front-end electronics read out the signals produced by 9852 channels, whose dynamic range covers the interval from 30 MeV to 2 TeV. Each stage of the signal propagation from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. During LHC Run-2, high-momentum isolated muons and isolated hadrons have been used to study and validate the electromagnetic scale and the hadronic response, respectively. The time resolution was studied with multi-jet events. Results of performance studies that address calibration, stability, energy scale, uniformity and time resolution are presented.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 26: Calorimetry in a Neutrino Observatory: The
           JUNO Experiment

    • Authors: Jelmini
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose experiment under construction in southern China; detector completion is expected in 2023. JUNO is a homogeneous calorimeter consisting of a target mass of 20 kt of an organic liquid scintillator, aiming to detect antineutrinos from reactors to investigate the neutrino oscillation mechanism. The scintillation and Cerenkov light emitted after the interaction of antineutrinos with the liquid scintillator is seen by a compound system of 20 inch large PMTs and 3 inch small PMTs, with a total photo-coverage of 78%. A dual-calorimetry technique is developed based on the presence of the two independent photosensor systems which are characterized by different average light level regimes, resulting in different dynamic ranges. Thanks to this novel technique, an unprecedented high light yield, and in combination with a comprehensive multiple-source and multi-position calibration campaign, JUNO is expected to reach energy-related systematic uncertainties below 1% and an effective energy resolution of 3% at 1%, required for the neutrino oscillation analysis.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030026
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 27: RADiCAL—Precision Timing,
           Ultracompact, Radiation-Hard Electromagnetic Calorimetry

    • Authors: Thomas Anderson, Thomas Barbera, Bradley Cox, Paul Debbins, Maxwell Dubnowski, Kiva Ford, Maxwell Herrmann, Chen Hu, Colin Jessop, Ohannes Kamer-Koseyan, Alexander Ledovskoy, Yasar Onel, Carlos Perez-Lara, Randal Ruchti, Daniel Ruggiero, Daniel Smith, Mark Vigneault, Yuyi Wan, Mitchell Wayne, James Wetzel, Liyuan Zhang, Ren-Yuan Zhu
      First page: 27
      Abstract: To address the challenges of providing high-performance calorimetry in future hadron collider experiments under conditions of high luminosity and high radiation (FCC-hh environments), we conducted R&D on advanced calorimetry techniques suitable for such operation, based on scintillation and wavelength-shifting technologies and photosensor (SiPM and SiPM-like) technology. In particular, we focused our attention on ultra-compact radiation-hard EM calorimeters based on modular structures (RADiCAL modules) consisting of alternating layers of the very dense absorber and scintillating plates, read out via radiation hard wavelength shifting (WLS) solid fiber or capillary elements to photosensors positioned either proximately or remotely, depending upon their radiation tolerance. RADiCAL modules provide the capability to measure simultaneously and with high precision the position, energy and timing of EM showers. This paper provides an overview of the instrumentation and photosensor R&D associated with the RADiCAL program.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030027
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 28: Development of the ATLAS Liquid Argon
           Calorimeter Readout Electronics and Machine Learning for the HL-LHC

    • Authors: Julia Gonski, on behalf of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group on behalf of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group
      First page: 28
      Abstract: The High Luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) starting in 2029 promises exciting discovery potential, giving unprecedented sensitivity to key new physics models and precise characterization of the Higgs boson. In order to maintain current performance in this challenging environment, the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter will get entirely new electronics that reads out the entire detector with full precision at the LHC frequency of 40 MHz, and provides high granularity trigger information, while withstanding high operational radiation doses. New results will be presented from both front-end and off-detector component development, along with highlights from machine learning applications. The future steps and outlook of the project will be discussed, with an eye towards installation in the ATLAS cavern beginning in 2026.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030028
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 29: Upgrade of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic
           Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    • Authors: Charlotte Cooke
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosities of up to 7.5×1034 cm−2s−1 and 4500 fb−1, respectively, from 2029 onwards. To cope with the extreme conditions of up to 200 collisions per bunch crossing, and increased data rates, the on- and off-detector electronics of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) will be replaced. A dual gain trans-impedance amplifier and an ASIC providing two 160 MHz ADC channels, gain selection, and data compression will be used. The lead tungstate crystals and avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in the current ECAL will keep performing well and will therefore be maintained. The noise increase in the APDs, due to radiation-induced dark currents, will be minimised by reducing the ECAL operating temperature from 18 °C to around 9 °C. Prototype HL-LHC electronics have been tested and have shown promising results. In two test beam periods using the CERN SPS H4 beamline and an electron beam, the new electronics achieved the target energy resolution and a timing resolution consistent that is consistent with our requirements of 30 ps timing for energies greater than 50 GeV.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030029
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 30: Energy Reconstruction and Calibration of
           the MicroBooNE LArTPC

    • Authors: Richard Diurba
      First page: 30
      Abstract: MicroBooNE uses a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) for simultaneous tracking and calorimetry. Neutrino oscillation experiments plan to use LArTPCs over the next several decades. A challenge for these current and future experiments lies in characterizing detector performance and reconstruction capabilities with thorough associated systematic uncertainties. This work includes updates related to LArTPC detector physics challenges by reviewing MicroBooNE’s recent publications on calorimetry and its applications. Highlights include discussions on signal processing, calorimetric calibration, and particle identification.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030030
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 31: FASER’s Electromagnetic
           Calorimeter Test Beam Studies

    • Authors: Charlotte Cavanagh
      First page: 31
      Abstract: FASER, or the Forward Search Experiment, is a new experiment at CERN designed to complement the LHC’s ongoing physics program, extending its discovery potential to light and weakly interacting particles that may be produced copiously at the LHC in the far-forward region. New particles targeted by FASER, such as long-lived dark photons or axion-like particles, are characterised by a signature with two oppositely charged tracks or two photons in the multi-TeV range that emanate from a common vertex inside the detector. The full detector was successfully installed in March 2021 in an LHC side tunnel 480 m downstream from the interaction point in the ATLAS detector. FASER is planned to be operational for LHC Run 3. The experiment is composed of a silicon-strip tracking-based spectrometer using three dipole magnets with a 20 cm aperture, supplemented by four scintillator stations and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The FASER electromagnetic calorimeter is constructed from four spare LHCb calorimeter modules. The modules are of the Shashlik type with interleaved scintillator and lead plates that result in 25 radiation lengths and 1% energy resolution for TeV electromagnetic showers. In 2021, a test beam campaign was carried out using one of the CERN SPS beam lines to set up the calibration of the FASER calorimeter system in preparation for physics data taking. The relative calorimeter response to electrons with energies between 10 and 300 GeV, as well as high energy muons and pions, has been measured under various high voltage settings and beam positions. The measured calorimeter resolution, energy calibration, and particle identification capabilities are presented.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030031
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 32: Development of a Novel Highly Granular
           Hadronic Calorimeter with Scintillating Glass Tiles

    • Authors: Dejing Du, Yong Liu
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Based on the particle-flow paradigm, a new hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) with scintillating glass tiles is proposed to address major challenges from precision measurements of jets at the future lepton colliders, such as the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC). Tiles of high-density scintillating glass, with a high-energy sampling fraction, can significantly improve the hadronic energy resolution in the low-energy region (typically below 10 GeV for major jet components at Higgs factories). The hadronic energy resolution of single hadrons and the effects of key parameters of scintillating glass have been evaluated in the Geant4 full simulation, followed by the physics benchmark studies on the Higgs boson with jets in the final state. R&D efforts of scintillating glass materials are ongoing within a dedicated collaboration since 2021 with the aim to achieve a high light yield, a high density, and a low cost. Measurements have been performed for the first batches of scintillating glass samples including the light yield, emission and scintillation spectra, scintillation decay times, and cosmic responses. An optical simulation model of a single scintillating glass tile has been established to provide guidance in the development of scintillating glass. Highlights of the expected detector performance and the latest scintillating glass developments are presented in this contribution.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030032
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 33: Photodiode Read-Out System for the
           Calorimeter of the Herd Experiment

    • Authors: Pietro Betti, Oscar Adriani, Matias Antonelli, Yonglin Bai, Xiaohong Bai, Tianwei Bao, Eugenio Berti, Lorenzo Bonechi, Massimo Bongi, Valter Bonvicini, Sergio Bottai, Weiwei Cao, Jorge Casaus, Zhen Chen, Xingzhu Cui, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Sebastiano Detti, Yongwei Dong, Noemi Finetti, Valerio Formato, Miguel Angel Velasco Frutos, Jiarui Gao, Xiaozhen Liang, Ran Li, Xin Liu, Linwei Lyu, Gustavo Martinez, Nicola Mori, Jesus Marin Munoz, Lorenzo Pacini, Paolo Papini, Cecilia Pizzolotto, Zheng Quan, JunJun Qin, Dalian Shi, Oleksandr Starodubtsev, Zhicheng Tang, Alessio Tiberio, Valerio Vagelli, Elena Vannuccini, Bo Wang, Junjing Wang, Le Wang, Ruijie Wang, Gianluigi Zampa, Nicola Zampa, Zhigang Wang, Ming Xu, Li Zhang, Jinkun Zheng
      First page: 33
      Abstract: HERD is a future experiment for the direct detection of high energy cosmic rays. The instrument is based on a calorimeter optimized not only for a good energy resolution but also for a large acceptance. Each crystal composing the calorimeter is equipped with two read-out systems: one based on wavelength-shifting fibers and the other based on two photodiodes with different active areas assembled in a monolithic package. In this paper, we describe the photodiode read-out system, focusing on experimental requirements, design and estimated performances. Finally, we show how these features lead to the flight model project of the photodiode read-out system.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030033
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 34: Performance Study of a New Cluster
           Splitting Algorithm for the Reconstruction of PANDA EMC Data

    • Authors: Ziyu Zhang, Guang Zhao, Shengsen Sun, Qing Pu, Chunxiu Liu, Chunxu Yu, Dong Liu, Hang Qi, Guangshun Huang, Tobias Stockmanns, Beijiang Liu, Fei Wang, Yitong Zhang, Xiaoyan Shen
      First page: 34
      Abstract: For high-energy π0 mesons, the angle between the two final-state photons decreases with the increase in the energy of the π0, which enhances the probability of overlapping electromagnetic showers. The performance of the cluster splitting algorithm in the EMC reconstruction is crucial for the mass resolution measurement of π0 with high energy. The cluster splitting algorithm is based on the theoretical lateral distribution of the electromagnetic showers. A simple implementation of the lateral distribution can be described as a (multi-)exponential function. In a realistic electromagnetic calorimeter, considering the granularity of the detector, the measured energy in a cell is actually the integral of the theoretical energy deposition, which deviates from the exponential function. Based on the simulation of the barrel EMC in the P¯ANDA experiment, a cluster splitting algorithm with a new lateral energy development function is developed. The energy resolution of overlapping showers with high energy has been improved.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030034
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 35: Development of Novel Designs of Resistive
           Plate Chambers

    • Authors: Burak Bilki, Yasar Onel, Jose Repond, Kutlu Kagan Sahbaz, Mehmet Tosun, Lei Xia
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are a key active media of the muon systems of current and future collider experiments as well as the CALICE (semi-)digital hadron calorimeter. The outstanding issues with RPCs can be listed as the loss of efficiency for the detection of particles when subjected to high particle fluxes and the limitations associated with the common RPC gases. We developed novel RPC designs with: low resistivity glass plates; a single resistive plate; and a single resistive plate and a special anode plate coated with high secondary electron emission yield material. The cosmic and beam tests confirmed the viability of these new approaches for calorimetric applications. The chambers also have improved single-particle response, such as a pad multiplicity close to unity. Here, we report on the construction of various different glass RPC designs and their performance measurements in laboratory tests and with particle beams. We also discuss future test plans, which include the long-term performance tests of the newly developed RPCs, investigation of minimal gas flow chambers, and feasibility study for the large-size chambers.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030035
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 36: 25 Years of Dual-Readout Calorimetry

    • Authors: Richard Wigmans
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Twenty-five years ago, at the CALOR1997 conference in Tucson, the idea of dual-readout calorimetry was first presented. In this talk, I discuss the considerations that led to that proposal, and describe the developments that have since taken place, to the point where dual-readout calorimetry is now considered a major candidate for experiments at future colliders.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030036
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 37: ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Commissioning for the
           LHC Run 3

    • Authors: Alessandra Betti
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The Liquid Argon Calorimeters are employed by ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region η <3.2, and for hadronic and forward calorimetry in the region from η =1.5 to η =4.9. They also provide inputs to the first level of the ATLAS trigger. After a successful period of data taking during the LHC Run 2 between 2015 and 2018, the ATLAS detector entered into a long period of shutdown. In 2022, the LHC will restart and the Run 3 period should see an increase of luminosity and pile-up of up to 80 interactions per bunch crossing. To cope with these harsher conditions, a new trigger readout path has been installed during the long shutdown. This new path should significantly improve the triggering performance on electromagnetic objects. This will be achieved by increasing the granularity of the objects available at trigger level by up to a factor of ten. The installation of this new trigger readout chain also required the update of the legacy system. More than 1500 boards of the precision readout have been extracted from the ATLAS pit, refurbished and re-installed. The legacy analog trigger readout, which will remain during the LHC Run 3 as a backup of the new digital trigger system, has also been updated. For the new system, 124 new on-detector boards have been added. Those boards that are operating in a radiative environment are digitizing the calorimeter trigger signals at 40 MHz. The digital signal is sent to the off-detector system and processed online to provide the measured energy value for each unit of readout. In total up to 31 Tbps are analyzed by the processing system and more than 62Tbps are generated for downstream reconstruction. To minimize the triggering latency the processing system had to be installed underground. The limited available space imposed a very compact hardware structure. To achieve a compact system, large FPGAs with high throughput have been mounted on ATCA mezzanines cards. In total, no more than three ATCA shelves are used to process the signal from approximately 34,000 channels. Given that modern technologies have been used compared to the previous system, all the monitoring and control infrastructure is being adapted and commissioned as well. This contribution presents the challenges of the installation, the commissioning and the milestones still to be completed towards the full operation of both the legacy and the new readout paths for the LHC Run 3.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030037
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 38: Split Hopkinson Tension Bar and Universal
           Testing Machine for High-Speed X-ray Imaging of Materials under Tension

    • Authors: Puneeth Jakkula, Amitay Cohen, Bratislav Lukić, David Levi-Hevroni, Alexander Rack, Georg Ganzenmüller, Stefan Hiermaier
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Studying the failure behaviour of engineered or natural materials under dynamic loading scenarios is of high importance, for example to investigate the fracture mechanics and to prevent catastrophic failures of constructions. When dynamic loading is coupled to high-speed X-ray imaging, not only surface information but images of the interior of the specimens during failure are accessible. Here, a custom designed Split Hopkinson Tension Bar (SHTB) coupled a Universal Testing Machine (UTM) has been developed, dedicated to study quasi-static and dynamic response using ultra-high speed X-ray phase contrast imaging. Both systems follow a compact design which allows them to be temporarily installed at a synchrotron beamline. A brief description of the installation and usage of these setups are outlined. Selected example applications outline the potential of these systems. Both systems can be considered for proposal experiments at beamline ID19 of the European synchrotron ESRF on request.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030038
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 39: Reconstruction of 3D Shower Shape with the
           Dual-Readout Calorimeter

    • Authors: Sanghyun Ko, Hwidong Yoo, Seungkyu Ha
      First page: 39
      Abstract: The dual-readout calorimeter has two channels, Cherenkov and scintillation, that measure the fraction of an electromagnetic (EM) component within a shower by using different responses of each channel to the EM and hadronic component. It can measure the energy of EM and hadronic shower simultaneously—its concept inspired the integrated design for measuring both EM and hadronic showers, which left the task of reconstructing longitudinal shower shapes to the utilization of timing. We explore the possibility of longitudinal shower shape reconstruction using signal processing on silicon photomultiplier timing, and 3D shower shape by combining lateral and longitudinal information. We present a comparison between Monte Carlo (MC) and reconstructed longitudinal shower shapes from the simulation, and the application of 3D shower shapes associated with the dual nature of the calorimeter to identify electrons, hadrons, and hadronic punch-thru or muons.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030039
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 40: R&D of a Novel High Granularity Crystal
           Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    • Authors: Baohua Qi, Yong Liu
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Future electron-positron collider experiments aim at the precise measurement of the Higgs boson, electroweak physics and the top quark. Based on the particle-flow paradigm, a novel highly granular crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is proposed to address major challenges from jet reconstruction and to achieve the optimal EM energy resolution of around 2–3%/E(GeV) with the homogeneous structure. Extensive R&D efforts have been carried out to evaluate the requirements and potentials of the crystal calorimeter concept from sensitive detection units to a full sub-detector system. The requirements on crystal candidates, photon sensors as well as readout electronics are parameterized and quantified in Geant4 full simulation. Experiments including characterizations of crystals and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are performed to validate and improve the simulation results. The physics performance of the crystal ECAL is been studied with the particle flow algorithm “ArborPFA” which is also being optimized. Furthermore, a small-scale detector module with a crystal matrix and SiPM arrays is under development for future beam tests to study the performance for EM showers.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030040
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 41: Including Calorimeter Test Beams in
           Geant-val—The Physics Validation Testing Suite of Geant4

    • Authors: Lorenzo Pezzotti, Andrey Kiryunin, Dmitri Konstantinov, Alberto Ribon, Pavol Strizenec, on behalf of the Geant4 Collaboration
      First page: 41
      Abstract: The Geant4 simulation toolkit is currently adopted by many particle physics experiments, including those at the Large Hadron Collider and the ones proposed for future lepton and hadron colliders. In the present era of precision tests for the Standard Model and increasingly detailed detectors proposed for the future colliders scenario, Geant4 plays a key role. It is required to remain a reliable and stable toolkit for detector simulations and at the same time undergo major improvements in both physics accuracy and computational performance. Calorimeter beam tests involve various particles at different energy scales and represent ideal benchmarks for the physics modeling and assessment of Monte Carlo tools for radiation–matter simulation. We present the first results of a broad validation campaign on test beam data targeting data deployment and preservation with geant-val, the Geant4 validation and testing suite. We investigate the Geant4 capability to model the calorimeter response, energy fluctuations, and shower shapes using data from the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter and the CALICE silicon-tungsten calorimeter. The evolution over the recent years of the recommended set of physics processes for high-energy physics applications is outlined and compared to alternative models for hadronic interactions.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030041
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 42: DOME: Discrete Oriented Muon Emission in
           GEANT4 Simulations

    • Authors: Ahmet Ilker Topuz, Madis Kiisk, Andrea Giammanco
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The simulation of muon tomography requires a multi-directional particle source that traverses a number of horizontal detectors of limited angular acceptance that are used to track cosmic-ray muons. In this study, we describe a simple strategy that can use GEANT4 simulations to produce a hemispherical particle source. We initially generate random points on a spherical surface of practical radius by using a Gaussian distributions for the three components of the Cartesian coordinates, thereby obtaining a generating surface for the initial position of the particles to be tracked. Since we do not require the bottom half of the sphere, we take the absolute value of the vertical coordinate, resulting in a hemisphere. Next, we direct the generated particles into the target body by selectively favoring the momentum direction along the vector constructed between a random point on the hemispherical surface and the origin of the target, thereby minimizing particle loss through source biasing. We also discuss a second scheme where the coordinate transformation is performed between the spherical and Cartesian coordinates, and the above-source biasing procedure is applied to orient the generated muons towards the target. Finally, a recipe based on restrictive planes from our previous study is discussed. We implement our strategies by using G4ParticleGun in the GEANT4 code. While we apply these techniques to simulations for muon tomography via scattering, these source schemes can be applied to similar studies for atmospheric sciences, space engineering, and astrophysics where a 3D particle source is a necessity.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030042
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 17: First Results from the Thomson Scattering
           Diagnostic on the Large Plasma Device

    • Authors: Marietta Kaloyan, Sofiya Ghazaryan, Shreekrishna P. Tripathi, Walter Gekelman, Mychal J. Valle, Byonghoon Seo, Christoph Niemann
      First page: 17
      Abstract: We present the first Thomson scattering measurements of electron density and temperature in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD), a 22 m long magnetized linear plasma device at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). The diagnostic spectrally resolves the Doppler shift imparted on light from a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser when scattered by plasma electrons. A fiber array coupled to a triple-grating spectrometer is used to obtain high stray light rejection and discriminate the faint scattering signal from a much larger background. In the center of the plasma column, the measured electron density and temperature are about ne≈1.5×1013 cm−3 and Te≈ 3 eV, respectively, depending on the discharge parameters and in good agreement with Langmuir probe data. Optical design considerations to maximize photon count while minimizing alignment sensitivity are discussed in detail and compared to numerical calculations. Raman scattering off of a quartz crystal probe is used for an absolute irradiance calibration of the system.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6020017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 18: A High-Density Polarized 3He Gas–Jet
           Target for Laser–Plasma Applications

    • Authors: Pavel Fedorets, Chuan Zheng, Ralf Engels, Ilhan Engin, Herbert Feilbach, Ulrich Giesen, Harald Glückler, Chrysovalantis Kannis, Franz Klehr, Manfred Lennartz, Heinz Pfeifer, Johannes Pfennings, Claus Michael Schneider, Norbert Schnitzler, Helmut Soltner, Robert Swaczyna, Markus Büscher
      First page: 18
      Abstract: A laser-driven spin-polarized 3He2+-beam source for nuclear–physics experiments and for the investigation of polarized nuclear fusion demands a high-density polarized 3He gas-jet target. Such a target requires a magnetic system providing a permanent homogeneous holding field for the nuclear spins plus a set of coils for adjusting the orientation of the polarization. Starting from a transport vessel at a maximum pressure of 3 bar, the helium gas is compressed for a short time and can be injected into a laser–interaction chamber through a non-magnetic opening valve and nozzle, thus forming jets with densities of about a few 1019 cm−3 and widths of about 1 mm. The target comprises a 3D adjustment system for precise positioning of the jet relative to the laser focus. An auxiliary gas system provides remote target operation and flushing of the gas lines with Ar gas, which helps to reduce polarization losses. The design of the target, its operation procedures and first experimental results are presented.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6020018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 19: Design of an Antimatter Large Acceptance
           Detector In Orbit (ALADInO)

    • Authors: Oscar Adriani, Corrado Altomare, Giovanni Ambrosi, Philipp Azzarello, Felicia Carla Tiziana Barbato, Roberto Battiston, Bertrand Baudouy, Benedikt Bergmann, Eugenio Berti, Bruna Bertucci, Mirko Boezio, Valter Bonvicini, Sergio Bottai, Petr Burian, Mario Buscemi, Franck Cadoux, Valerio Calvelli, Donatella Campana, Jorge Casaus, Andrea Contin, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Magnus Dam, Ivan De Mitri, Francesco de Palma, Laurent Derome, Valeria Di Felice, Adriano Di Giovanni, Federico Donnini, Matteo Duranti, Emanuele Fiandrini, Francesco Maria Follega, Valerio Formato, Fabio Gargano, Francesca Giovacchini, Maura Graziani, Maria Ionica, Roberto Iuppa, Francesco Loparco, Jesús Marín, Samuele Mariotto, Giovanni Marsella, Gustavo Martínez, Manel Martínez, Matteo Martucci, Nicolò Masi, Mario Nicola Mazziotta, Matteo Mergé, Nicola Mori, Riccardo Munini, Riccardo Musenich, Lorenzo Mussolin, Francesco Nozzoli, Alberto Oliva, Giuseppe Osteria, Lorenzo Pacini, Mercedes Paniccia, Paolo Papini, Mark Pearce, Chiara Perrina, Piergiorgio Picozza, Cecilia Pizzolotto, Stanislav Pospíšil, Michele Pozzato, Lucio Quadrani, Ester Ricci, Javier Rico, Lucio Rossi, Enrico Junior Schioppa, Davide Serini, Petr Smolyanskiy, Alessandro Sotgiu, Roberta Sparvoli, Antonio Surdo, Nicola Tomassetti, Valerio Vagelli, Miguel Ángel Velasco, Xin Wu, Paolo Zuccon
      First page: 19
      Abstract: A new generation magnetic spectrometer in space will open the opportunity to investigate the frontiers in direct high-energy cosmic ray measurements and to precisely measure the amount of the rare antimatter component in cosmic rays beyond the reach of current missions. We propose the concept for an Antimatter Large Acceptance Detector In Orbit (ALADInO), designed to take over the legacy of direct measurements of cosmic rays in space performed by PAMELA and AMS-02. ALADInO features technological solutions conceived to overcome the current limitations of magnetic spectrometers in space with a layout that provides an acceptance larger than 10 m2 sr. A superconducting magnet coupled to precision tracking and time-of-flight systems can provide the required matter–antimatter separation capabilities and rigidity measurement resolution with a Maximum Detectable Rigidity better than 20 TV. The inner 3D-imaging deep calorimeter, designed to maximize the isotropic acceptance of particles, allows for the measurement of cosmic rays up to PeV energies with accurate energy resolution to precisely measure features in the cosmic ray spectra. The operations of ALADInO in the Sun–Earth L2 Lagrangian point for at least 5 years would enable unique revolutionary observations with groundbreaking discovery potentials in the field of astroparticle physics by precision measurements of electrons, positrons, and antiprotons up to 10 TeV and of nuclear cosmic rays up to PeV energies, and by the possible unambiguous detection and measurement of low-energy antideuteron and antihelium components in cosmic rays.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6020019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 3: Experimental Determination of Excitation
           Function Curves through the Measurement of Thick Target Yields in Liquid
           Targets: The Examples of the 68Zn(p,n)68Ga and 64Zn(p,α)61Cu Nuclear

    • Authors: Sergio J. C. do Carmo, Francisco Alves
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The present work describes a method to determine excitation function curves and, therefore, cross-sections, making use of the irradiation of liquid targets at distinct energies in a biomedical cyclotron. The method relies on the derivative of experimentally measured thick target yield curves to determine the corresponding excitation function curves. The technique is presented as a valid and practical alternative to the commonly used activation method combined with the stack monitor technique, whose implementation in liquid targets offers practical difficulties. The working principle is exemplified by presenting the results obtained for the clinically relevant 68Zn(p,n)68Ga and the 64Zn(p,α)61Cu nuclear reactions, obtained though the irradiation of liquid targets containing dissolved natural zinc.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 4: Compact LWFA-Based Extreme Ultraviolet Free
           Electron Laser: Design Constraints

    • Authors: Alexander Yu. Molodozhentsev, Konstantin O. Kruchinin
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The combination of advanced high-power laser technology, new acceleration methods and achievements in undulator development offers the opportunity to build compact, high-brilliance free electron lasers driven by a laser wakefield accelerator. Here, we present a simulation study outlining the main requirements for the laser–plasma-based extreme ultraviolet free electron laser setup with the aim to reach saturation of the photon pulse energy in a single unit of a commercially available undulator with the deflection parameter K0 in the range of 1–1.5. A dedicated electron beam transport strategy that allows control of the electron beam slice parameters, including collective effects, required by the self-amplified spontaneous emission regime is proposed. Finally, a set of coherent photon radiation parameters achievable in the undulator section utilizing the best experimentally demonstrated electron beam parameters are analyzed. As a result, we demonstrate that the ultra-short, few-fs-level pulse of the photon radiation with the wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet range can be obtained with the peak brilliance of ∼7×1028 photons/pulse/mm2/mrad2/0.1%bw.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 5: A Hard Copper Open X-Band RF Accelerating
           Structure Made by Two Halves

    • Authors: Bruno Spataro, Mostafa Behtouei, Fabio Cardelli, Martina Carillo, Valery Dolgashev, Luigi Faillace, Mauro Migliorati, Luigi Palumbo
      First page: 5
      Abstract: This communication focuses on the technological developments aiming to show the viability of novel welding techniques [...]
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 6: The CYGNO Experiment

    • Authors: Fernando Domingues Amaro, Elisabetta Baracchini, Luigi Benussi, Stefano Bianco, Cesidio Capoccia, Michele Caponero, Danilo Santos Cardoso, Gianluca Cavoto, André Cortez, Igor Abritta Costa, Rita Joanna da Cruz Roque, Emiliano Dané, Giorgio Dho, Flaminia Di Giambattista, Emanuele Di Marco, Giovanni Grilli di Cortona, Giulia D’Imperio, Francesco Iacoangeli, Herman Pessoa Lima Júnior, Guilherme Sebastiao Pinheiro Lopes, Amaro da Silva Lopes Júnior, Giovanni Maccarrone, Rui Daniel Passos Mano, Michela Marafini, Robert Renz Marcelo Gregorio, David José Gaspar Marques, Giovanni Mazzitelli, Alasdair Gregor McLean, Andrea Messina, Cristina Maria Bernardes Monteiro, Rafael Antunes Nobrega, Igor Fonseca Pains, Emiliano Paoletti, Luciano Passamonti, Sandro Pelosi, Fabrizio Petrucci, Stefano Piacentini, Davide Piccolo, Daniele Pierluigi, Davide Pinci, Atul Prajapati, Francesco Renga, Filippo Rosatelli, Alessandro Russo, Joaquim Marques Ferreira dos Santos, Giovanna Saviano, Neil John Curwen Spooner, Roberto Tesauro, Sandro Tomassini, Samuele Torelli
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The search for a novel technology able to detect and reconstruct nuclear and electron recoil events with the energy of a few keV has become more and more important now that large regions of high-mass dark matter (DM) candidates have been excluded. Moreover, a detector sensitive to incoming particle direction will be crucial in the case of DM discovery to open the possibility of studying its properties. Gaseous time projection chambers (TPC) with optical readout are very promising detectors combining the detailed event information provided by the TPC technique with the high sensitivity and granularity of latest-generation scientific light sensors. The CYGNO experiment (a CYGNus module with Optical readout) aims to exploit the optical readout approach of multiple-GEM structures in large volume TPCs for the study of rare events as interactions of low-mass DM or solar neutrinos. The combined use of high-granularity sCMOS cameras and fast light sensors allows the reconstruction of the 3D direction of the tracks, offering good energy resolution and very high sensitivity in the few keV energy range, together with a very good particle identification useful for distinguishing nuclear recoils from electronic recoils. This experiment is part of the CYGNUS proto-collaboration, which aims at constructing a network of underground observatories for directional DM search. A one cubic meter demonstrator is expected to be built in 2022/23 aiming at a larger scale apparatus (30 m3–100 m3) at a later stage.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 7: Development of an MCP-Based Timing Layer for
           the LHCb ECAL Upgrade-2

    • Authors: Stefano Perazzini, Fabio Ferrari, Vincenzo Maria Vagnoni, on behalf of the LHCb ECAL Upgrade-2 R&D Group on behalf of the LHCb ECAL Upgrade-2 R&D Group
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The increase in instantaneous luminosity during the high-luminosity phase of the LHC represents a significant challenge for future detectors. A strategy to cope with high-pileup conditions is to add a fourth dimension to the measurements of the hits, by exploiting the time separation of the various proton–proton primary collisions. According to LHCb simulation studies, resolutions of about 10–20 picoseconds, at least an order of magnitude shorter than the average time span between primary interactions, would be greatly beneficial for the physics reach of the experiment. Microchannel plate (MCP) photomultipliers are compact devices capable of measuring the arrival time of charged particles with the required resolution. The technology of large-area picosecond photodetectors (LAPPDs) is under investigation to implement a timing layer that can be placed within a sampling calorimeter module with the purpose of measuring the arrival time of electromagnetic showers. LAPPD performances, using a Gen-I tile with a delay-line anode and a Gen-II with a capacitively coupled anode, have been measured thoroughly both with laser (wavelength of 405 nm and pulse width of 27.5 ps FWHM) and high-energy electron (1–5.8 GeV) beams. Time resolutions of the order of 30 ps for single photoelectrons and 15 ps for electromagnetic showers initiated by 5-GeV electrons, as measured at the shower maximum, are obtained.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 8: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Instruments
           in 2021

    • Authors: Instruments Editorial Office Instruments Editorial Office
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 9: First 3D Printed IH-Type Linac
           Structure—Proof-of-Concept for Additive Manufacturing of Linac RF

    • Authors: Hendrik Hähnel, Ulrich Ratzinger
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM or “3D printing”) has become a powerful tool for the rapid prototyping and manufacturing of complex part geometries. Especially interesting for the world of particle accelerators is the process of the 3D printing of stainless steel (and copper) parts. We present a first prototype of a 433 MHz IH-type linac cavity with an internal drift tube structure manufactured by metal 3D printing. The prototype cavity has been constructed to act as a proof-of-concept for the technology. In this paper we present the concept of the cavity as well as first results of vacuum testing and materials testing.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 10: Beyond the N-Limit of the Least Squares
           Resolution and the Lucky Model

    • Authors: Gregorio Landi, Giovanni E. Landi
      First page: 10
      Abstract: A very simple Gaussian model is used to illustrate an interesting fitting result: a linear growth of the resolution with the number N of detecting layers. This rule is well beyond the well-known rule proportional to N for the resolution of the usual fits. The effect is obtained with the appropriate form of the variance for each hit (observation). The model reconstructs straight tracks with N parallel detecting layers, the track direction is the selected parameter to test the resolution. The results of the Gaussian model are compared with realistic simulations of silicon micro-strip detectors. These realistic simulations suggest an easy method to select the essential weights for the fit: the lucky model. Preliminary results of the lucky model show an excellent reproduction of the linear growth of the resolution, very similar to that given by realistic simulations. The maximum likelihood evaluations complete this exploration of the growth in resolution.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 11: Multichannel Time Synchronization Based on
           PTP through a High Voltage Isolation Buffer Network Interface for
           Thick-GEM Detectors

    • Authors: Luis Guillermo García Ordóñez, Maria Liz Crespo, Sergio Carrato, Andres Cicuttin, Werner Oswaldo Florian Samayoa, Daniele D’Ago, Stefano Levorato
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Data logging and complex algorithm implementations acting on multichannel systems with independent devices require the use of time synchronization. In the case of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) and Thick-GEM (THGEM) detectors, the biasing potential can be generated at the detector level via DC to DC converters operating at floating voltage. In this case, high voltage isolation buffers may be used to allow communication between the different channels. However, their use add non-negligible delays in the transmission channel, complicating the synchronization. Implementation of a simplified precise time protocol is presented for handling the synchronization on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) side of a Xilinx SoC Zynq ZC7Z030. The synchronization is done through a high voltage isolated bidirectional network interface built on a custom board attached to a commercial CIAA_ACC carrier. The results of the synchronization are shown through oscilloscope captures measuring the time drift over long periods of time, achieving synchronization in the order of nanoseconds.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 12: Time Resolution of an Irradiated 3D Silicon
           Pixel Detector

    • Authors: Christopher Betancourt, Dario De Simone, Gregor Kramberger, Maria Manna, Giulio Pellegrini, Nicola Serra
      First page: 12
      Abstract: We report on the measurements of time resolution for double-sided 3D pixel sensors with a single cell of 50 μm × 50 μm and thickness of 285 μm, fabricated at IMB-CNM and irradiated with reactor neutrons from 8 ×1014 1MeV neq/cm2 to 1.0 ×1016 1MeV neq/cm2. The time resolution measurements were conducted using a radioactive source at a temperature of −20 and 20 °C in a bias voltage range of 50–250 V. The reference time was provided by a low gain avalanche detector produced by Hamamatsu. The results are compared to measurements conducted prior to irradiation where a temporal resolution of about 50 ps was measured. These are the first ever timing measurements on an irradiated 3D sensor and which serve as a basis for understanding their performance and to explore the possibility of performing 4D tracking in high radiation environments, such as the innermost tracking layers of future high energy physics experiments.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 13: Performance of the FASTPIX Sub-Nanosecond
           CMOS Pixel Sensor Demonstrator

    • Authors: Justus Braach, Eric Buschmann, Dominik Dannheim, Katharina Dort, Thanushan Kugathasan, Magdalena Munker, Walter Snoeys, Mateus Vicente
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Within the ATTRACT FASTPIX project, a monolithic pixel sensor demonstrator chip has been developed in a modified 180 nm CMOS imaging process, targeting sub-nanosecond timing measurements for single ionizing particles. It features a small collection electrode design on a 25 micron thick epitaxial layer and contains 32 mini matrices of 68 hexagonal pixels each, with pixel pitches ranging from 8.66 to 20 micron. Four pixels are transmitting an analog output signal and 64 are transmitting binary hit information. Various design variations are explored, aiming at accelerating the charge collection and making the timing of the charge collection more uniform over the pixel area. Signal treatment of the analog waveforms, as well as reconstruction of time and charge information, is carried out off-chip. This contribution introduces the design of the sensor and readout system and presents the first performance results for 10 μm and 20 μm pixel pitch achieved in measurements with particle beams.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 14: The Development of SiPM-Based Fast
           Time-of-Flight Detector for the AMS-100 Experiment in Space

    • Authors: Chanhoon Chung, Theresa Backes, Clemens Dittmar, Waclaw Karpinski, Thomas Kirn, Daniel Louis, Georg Schwering, Michael Wlochal, Stefan Schael
      First page: 14
      Abstract: AMS-100 is the next-generation high-energy cosmic-ray experiment in Space. It is designed as a magnetic spectrometer with a geometrical acceptance of 100 m2 · sr to be operated for ten years at the Sun–Earth Lagrange Point 2. Its Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector is a crucial sub-detector for the main trigger and the particle identification constructed from individual scintillation counters. A fast time measurement with a resolution of 20 ps for a single counter is required to cover wide energy ranges for particle identification. A prototype counter has been designed based on a fast plastic scintillator tile readout by two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). An amplifier board was built to merge 16 SiPM channels into four readout channels in a hybrid connection. The signals are read out by a fast waveform digitizer. The timing performance was studied with electrons from a 90Sr source. A time resolution of 40 ps for a single counter has been achieved. Various operational and environmental conditions have been studied.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 15: Characterization of Laser Systems at 1550
           nm Wavelength for Future Gravitational Wave Detectors

    • Authors: Fabian Meylahn, Benno Willke
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The continuous improvement of current gravitational wave detectors (GWDs) and the preparations for next generation GWDs place high demands on their stabilized laser sources. Some of the laser sources need to operate at laser wavelengths between 1.5 μm and 2.2 μm to support future detectors based on cooled silicon test masses for thermal noise reduction. We present detailed characterizations of different commercial low power seed laser sources and power amplifiers at the wavelength of 1550 nm with respect to performance parameters needed in GWDs. A combination with the most complete set of actuators was arranged as a master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA), integrated into a stabilization environment and characterized. We present the results of this characterization that make this stabilized MOPA a highly relevant prototype for future GWDs as well as a low noise light source for other experiments in high precision metrology.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 16: AGILE: Development of a Compact, Low-Power,
           Low-Cost, and On-Board Detector for Ion Identification and Energy

    • Authors: Florian Gautier
      First page: 16
      Abstract: An AGILE (Advanced enerGetic Ion eLectron tElescope) instrument is being developed at the University of Kansas and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to be launched on board a CubeSat in 2022. The AGILE instrument aims to identify a large variety of ions (H-Fe) in a wide energy range (1–100 MeV/nucl) in real-time using fast silicon detectors and fast read-out electronics. This can be achieved by the first use of real-time Pulse Shape Discrimination in space instrumentation. This method of discrimination relies on specific amplitude and time characteristics of the signals sampled every 100 ps and produced by ions that stop in the detector medium. AGILE will be able to observe, in situ, the fluxes of a large variety of particles in a wide energy range to advance our knowledge of the fundamental processes in the universe. This work presents the current stage of development of the instrument, the discrimination method used through the performed simulations, and the first results from lab tests using an Am-241 source.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
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