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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access  
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access  
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access  
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Avrasya Terim Dergisi     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
BJHS Themes     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access  
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access  
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Technology and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access  
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access  
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access  
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Scientometric Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science     Open Access  
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 133)
Journal of the Indian Institute of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Unsolved Questions     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Terapan Universitas Jambi : JIITUJ     Open Access  
Jurnal Matematika, Sains, Dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Jurnal MIPA     Open Access  
Jurnal Natural     Open Access  
Jurnal Sains Dasar     Open Access  

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Instruments
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2410-390X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 20: A Compact Avalanche-Transistor-Based Pulse
           Generator for Transcranial Infrared Light Stimulation (TILS) Experiments

    • Authors: Abraham Lopez, Haley N. Strong, Kendra I. McGlothen, Dustin J. Hines, R. Jacob Baker
      First page: 20
      Abstract: A pulse generator using an avalanche transistor operating in current-mode second breakdown driving a 780 nm laser diode is reported. The laser diode is mounted on the skull of a mouse and used in transcranial infrared light stimulation (TILS) experiments. The output current pulse width is approximately 2 ns in an attempt to generate a true impulse-like optical pulse excitation for the TILS experiments.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6030020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 17: First Results from the Thomson Scattering
           Diagnostic on the Large Plasma Device

    • Authors: Marietta Kaloyan, Sofiya Ghazaryan, Shreekrishna P. Tripathi, Walter Gekelman, Mychal J. Valle, Byonghoon Seo, Christoph Niemann
      First page: 17
      Abstract: We present the first Thomson scattering measurements of electron density and temperature in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD), a 22 m long magnetized linear plasma device at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). The diagnostic spectrally resolves the Doppler shift imparted on light from a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser when scattered by plasma electrons. A fiber array coupled to a triple-grating spectrometer is used to obtain high stray light rejection and discriminate the faint scattering signal from a much larger background. In the center of the plasma column, the measured electron density and temperature are about ne≈1.5×1013 cm−3 and Te≈ 3 eV, respectively, depending on the discharge parameters and in good agreement with Langmuir probe data. Optical design considerations to maximize photon count while minimizing alignment sensitivity are discussed in detail and compared to numerical calculations. Raman scattering off of a quartz crystal probe is used for an absolute irradiance calibration of the system.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6020017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 18: A High-Density Polarized 3He Gas–Jet
           Target for Laser–Plasma Applications

    • Authors: Pavel Fedorets, Chuan Zheng, Ralf Engels, Ilhan Engin, Herbert Feilbach, Ulrich Giesen, Harald Glückler, Chrysovalantis Kannis, Franz Klehr, Manfred Lennartz, Heinz Pfeifer, Johannes Pfennings, Claus Michael Schneider, Norbert Schnitzler, Helmut Soltner, Robert Swaczyna, Markus Büscher
      First page: 18
      Abstract: A laser-driven spin-polarized 3He2+-beam source for nuclear–physics experiments and for the investigation of polarized nuclear fusion demands a high-density polarized 3He gas-jet target. Such a target requires a magnetic system providing a permanent homogeneous holding field for the nuclear spins plus a set of coils for adjusting the orientation of the polarization. Starting from a transport vessel at a maximum pressure of 3 bar, the helium gas is compressed for a short time and can be injected into a laser–interaction chamber through a non-magnetic opening valve and nozzle, thus forming jets with densities of about a few 1019 cm−3 and widths of about 1 mm. The target comprises a 3D adjustment system for precise positioning of the jet relative to the laser focus. An auxiliary gas system provides remote target operation and flushing of the gas lines with Ar gas, which helps to reduce polarization losses. The design of the target, its operation procedures and first experimental results are presented.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6020018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 19: Design of an Antimatter Large Acceptance
           Detector In Orbit (ALADInO)

    • Authors: Oscar Adriani, Corrado Altomare, Giovanni Ambrosi, Philipp Azzarello, Felicia Carla Tiziana Barbato, Roberto Battiston, Bertrand Baudouy, Benedikt Bergmann, Eugenio Berti, Bruna Bertucci, Mirko Boezio, Valter Bonvicini, Sergio Bottai, Petr Burian, Mario Buscemi, Franck Cadoux, Valerio Calvelli, Donatella Campana, Jorge Casaus, Andrea Contin, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Magnus Dam, Ivan De Mitri, Francesco de Palma, Laurent Derome, Valeria Di Felice, Adriano Di Giovanni, Federico Donnini, Matteo Duranti, Emanuele Fiandrini, Francesco Maria Follega, Valerio Formato, Fabio Gargano, Francesca Giovacchini, Maura Graziani, Maria Ionica, Roberto Iuppa, Francesco Loparco, Jesús Marín, Samuele Mariotto, Giovanni Marsella, Gustavo Martínez, Manel Martínez, Matteo Martucci, Nicolò Masi, Mario Nicola Mazziotta, Matteo Mergé, Nicola Mori, Riccardo Munini, Riccardo Musenich, Lorenzo Mussolin, Francesco Nozzoli, Alberto Oliva, Giuseppe Osteria, Lorenzo Pacini, Mercedes Paniccia, Paolo Papini, Mark Pearce, Chiara Perrina, Piergiorgio Picozza, Cecilia Pizzolotto, Stanislav Pospíšil, Michele Pozzato, Lucio Quadrani, Ester Ricci, Javier Rico, Lucio Rossi, Enrico Junior Schioppa, Davide Serini, Petr Smolyanskiy, Alessandro Sotgiu, Roberta Sparvoli, Antonio Surdo, Nicola Tomassetti, Valerio Vagelli, Miguel Ángel Velasco, Xin Wu, Paolo Zuccon
      First page: 19
      Abstract: A new generation magnetic spectrometer in space will open the opportunity to investigate the frontiers in direct high-energy cosmic ray measurements and to precisely measure the amount of the rare antimatter component in cosmic rays beyond the reach of current missions. We propose the concept for an Antimatter Large Acceptance Detector In Orbit (ALADInO), designed to take over the legacy of direct measurements of cosmic rays in space performed by PAMELA and AMS-02. ALADInO features technological solutions conceived to overcome the current limitations of magnetic spectrometers in space with a layout that provides an acceptance larger than 10 m2 sr. A superconducting magnet coupled to precision tracking and time-of-flight systems can provide the required matter–antimatter separation capabilities and rigidity measurement resolution with a Maximum Detectable Rigidity better than 20 TV. The inner 3D-imaging deep calorimeter, designed to maximize the isotropic acceptance of particles, allows for the measurement of cosmic rays up to PeV energies with accurate energy resolution to precisely measure features in the cosmic ray spectra. The operations of ALADInO in the Sun–Earth L2 Lagrangian point for at least 5 years would enable unique revolutionary observations with groundbreaking discovery potentials in the field of astroparticle physics by precision measurements of electrons, positrons, and antiprotons up to 10 TeV and of nuclear cosmic rays up to PeV energies, and by the possible unambiguous detection and measurement of low-energy antideuteron and antihelium components in cosmic rays.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6020019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 3: Experimental Determination of Excitation
           Function Curves through the Measurement of Thick Target Yields in Liquid
           Targets: The Examples of the 68Zn(p,n)68Ga and 64Zn(p,α)61Cu Nuclear
           Reactions

    • Authors: Sergio J. C. do Carmo, Francisco Alves
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The present work describes a method to determine excitation function curves and, therefore, cross-sections, making use of the irradiation of liquid targets at distinct energies in a biomedical cyclotron. The method relies on the derivative of experimentally measured thick target yield curves to determine the corresponding excitation function curves. The technique is presented as a valid and practical alternative to the commonly used activation method combined with the stack monitor technique, whose implementation in liquid targets offers practical difficulties. The working principle is exemplified by presenting the results obtained for the clinically relevant 68Zn(p,n)68Ga and the 64Zn(p,α)61Cu nuclear reactions, obtained though the irradiation of liquid targets containing dissolved natural zinc.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 4: Compact LWFA-Based Extreme Ultraviolet Free
           Electron Laser: Design Constraints

    • Authors: Alexander Yu. Molodozhentsev, Konstantin O. Kruchinin
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The combination of advanced high-power laser technology, new acceleration methods and achievements in undulator development offers the opportunity to build compact, high-brilliance free electron lasers driven by a laser wakefield accelerator. Here, we present a simulation study outlining the main requirements for the laser–plasma-based extreme ultraviolet free electron laser setup with the aim to reach saturation of the photon pulse energy in a single unit of a commercially available undulator with the deflection parameter K0 in the range of 1–1.5. A dedicated electron beam transport strategy that allows control of the electron beam slice parameters, including collective effects, required by the self-amplified spontaneous emission regime is proposed. Finally, a set of coherent photon radiation parameters achievable in the undulator section utilizing the best experimentally demonstrated electron beam parameters are analyzed. As a result, we demonstrate that the ultra-short, few-fs-level pulse of the photon radiation with the wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet range can be obtained with the peak brilliance of ∼7×1028 photons/pulse/mm2/mrad2/0.1%bw.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 5: A Hard Copper Open X-Band RF Accelerating
           Structure Made by Two Halves

    • Authors: Bruno Spataro, Mostafa Behtouei, Fabio Cardelli, Martina Carillo, Valery Dolgashev, Luigi Faillace, Mauro Migliorati, Luigi Palumbo
      First page: 5
      Abstract: This communication focuses on the technological developments aiming to show the viability of novel welding techniques [...]
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 6: The CYGNO Experiment

    • Authors: Fernando Domingues Amaro, Elisabetta Baracchini, Luigi Benussi, Stefano Bianco, Cesidio Capoccia, Michele Caponero, Danilo Santos Cardoso, Gianluca Cavoto, André Cortez, Igor Abritta Costa, Rita Joanna da Cruz Roque, Emiliano Dané, Giorgio Dho, Flaminia Di Giambattista, Emanuele Di Marco, Giovanni Grilli di Cortona, Giulia D’Imperio, Francesco Iacoangeli, Herman Pessoa Lima Júnior, Guilherme Sebastiao Pinheiro Lopes, Amaro da Silva Lopes Júnior, Giovanni Maccarrone, Rui Daniel Passos Mano, Michela Marafini, Robert Renz Marcelo Gregorio, David José Gaspar Marques, Giovanni Mazzitelli, Alasdair Gregor McLean, Andrea Messina, Cristina Maria Bernardes Monteiro, Rafael Antunes Nobrega, Igor Fonseca Pains, Emiliano Paoletti, Luciano Passamonti, Sandro Pelosi, Fabrizio Petrucci, Stefano Piacentini, Davide Piccolo, Daniele Pierluigi, Davide Pinci, Atul Prajapati, Francesco Renga, Filippo Rosatelli, Alessandro Russo, Joaquim Marques Ferreira dos Santos, Giovanna Saviano, Neil John Curwen Spooner, Roberto Tesauro, Sandro Tomassini, Samuele Torelli
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The search for a novel technology able to detect and reconstruct nuclear and electron recoil events with the energy of a few keV has become more and more important now that large regions of high-mass dark matter (DM) candidates have been excluded. Moreover, a detector sensitive to incoming particle direction will be crucial in the case of DM discovery to open the possibility of studying its properties. Gaseous time projection chambers (TPC) with optical readout are very promising detectors combining the detailed event information provided by the TPC technique with the high sensitivity and granularity of latest-generation scientific light sensors. The CYGNO experiment (a CYGNus module with Optical readout) aims to exploit the optical readout approach of multiple-GEM structures in large volume TPCs for the study of rare events as interactions of low-mass DM or solar neutrinos. The combined use of high-granularity sCMOS cameras and fast light sensors allows the reconstruction of the 3D direction of the tracks, offering good energy resolution and very high sensitivity in the few keV energy range, together with a very good particle identification useful for distinguishing nuclear recoils from electronic recoils. This experiment is part of the CYGNUS proto-collaboration, which aims at constructing a network of underground observatories for directional DM search. A one cubic meter demonstrator is expected to be built in 2022/23 aiming at a larger scale apparatus (30 m3–100 m3) at a later stage.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 7: Development of an MCP-Based Timing Layer for
           the LHCb ECAL Upgrade-2

    • Authors: Stefano Perazzini, Fabio Ferrari, Vincenzo Maria Vagnoni, on behalf of the LHCb ECAL Upgrade-2 R&D Group on behalf of the LHCb ECAL Upgrade-2 R&D Group
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The increase in instantaneous luminosity during the high-luminosity phase of the LHC represents a significant challenge for future detectors. A strategy to cope with high-pileup conditions is to add a fourth dimension to the measurements of the hits, by exploiting the time separation of the various proton–proton primary collisions. According to LHCb simulation studies, resolutions of about 10–20 picoseconds, at least an order of magnitude shorter than the average time span between primary interactions, would be greatly beneficial for the physics reach of the experiment. Microchannel plate (MCP) photomultipliers are compact devices capable of measuring the arrival time of charged particles with the required resolution. The technology of large-area picosecond photodetectors (LAPPDs) is under investigation to implement a timing layer that can be placed within a sampling calorimeter module with the purpose of measuring the arrival time of electromagnetic showers. LAPPD performances, using a Gen-I tile with a delay-line anode and a Gen-II with a capacitively coupled anode, have been measured thoroughly both with laser (wavelength of 405 nm and pulse width of 27.5 ps FWHM) and high-energy electron (1–5.8 GeV) beams. Time resolutions of the order of 30 ps for single photoelectrons and 15 ps for electromagnetic showers initiated by 5-GeV electrons, as measured at the shower maximum, are obtained.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 8: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Instruments
           in 2021

    • Authors: Instruments Editorial Office Instruments Editorial Office
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 9: First 3D Printed IH-Type Linac
           Structure—Proof-of-Concept for Additive Manufacturing of Linac RF
           Cavities

    • Authors: Hendrik Hähnel, Ulrich Ratzinger
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM or “3D printing”) has become a powerful tool for the rapid prototyping and manufacturing of complex part geometries. Especially interesting for the world of particle accelerators is the process of the 3D printing of stainless steel (and copper) parts. We present a first prototype of a 433 MHz IH-type linac cavity with an internal drift tube structure manufactured by metal 3D printing. The prototype cavity has been constructed to act as a proof-of-concept for the technology. In this paper we present the concept of the cavity as well as first results of vacuum testing and materials testing.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 10: Beyond the N-Limit of the Least Squares
           Resolution and the Lucky Model

    • Authors: Gregorio Landi, Giovanni E. Landi
      First page: 10
      Abstract: A very simple Gaussian model is used to illustrate an interesting fitting result: a linear growth of the resolution with the number N of detecting layers. This rule is well beyond the well-known rule proportional to N for the resolution of the usual fits. The effect is obtained with the appropriate form of the variance for each hit (observation). The model reconstructs straight tracks with N parallel detecting layers, the track direction is the selected parameter to test the resolution. The results of the Gaussian model are compared with realistic simulations of silicon micro-strip detectors. These realistic simulations suggest an easy method to select the essential weights for the fit: the lucky model. Preliminary results of the lucky model show an excellent reproduction of the linear growth of the resolution, very similar to that given by realistic simulations. The maximum likelihood evaluations complete this exploration of the growth in resolution.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 11: Multichannel Time Synchronization Based on
           PTP through a High Voltage Isolation Buffer Network Interface for
           Thick-GEM Detectors

    • Authors: Luis Guillermo García Ordóñez, Maria Liz Crespo, Sergio Carrato, Andres Cicuttin, Werner Oswaldo Florian Samayoa, Daniele D’Ago, Stefano Levorato
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Data logging and complex algorithm implementations acting on multichannel systems with independent devices require the use of time synchronization. In the case of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) and Thick-GEM (THGEM) detectors, the biasing potential can be generated at the detector level via DC to DC converters operating at floating voltage. In this case, high voltage isolation buffers may be used to allow communication between the different channels. However, their use add non-negligible delays in the transmission channel, complicating the synchronization. Implementation of a simplified precise time protocol is presented for handling the synchronization on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) side of a Xilinx SoC Zynq ZC7Z030. The synchronization is done through a high voltage isolated bidirectional network interface built on a custom board attached to a commercial CIAA_ACC carrier. The results of the synchronization are shown through oscilloscope captures measuring the time drift over long periods of time, achieving synchronization in the order of nanoseconds.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 12: Time Resolution of an Irradiated 3D Silicon
           Pixel Detector

    • Authors: Christopher Betancourt, Dario De Simone, Gregor Kramberger, Maria Manna, Giulio Pellegrini, Nicola Serra
      First page: 12
      Abstract: We report on the measurements of time resolution for double-sided 3D pixel sensors with a single cell of 50 μm × 50 μm and thickness of 285 μm, fabricated at IMB-CNM and irradiated with reactor neutrons from 8 ×1014 1MeV neq/cm2 to 1.0 ×1016 1MeV neq/cm2. The time resolution measurements were conducted using a radioactive source at a temperature of −20 and 20 °C in a bias voltage range of 50–250 V. The reference time was provided by a low gain avalanche detector produced by Hamamatsu. The results are compared to measurements conducted prior to irradiation where a temporal resolution of about 50 ps was measured. These are the first ever timing measurements on an irradiated 3D sensor and which serve as a basis for understanding their performance and to explore the possibility of performing 4D tracking in high radiation environments, such as the innermost tracking layers of future high energy physics experiments.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 13: Performance of the FASTPIX Sub-Nanosecond
           CMOS Pixel Sensor Demonstrator

    • Authors: Justus Braach, Eric Buschmann, Dominik Dannheim, Katharina Dort, Thanushan Kugathasan, Magdalena Munker, Walter Snoeys, Mateus Vicente
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Within the ATTRACT FASTPIX project, a monolithic pixel sensor demonstrator chip has been developed in a modified 180 nm CMOS imaging process, targeting sub-nanosecond timing measurements for single ionizing particles. It features a small collection electrode design on a 25 micron thick epitaxial layer and contains 32 mini matrices of 68 hexagonal pixels each, with pixel pitches ranging from 8.66 to 20 micron. Four pixels are transmitting an analog output signal and 64 are transmitting binary hit information. Various design variations are explored, aiming at accelerating the charge collection and making the timing of the charge collection more uniform over the pixel area. Signal treatment of the analog waveforms, as well as reconstruction of time and charge information, is carried out off-chip. This contribution introduces the design of the sensor and readout system and presents the first performance results for 10 μm and 20 μm pixel pitch achieved in measurements with particle beams.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 14: The Development of SiPM-Based Fast
           Time-of-Flight Detector for the AMS-100 Experiment in Space

    • Authors: Chanhoon Chung, Theresa Backes, Clemens Dittmar, Waclaw Karpinski, Thomas Kirn, Daniel Louis, Georg Schwering, Michael Wlochal, Stefan Schael
      First page: 14
      Abstract: AMS-100 is the next-generation high-energy cosmic-ray experiment in Space. It is designed as a magnetic spectrometer with a geometrical acceptance of 100 m2 · sr to be operated for ten years at the Sun–Earth Lagrange Point 2. Its Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector is a crucial sub-detector for the main trigger and the particle identification constructed from individual scintillation counters. A fast time measurement with a resolution of 20 ps for a single counter is required to cover wide energy ranges for particle identification. A prototype counter has been designed based on a fast plastic scintillator tile readout by two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). An amplifier board was built to merge 16 SiPM channels into four readout channels in a hybrid connection. The signals are read out by a fast waveform digitizer. The timing performance was studied with electrons from a 90Sr source. A time resolution of 40 ps for a single counter has been achieved. Various operational and environmental conditions have been studied.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 15: Characterization of Laser Systems at 1550
           nm Wavelength for Future Gravitational Wave Detectors

    • Authors: Fabian Meylahn, Benno Willke
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The continuous improvement of current gravitational wave detectors (GWDs) and the preparations for next generation GWDs place high demands on their stabilized laser sources. Some of the laser sources need to operate at laser wavelengths between 1.5 μm and 2.2 μm to support future detectors based on cooled silicon test masses for thermal noise reduction. We present detailed characterizations of different commercial low power seed laser sources and power amplifiers at the wavelength of 1550 nm with respect to performance parameters needed in GWDs. A combination with the most complete set of actuators was arranged as a master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA), integrated into a stabilization environment and characterized. We present the results of this characterization that make this stabilized MOPA a highly relevant prototype for future GWDs as well as a low noise light source for other experiments in high precision metrology.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 6, Pages 16: AGILE: Development of a Compact, Low-Power,
           Low-Cost, and On-Board Detector for Ion Identification and Energy
           Measurement

    • Authors: Florian Gautier
      First page: 16
      Abstract: An AGILE (Advanced enerGetic Ion eLectron tElescope) instrument is being developed at the University of Kansas and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to be launched on board a CubeSat in 2022. The AGILE instrument aims to identify a large variety of ions (H-Fe) in a wide energy range (1–100 MeV/nucl) in real-time using fast silicon detectors and fast read-out electronics. This can be achieved by the first use of real-time Pulse Shape Discrimination in space instrumentation. This method of discrimination relies on specific amplitude and time characteristics of the signals sampled every 100 ps and produced by ions that stop in the detector medium. AGILE will be able to observe, in situ, the fluxes of a large variety of particles in a wide energy range to advance our knowledge of the fundamental processes in the universe. This work presents the current stage of development of the instrument, the discrimination method used through the performed simulations, and the first results from lab tests using an Am-241 source.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments6010016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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