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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ABC Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AZimuth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Scientific Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
BIBECHANA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BibNum     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bistua : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Básicas     Open Access  
BJHS Themes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Central European Journal of Clinical Research     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencia, Docencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Dharmakarya     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ergo     Open Access  
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Extensionismo, Innovación y Transferencia Tecnológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 377)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Iberoamerican Journal of Science Measurement and Communication     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science & Emerging Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Review of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science     Open Access  
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Interaction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Research     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Instruments
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2410-390X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [238 journals]
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 31: Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE)
           Near Detector Conceptual Design Report

    • Authors: Steven Manly, Mike Kordosky, On behalf of the DUNE Collaboration
      First page: 31
      Abstract: The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is an international, world-class experiment aimed at exploring fundamental questions about the universe that are at the forefront of astrophysics and particle physics research. DUNE will study questions pertaining to the preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, the dynamics of supernovae, the subtleties of neutrino interaction physics, and a number of beyond the Standard Model topics accessible in a powerful neutrino beam. A critical component of the DUNE physics program involves the study of changes in a powerful beam of neutrinos, i.e., neutrino oscillations, as the neutrinos propagate a long distance. The experiment consists of a near detector, sited close to the source of the beam, and a far detector, sited along the beam at a large distance. This document, the DUNE Near Detector Conceptual Design Report (CDR), describes the design of the DUNE near detector and the science program that drives the design and technology choices. The goals and requirements underlying the design, along with projected performance are given. It serves as a starting point for a more detailed design that will be described in future documents.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5040031
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 32: Fabrication of a Hydrogenated Amorphous
           Silicon Detector in 3-D Geometry and Preliminary Test on Planar Prototypes
           

    • Authors: Mauro Menichelli, Marco Bizzarri, Maurizio Boscardin, Mirco Caprai, Anna Paola Caricato, Giuseppe Antonio Pablo Cirrone, Michele Crivellari, Ilaria Cupparo, Giacomo Cuttone, Silvain Dunand, Livio Fanò, Omar Hammad Alì, Maria Ionica, Keida Kanxheri, Matthew Large, Giuseppe Maruccio, Anna Grazia Monteduro, Francesco Moscatelli, Arianna Morozzi, Andrea Papi, Daniele Passeri, Marco Petasecca, Silvia Rizzato, Alessandro Rossi, Andrea Scorzoni, Leonello Servoli, Cinzia Talamonti, Giovanni Verzellesi, Nicolas Wyrsch
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) can be produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of SiH4 (silane) mixed with hydrogen. The resulting material shows outstanding radiation hardness properties and can be deposited on a wide variety of substrates. Devices employing a-Si:H technologies have been used to detect many different kinds of radiation, namely, minimum ionizing particles (MIPs), X-rays, neutrons, and ions, as well as low-energy protons and alphas. However, the detection of MIPs using planar a-Si:H diodes has proven difficult due to their unsatisfactory S/N ratio arising from a combination of high leakage current, high capacitance, and limited charge collection efficiency (50% at best for a 30 µm planar diode). To overcome these limitations, the 3D-SiAm collaboration proposes employing a 3D detector geometry. The use of vertical electrodes allows for a small collection distance to be maintained while preserving a large detector thickness for charge generation. The depletion voltage in this configuration can be kept below 400 V with a consequent reduction in the leakage current. In this paper, following a detailed description of the fabrication process, the results of the tests performed on the planar p-i-n structures made with ion implantation of the dopants and with carrier selective contacts are illustrated.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5040032
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 24: An Active Plasma Beam Dump for EuPRAXIA
           Beams

    • Authors: Alexandre Bonatto, Roger Pizzato Nunes, Bruno Silveira Nunes, Sanjeev Kumar, Linbo Liang, Guoxing Xia
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Plasma wakefields driven by high power lasers or relativistic particle beams can be orders of magnitude larger than the fields produced in conventional accelerating structures. Since the plasma wakefield is composed not only of accelerating but also of decelerating phases, this paper proposes to utilize the strong decelerating field induced by a laser pulse in the plasma to absorb the beam energy, in a scheme known as the active plasma beam dump. The design of this active plasma beam dump has considered the beam output by the EuPRAXIA facility. Analytical estimates were obtained, and compared with particle-in-cell simulations. The obtained results indicate that this active plasma beam dump can contribute for more compact, safer, and greener accelerators in the near future.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5030024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 25: Josephson Junctions as Single Microwave
           Photon Counters: Simulation and Characterization

    • Authors: Alessio Rettaroli, David Alesini, Danilo Babusci, Carlo Barone, Bruno Buonomo, Matteo Mario Beretta, Gabriella Castellano, Fabio Chiarello, Daniele Di Gioacchino, Giulietto Felici, Giovanni Filatrella, Luca Gennaro Foggetta, Alessandro Gallo, Claudio Gatti, Carlo Ligi, Giovanni Maccarrone, Francesco Mattioli, Sergio Pagano, Simone Tocci, Guido Torrioli
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Detection of light dark matter, such as axion-like particles, puts stringent requirements on the efficiency and dark-count rates of microwave-photon detectors. The possibility of operating a current-biased Josephson junction as a single-microwave photon-detector was investigated through numerical simulations, and through an initial characterization of two Al junctions fabricated by shadow mask evaporation, done in a dilution refrigerator by measuring escape currents at different temperatures, from 40 mK up to the Al transition temperature. The escape dynamics of the junctions were reproduced in the simulation, including the dissipative effects. Inhibition of thermal activation was observed, leaving the macroscopic quantum tunneling as the dominant effect well beyond the crossover temperature.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5030025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 26: Pulse-Height and 2-D Charge-Spread
           Single-Pixels Studies on a LuYAP:Ce Scintillation Array

    • Authors: Raffaele Scafè, Marco Puccini, Rosanna Pellegrini, Roberto Pani
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The present work deals with a 10 × 10 array of (Lu0.7Y0.3)AP:Ce 2 × 2 × 10 mm3 pixels, manufactured by Crytur (Cz), that has been utilized in a previous paper. The crystal-array has been coupled to an 8 × 8 anodes H10966 model Hamamatsu (Jp) Position-Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tube (PSPMT) connected to electronics for single events scintillation read-out. The response of such a detector has been studied under Co-57, or Ba-133, or Cs-137 gamma-ray emissions, as well as with Lu-176 self-activity only. The present work is aimed at characterizing the individual crystal-pixels’ single-event responses in terms of pulse-height and of spreads of the 2-D charge-distributions. In particular, the charge-spread characterization pointed out several defects in the crystal-array assembly, not detected by usual pulse-height studies. The diagnostic method based on charge-spread analysis seems also well suited for scintillation array characterizations for gamma-ray detectors studies, as well as for quality controls of such pixelated devices during the lifetime of systems in the field of radionuclide medical imaging (SPECT and PET). The method is also appropriate for other applications where gamma-ray spectroscopy is required, like nuclear physics, astrophysics, astroparticle physics, homeland security, and non-proliferation.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5030026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 27: Quench Detection and Protection for
           High-Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets

    • Authors: Maxim Marchevsky
      First page: 27
      Abstract: High-temperature superconductors (HTS) are being increasingly used for magnet applications. One of the known challenges of practical conductors made with high-temperature superconductor materials is a slow normal zone propagation velocity resulting from a large superconducting temperature margin in combination with a higher heat capacity compared to conventional low-temperature superconductors (LTS). As a result, traditional voltage-based quench detection schemes may be ineffective for detecting normal zone formation in superconducting accelerator magnet windings. A developing hot spot may reach high temperatures and destroy the conductor before a practically measurable resistive voltage is detected. The present paper discusses various approaches to mitigating this problem, specifically focusing on recently developed non-voltage techniques for quench detection.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5030027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 28: Commissioning Results and Electron Beam
           Characterization with the S-Band Photoinjector at SINBAD-ARES

    • Authors: Eva Panofski, Ralph Assmann, Florian Burkart, Ulrich Dorda, Luca Genovese, Farzad Jafarinia, Sonja Jaster-Merz, Max Kellermeier, Willi Kuropka, Francois Lemery, Barbara Marchetti, Daniel Marx, Frank Mayet, Thomas Vinatier, Sumera Yamin
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Over the years, the generation and acceleration of ultra-short, high quality electron beams has attracted more and more interest in accelerator science. Electron bunches with these properties are necessary to operate and test novel diagnostics and advanced high-gradient accelerating schemes, such as plasma accelerators and dielectric laser accelerators. Furthermore, several medical and industrial applications require high-brightness electron beams. The dedicated R&D facility ARES at DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron) will provide such probe beams in the upcoming years. After the setup of the normal-conducting, radio-frequency (RF) photoinjector and linear accelerating structures, ARES successfully started the beam commissioning of the RF gun. This paper gives an overview of the ARES photoinjector setup and summarizes the results of the gun commissioning process. The quality of the first electron beams is characterized in terms of charge, momentum, momentum spread and beam size. Additionally, the dependencies of the beam parameters on RF settings are described. All measurement results of the characterized beams fulfill the requirements for operating the ARES linac with this RF photoinjector.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5030028
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 29: Impact of Different Components and Boundary
           Conditions on the Eigenfrequencies of a Magnet–Girder Assembly

    • Authors: Simone Andresen
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Synchrotron radiation facilities are very important in different areas of fundamental and applied science to investigate structures or processes at small scales. Magnet–girder assemblies play a key role for the performance of such accelerator machines. High structural eigenfrequencies of the magnet–girder assemblies are required to assure a sufficient particle beam stability. The objective of the present parametric study was to numerically investigate and quantify the impact of different boundary conditions and components on the magnet–girder eigenfrequencies. As case studies, two 3 m long girder designs following the specifications of the PETRA IV project at DESY (German Electron Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany) were selected. High magnet–girder assembly eigenfrequencies were achieved by, e.g., positioning the magnets close to the upper girder surface, increasing the connection stiffness between the magnets and the girder and between the girder and the bases, and positioning the girder support points as high as possible in the shape of a large triangle. Comparing the E/ρ ratio (E: Young’s modulus, ρ: material density) of different materials was used as a first approach to evaluate different materials for application to the girder. Based on the findings, general principles are recommended to be considered in the future girder design development processes.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5030029
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 30: Characterization and Pilot Human Trial of
           Dedicated Breast Ring Positron Emission Tomography (BRPET) System

    • Authors: Andrew M. Polemi, Annie K. Kogler, Patrice K. Rehm, Luke Lancaster, Heather R. Peppard, Patrick M. Dillon, Alexander V. Stolin, Stanislaw Majewski, Mark B. Williams
      First page: 30
      Abstract: We describe the design and performance of BRPET, a novel dedicated breast PET (dbPET) scanner designed to maximize visualization of posterior regions of the breast. BRPET uses prone imaging geometry and a 12-module detector ring built from pixelated LYSO crystals coupled to position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). Optical coupling via slanted plastic fiber optic light guides permits partial insertion of the crystals into the exam table’s breast aperture. Image quality testing procedures were adapted from the NEMA NU4-2008 protocol. Two additional phantom tests quantified the posterior extent of the usable volume of view (VoV). BRPET axial, radial, and tangential FWHM spatial resolutions at the isocenter were 1.8, 1.7, and 1.9 mm, respectively. The peak absolute system sensitivity was 0.97% using an energy window of 460–562 keV. The peak noise equivalent counting rate was 5.33 kcps at 21.6 MBq. The scanner VoV extends to within ~6 mm of the plane defining the location of the chest wall. A pilot human study (n = 10) compared the diagnostic performance of FDG-BRPET to that of contrast enhanced MRI (CEMRI), with biopsy as ground truth. Averaged over three expert human observers, the sensitivity/specificity for BRPET was 0.93/1.0, compared to 1.0/0.25 for CEMRI.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5030030
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 14: GHz Superconducting Single-Photon Detectors
           for Dark Matter Search

    • Authors: Federico Paolucci, Francesco Giazotto
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The composition of dark matter is one of the puzzling topics in astrophysics. To address this issue, several experiments searching for the existence of axions have been designed, built and realized in the last twenty years. Among all the others, light shining through walls experiments promise to push the exclusion limits to lower energies. For this reason, effort is put for the development of single-photon detectors operating at frequencies <100 GHz. Here, we review recent advancements in superconducting single-photon detection. In particular, we present two sensors based on one-dimensional Josephson junctions with the capability to be in situ tuned by simple current bias: the nanoscale transition edge sensor (nano-TES) and the Josephson escape sensor (JES). These two sensors are the ideal candidates for the realization of microwave light shining through walls (LSW) experiments, since they show unprecedented frequency resolutions of about 100 GHz and 2 GHz for the nano-TES and JES, respectively.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5020014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 15: Detection and Imaging with Leak
           Microstructures

    • Authors: Mariano Lombardi, Gianfranco Prete, Giovanni Balbinot, Alice Ferretti, Giuseppe Galeazzi, Andrea Battistella
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Results obtained with a new, very compact detector for imaging with a matrix of leak microstructures (LM) are reported. Spatial linearity and spatial resolution obtained by scanning and the detection of alpha particles with 100% efficiency, when compared with a silicon detector, are stressed. Preliminary results obtained in detecting single electrons emitted by the heated filament (Ec < 1 eV) at 1–3 mbar of propane are reported.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5020015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 16: The Future Role of Inorganic Crystal
           Scintillators in Dark Matter Investigations

    • Authors: Pierluigi Belli, Rita Bernabei, Fabio Cappella, Vincenzo Caracciolo, Riccardo Cerulli, Fedor Danevich, Antonella Incicchitti, Dmytro Kasperovych, Vittorio Merlo, Oksana Polischuk, Vladimir Tretyak
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Crystal scintillators and in particular inorganic scintillators play an important role in the investigation of Dark Matter (DM) and other rare processes. The investigation of a DM signature, as the annual modulation, or the directionality technique requires the use of highly radiopure detectors able to explore the very low energy region maintaining a high stability of the running conditions. In this paper, the cases of NaI(Tl), ZnWO4 and SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillators are described in the framework of our activities at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of the INFN. Their role, the obtained results in DM investigation, as well as their potential and perspectives for the future are reviewed.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5020016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 17: Monte Carlo Modeling and Design of Photon
           Energy Attenuation Layers for >10× Quantum Yield Enhancement in
           Si-Based Hard X-ray Detectors

    • Authors: Eldred Lee, Kaitlin M. Anagnost, Zhehui Wang, Michael R. James, Eric R. Fossum, Jifeng Liu
      First page: 17
      Abstract: High-energy (>20 keV) X-ray photon detection at high quantum yield, high spatial resolution, and short response time has long been an important area of study in physics. Scintillation is a prevalent method but limited in various ways. Directly detecting high-energy X-ray photons has been a challenge to this day, mainly due to low photon-to-photoelectron conversion efficiencies. Commercially available state-of-the-art Si direct detection products such as the Si charge-coupled device (CCD) are inefficient for >10 keV photons. Here, we present Monte Carlo simulation results and analyses to introduce a highly effective yet simple high-energy X-ray detection concept with significantly enhanced photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies composed of two layers: a top high-Z photon energy attenuation layer (PAL) and a bottom Si detector. We use the principle of photon energy down conversion, where high-energy X-ray photon energies are attenuated down to ≤10 keV via inelastic scattering suitable for efficient photoelectric absorption by Si. Our Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrate that a 10–30× increase in quantum yield can be achieved using PbTe PAL on Si, potentially advancing high-resolution, high-efficiency X-ray detection using PAL-enhanced Si CMOS image sensors.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5020017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 18: Single-Photon Detection Module Based on
           Large-Area Silicon Photomultipliers for Time-Domain Diffuse Optics

    • Authors: Fabio Acerbi, Anurag Behera, Alberto Dalla Mora, Laura Di Sieno, Alberto Gola
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are pixelated single-photon detectors combining high sensitivity, good time resolution and high dynamic range. They are emerging in many fields, such as time-domain diffuse optics (TD-DO). This is a promising technique in neurology, oncology, and quality assessment of food, wood, and pharmaceuticals. SiPMs can have very large areas and can significantly increase the sensitivity of TD-DO in tissue investigation. However, such improvement is currently limited by the high detector noise and the worsening of SiPM single-photon time resolution due to the large parasitic capacitances. To overcome such limitation, in this paper, we present two single-photon detection modules, based on 6 × 6 mm2 and 10 × 10 mm2 SiPMs, housed in vacuum-sealed TO packages, cooled to −15 °C and −36 °C, respectively. They integrate front-end amplifiers and temperature controllers, being very useful instruments for TD-DO and other biological and physical applications. The signal extraction from the SiPM was improved. The noise is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude compared to the room temperature level. The full suitability of the proposed detectors for TD-DO measurements is outside the scope of this work, but preliminary tests were performed analyzing the shape and the stability of the Instrument Response Function. The proposed modules are thus fundamental building blocks to push the TD-DO towards deeper investigations inside the body.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5020018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 19: Gamma—Ray Counters to Monitor Radioactive
           Waste Packages in the MICADO Project

    • Authors: Luigi Cosentino, Martina Giuffrida, Sergio Lo Meo, Fabio Longhitano, Alfio Pappalardo, Giuseppe Passaro, Paolo Finocchiaro
      First page: 19
      Abstract: One of the goals of the MICADO Euratom project is to monitor the gamma-rays emitted by radioactive waste drums in storage sites on a medium to long term basis. For this purpose, 36 low-cost gamma-ray counters were designed and built to act as a demonstrator. These counters, named SciFi, are based on a scintillating fiber readout at each end by a silicon photomultiplier, assembled in a robust arrangement in the form of 80 cm long pipes. Several counters will be placed around radwaste packages in order to monitor the gamma dose-rate by collecting a continuous data stream. The 36 sensors were thoroughly tested with a 22Na and a 137Cs gamma-ray sources, and with an AmBe neutron and gamma-ray source, the results are quite satisfactory, and the next step will be the test in a real environment.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5020019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 20: Advantages and Requirements in Time
           Resolving Tracking for Astroparticle Experiments in Space

    • Authors: Matteo Duranti, Valerio Vagelli, Giovanni Ambrosi, Mattia Barbanera, Bruna Bertucci, Enrico Catanzani, Federico Donnini, Francesco Faldi, Valerio Formato, Maura Graziani, Maria Ionica, Lucio Moriconi, Alberto Oliva, Andrea Serpolla, Gianluigi Silvestre, Luca Tosti
      First page: 20
      Abstract: A large-area, solid-state detector with single-hit precision timing measurement will enable several breakthrough experimental advances for the direct measurement of particles in space. Silicon microstrip detectors are the most promising candidate technology to instrument the large areas of the next-generation astroparticle space borne detectors that could meet the limitations on power consumption required by operations in space. We overview the novel experimental opportunities that could be enabled by the introduction of the timing measurement, concurrent with the accurate spatial and charge measurement, in Silicon microstrip tracking detectors, and we discuss the technological solutions and their readiness to enable the operations of large-area Silicon microstrip timing detectors in space.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5020020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 21: New Projections for Dark Matter Searches
           with Paleo-Detectors

    • Authors: Sebastian Baum, Thomas D. P.  Edwards, Katherine Freese, Patrick Stengel
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Paleo-detectors are a proposed experimental technique to search for dark matter (DM). In lieu of the conventional approach of operating a tonne-scale real-time detector to search for DM-induced nuclear recoils, paleo-detectors take advantage of small samples of naturally occurring rocks on Earth that have been deep underground (≳5 km), accumulating nuclear damage tracks from recoiling nuclei for O(1)Gyr. Modern microscopy techniques promise the capability to read out nuclear damage tracks with nanometer resolution in macroscopic samples. Thanks to their O(1)Gyr integration times, paleo-detectors could constitute nuclear recoil detectors with keV recoil energy thresholds and 100 kilotonne-yr exposures. This combination would allow paleo-detectors to probe DM-nucleon cross sections orders of magnitude below existing upper limits from conventional direct detection experiments. In this article, we use improved background modeling and a new spectral analysis technique to update the sensitivity forecast for paleo-detectors. We demonstrate the robustness of the sensitivity forecast to the (lack of) ancillary measurements of the age of the samples and the parameters controlling the backgrounds, systematic mismodeling of the spectral shape of the backgrounds, and the radiopurity of the mineral samples. Specifically, we demonstrate that even if the uranium concentration in paleo-detector samples is 10−8 (per weight), many orders of magnitude larger than what we expect in the most radiopure samples obtained from ultra basic rock or marine evaporite deposits, paleo-detectors could still probe DM-nucleon cross sections below current limits. For DM masses ≲ 10 GeV/c2, the sensitivity of paleo-detectors could still reach down all the way to the conventional neutrino floor in a Xe-based direct detection experiment.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5020021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 22: Commissioning of a High Pressure Time
           Projection Chamber with Optical Readout

    • Authors: Alexander Deisting, Abigail Waldron, Edward Atkin, Gary Barker, Anastasia Basharina-Freshville, Christopher Betancourt, Steven Boyd, Dominic Brailsford, Zachary Chen-Wishart, Linda Cremonesi, Adriana Dias, Patrick Dunne, Jennifer Haigh, Philip Hamacher-Baumann, Sebastian Jones, Asher Kaboth, Alexander Korzenev, William Ma, Philippe Mermod, Maria Mironova, Jocelyn Monroe, Ryan Nichol, Toby Nonnenmacher, Jaroslaw Nowak, William Parker, Harrison Ritchie-Yates, Stefan Roth, Ruben Saakyan, Nicola Serra, Yuri Shitov, Jochen Steinmann, Adam Tarrant, Melissa Uchida, Sammy Valder, Mark Ward, Morgan Wascko
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The measurements of proton–nucleus scattering and high resolution neutrino–nucleus interaction imaging are key in reducing neutrino oscillation systematic uncertainties in future experiments. A High Pressure Time Projection Chamber (HPTPC) prototype has been constructed and operated at the Royal Holloway University of London and CERN as a first step in the development of a HPTPC that is capable of performing these measurements as part of a future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, such as the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. In this paper, we describe the design and operation of the prototype HPTPC with an argon based gas mixture. We report on the successful hybrid charge and optical readout using four CCD cameras of signals from 241Am sources.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5020022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 23: RNA Identification and Detection of Nucleic
           Acids as Aerosols in Air Samples by Means of Photon and Electron
           Interactions

    • Authors: John I. Adlish, Piero Neuhold, Riccardo Surrente, Luca J. Tagliapietra
      First page: 23
      Abstract: This study presents a methodology to reveal traces of viral particles, as aerosol with known chemical and molecular structure, in a sample by means of photon and electron interactions. The method is based on Monte Carlo simulations and on the analysis of photon-electron fluxes-spectra through energy channels counts as a function of different aerosol viral concentrations in the air sample and looking at the peculiar photon/electron interactions with the potential abnormal atomic hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and phosphorus (P) compositions present in the air sample as a function of living and nonliving matter with PO4 group RNA/DNA strands in a cluster configuration.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5020023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 5: Luminescence Response and Quenching Models
           for Heavy Ions of 0.5 keV to 1 GeV/n in Liquid Argon and Xenon

    • Authors: Hitachi
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Biexcitonic collision kinetics with prescribed diffusion in the ion track core have been applied for scintillation response due to heavy ions in liquid argon. The quenching factors q = EL/E, where E is the ion energy and EL is the energy expended for luminescence, for 33.5 MeV/n 18O and 31.9 MeV/n 36Ar ions in liquid Ar at zero field are found to be 0.73 and 0.46, compared with measured values of 0.59 and 0.46, respectively. The quenching model is also applied for 80–200 keV Pb recoils in α-decay, background candidates in direct dark matter searches, in liquid argon. Values obtained are ~0.09. A particular feature of Birks’ law has been found and exploited in evaluating the electronic quenching factor qel in liquid Xe. The total quenching factors qT for 0.5–20 keV Xe recoils needed for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) searches are estimated to be ~0.12–0.14, and those for Pb recoils of 103 and 169 keV are 0.08 and 0.09, respectively. In the calculation, the nuclear quenching factor qnc = Eη/E, where Eη is the energy available for the electronic excitation, is obtained by Lindhard theory and a semi-empirical theory by Ling and Knipp. The electronic linear energy transfer plays a key role.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 6: Applications and Perspectives of Ultrasonic
           Multi-Gas Analysis with Simultaneous Flowmetry

    • Authors: Gregory Hallewell, John Dingley, Martin Doubek, Robin Feuillassier, Sergey Katunin, Koichi Nagai, David Robinson, Alexandre Rozanov, David Williams, Vaclav Vacek
      First page: 6
      Abstract: We have developed ultrasonic instrumentation for simultaneous flow and composition measurement in a variety of gas mixtures. Flow and composition are respectively derived from measurements of the difference and average of sound transit times in opposite directions in a flowing process gas. We have developed a sound velocity-based algorithm to compensate for the effects of additional gases, allowing the concentrations of a pair of gases of primary interest to be acoustically measured on top of a varying baseline from ‘third party’ gases whose concentrations in the multi-gas mixture are measured by other means. Several instruments are used in the CERN ATLAS experiment. Three monitor C3F8, (R218), and CO2 coolant leaks into N2-purged environmental envelopes. Precision in molar concentration of better than 2 × 10−5 is routinely seen in mixtures of C3F8 in N2 in the presence of varying known concentrations of CO2. Further instruments monitor air ingress and C3F8 vapor flow (at high mass flows around 1.1 kg s−1) in the 60 kW thermosiphon C3F8 evaporative cooling recirculator. This instrumentation and analysis technique, targeting binary pairs of gases of interest in multi-gas mixtures, is promising for mixtures of anesthetic gases, particularly in the developing area of xenon anesthesia.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 7: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Instruments
           in 2020

    • Authors: Instruments Editorial Office Instruments Editorial Office
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Instruments maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...]
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 8: HTS Accelerator Magnet and Conductor
           Development in Europe

    • Authors: Lucio Rossi, Carmine Senatore
      First page: 8
      Abstract: In view of the preparation for a post-LHC collider, in 2010 the high-energy physics (HEP) community started to discuss various options, including the use of HTS for very high-field dipoles. Therefore, a small program was begun in Europe that aimed at exploring the possibility of using HTS for accelerator-quality magnets. Based on various EU-funded programs, though at modest levels, it has enabled the European community of accelerator magnet research to start getting experience in HTS and address a few issues. The program was based on the use of REBa2Cu3O7−x (REBCO) tapes to form 10 kA Roebel cables to wind small dipoles of 30–40 mm aperture in the 5 T range. The dipoles are designed to be later inserted in a background dipole field (in Nb3Sn), to reach eventually a field level in the 16–20 T range, beyond the reach of Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS). The program is currently underway: more than 1 km of high-performance tape (Je > 500 A/mm2 at 20 T, 4.2 K) has been manufactured and characterized, various 30 m long Roebel cables have been assembled and validated up to 13 kA, a few dipoles have been wound and tested, reaching 4.5 T in stand-alone (while a dipole made from flat race track coils exceeded 5 T using stacked tape cable), and tests in background field are being organized.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 9: Space Charge Effects in Noble-Liquid
           Calorimeters and Time Projection Chambers

    • Authors: Sandro Palestini
      First page: 9
      Abstract: The subject of space charge in ionization detectors is reviewed, showing how the observations and the formalism used to describe the effects have evolved, starting with applications to calorimeters and reaching recent, large time-projection chambers. General scaling laws, and different ways to present and model the effects are presented. The relations between space-charge effects and the boundary conditions imposed on the side faces of the detector are discussed, together with a design solution that mitigates some of the effects. The implications of the relative size of drift length and transverse detector size are illustrated. Calibration methods are briefly discussed.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 10: A New High-Throughput Focused MeV Ion-Beam
           Analysis Setup

    • Authors: Sören Möller, Daniel Höschen, Sina Kurth, Gerwin Esser, Albert Hiller, Christian Scholtysik, Christian Dellen, Christian Linsmeier
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The analysis of material composition by ion-beam analysis (IBA) is becoming a standard method, similar to electron microscopy. A pool of IBA methods exists, from which the combination of particle-induced-X-ray emission (PIXE), particle induced gamma-ray analysis (PIGE), nuclear-reaction-analysis (NRA), and Rutherford-backscattering-spectrometry (RBS) provides the most complete analysis over the whole periodic table in a single measurement. Yet, for a highly resolved and accurate IBA analysis, a sophisticated technical setup is required integrating the detectors, beam optics, and sample arrangement. A new end-station developed and installed in Forschungszentrum Jülich provides these capabilities in combination with high sample throughput and result accuracy. Mechanical tolerances limit the device accuracy to 3% for RBS. Continuous pumping enables 5 × 10−8 mbar base pressure with vibration amplitudes < 0.1 µm. The beam optics achieves a demagnification of 24–34, suitable for µ-beam analysis. An in-vacuum manipulator enables scanning 50 × 50 mm² sample areas with 10 nm accuracy. The setup features the above-mentioned IBA detectors, enabling a broad range of analysis applications such as the operando analysis of batteries or the post-mortem analysis of plasma-exposed samples with up to 3000 discrete points per day. Custom apertures and energy resolutions down to 11 keV enable separation of Fe and Cr in RBS. This work presents the technical solutions together with the quantification of these challenges and their success in the form of a technical reference.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 11: Validation of a Fast and Accurate Magnetic
           Tracker Operating in the Environmental Field

    • Authors: Valerio Biancalana, Roberto Cecchi, Piero Chessa, Marco Mandalà, Giuseppe Bevilacqua, Yordanka Dancheva, Antonio Vigilante
      First page: 11
      Abstract: We characterize the performance of a system based on a magnetoresistor array. This instrument is developed to map the magnetic field, and to track a dipolar magnetic source in the presence of a static homogeneous field. The position and orientation of the magnetic source with respect to the sensor frame is retrieved together with the orientation of the frame with respect to the environmental field. A nonlinear best-fit procedure is used, and its precision, time performance, and reliability are analyzed. This analysis is performed in view of the practical application for which the system is designed that is an eye-tracking diagnostics and rehabilitative tool for medical purposes, which require high speed (≥100 Sa/s) and sub-millimetric spatial resolution. A throughout investigation on the results makes it possible to list several observations, suggestions, and hints, which will be useful in the design of similar setups.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 12: A Sustainable Slit Jet FTIR Spectrometer
           for Hydrate Complexes and Beyond

    • Authors: Hannes C. Gottschalk, Taija L. Fischer, Volker Meyer, Reinhard Hildebrandt, Ulrich Schmitt, Martin A. Suhm
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy of cold molecules and clusters in supersonic slit jet expansions complements and extends more sensitive action spectroscopy techniques and provides important reference data for the latter. We describe how its major drawback, large substance and carrier gas consumption, can be alleviated by one to two orders of magnitude via direct and continuous recycling of the gas mixture. This is achieved by a combination of dry rotary lobe and screw pump compression. The signal-to-noise ratio is boosted by the established buffered giant gas pulse technique with full interferogram synchronization. The buildup of water impurities typically limits the recycling gain, but is turned into a feature for the study of hydrate complexes of volatile molecules. Continuous operation with a single gas filling over several days becomes practical and useful. Decadic absorbances in the low ppm range are detectable and the mid infrared range can be recorded simultaneously with the near infrared. The less straightforward hydration number assignment of spectral features in direct absorption spectroscopy is supported by a gradual water buildup at a rate of less than 0.5 mg/h. A recent reassignment proposal for the water dimer OH stretching spectrum is refuted and vibrational spectra of vacuum-isolated 18O-water clusters are presented for the first time. Methanol docking on asymmetric ketones is used to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the recycling concept. Previous assignments of the hydrate complex of 1-phenylethanol are confirmed. Additional features of the setup await testing and refinement, but the recycling technique already substantially widens the applicability of direct absorption spectroscopy of neutral molecular clusters. It may be attractive for other high-throughput jet spectrometers.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Instruments, Vol. 5, Pages 13: A Review of Basic Energy Reconstruction
           Techniques in Liquid Xenon and Argon Detectors for Dark Matter and
           Neutrino Physics Using NEST

    • Authors: Matthew Szydagis, Grant A. Block, Collin Farquhar, Alexander J. Flesher, Ekaterina S. Kozlova, Cecilia Levy, Emily A. Mangus, Michael Mooney, Justin Mueller, Gregory R. C. Rischbieter, Andrew K. Schwartz
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Detectors based upon the noble elements, especially liquid xenon as well as liquid argon, as both single- and dual-phase types, require reconstruction of the energies of interacting particles, both in the field of direct detection of dark matter (weakly interacting massive particles WIMPs, axions, etc.) and in neutrino physics. Experimentalists, as well as theorists who reanalyze/reinterpret experimental data, have used a few different techniques over the past few decades. In this paper, we review techniques based on solely the primary scintillation channel, the ionization or secondary channel available at non-zero drift electric fields, and combined techniques that include a simple linear combination and weighted averages, with a brief discussion of the application of profile likelihood, maximum likelihood, and machine learning. Comparing results for electron recoils (beta and gamma interactions) and nuclear recoils (primarily from neutrons) from the Noble Element Simulation Technique (NEST) simulation to available data, we confirm that combining all available information generates higher-precision means, lower widths (energy resolution), and more symmetric shapes (approximately Gaussian) especially at keV-scale energies, with the symmetry even greater when thresholding is addressed. Near thresholds, bias from upward fluctuations matters. For MeV-GeV scales, if only one channel is utilized, an ionization-only-based energy scale outperforms scintillation; channel combination remains beneficial. We discuss here what major collaborations use.
      Citation: Instruments
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/instruments5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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