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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 434 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ABC Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di storia della scienza di Firenze     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Avrasya Terim Dergisi     Open Access  
AZimuth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Scientific Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
BIBECHANA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BibNum     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bistua : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Básicas     Open Access  
Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Clinical Research     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencia, Docencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Cumhuriyet Science Journal     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Dharmakarya     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access  
Eastern Anatolian Journal of Science     Open Access  
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Episteme Transversalis     Open Access  
Ergo     Open Access  
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Extensionismo, Innovación y Transferencia Tecnológica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fırat Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 372)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Gaziosmanpaşa Bilimsel Araştırma Dergisi     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Iğdır Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Advancement in Education and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Technology and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Innovative Research in Social and Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science & Emerging Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sciences : Basic and Applied Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Review of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access  
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi / İstanbul Commerce University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Scienze     Open Access  
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science     Open Access  

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HardwareX
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2468-0672
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3293 journals]
  • OpenEM - Electromagnetic Field Mapping Robot for Microwave and RF
           Measurements

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: HardwareXAuthor(s): Benjamin Wang, Rayan Sud, Michael Leung, Mimi Yang, Jesse Rodriguez, Ricky Lee, Mark Cappelli A low - cost, fully automated, electromagnetic field probing robot is described in this paper. The platform, called OpenEM Field Robot, is capable of measuring the spatial electromagnetic fields in free space. The system supports multiple antenna configurations and is scalable to large measurement domains. 3D printed antenna holders are also incorporated in order to allow for the near field measurements with minimal scattering and interference with the measurement. The goal of the system is to design a fully integrated platform for measuring electromagnetic fields that can be used with various other RF measurement devices and is configurable and easily modified for various applications in scientific research and education.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • An Open Source Automated Two-Bottle Choice Test Apparatus for Rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: HardwareXAuthor(s): Jude A. Frie, Jibran Y. Khokhar Two-bottle choice tests are a widely used paradigm in rodents to determine preference between two liquids, with utility for testing animal models of addiction, depression and anhedonia. The following paper describes a 3D-printed, Arduino controlled two-bottle choice test that automatically reads and records drinking behavior in rats to allow for detailed analysis of their drinking microstructure. While commercial products exist use lickometers to measure the microstructure of licking, this design uniquely incorporates hydrostatic depth sensors to allow for real-time volumetric measurements in addition to traditional beam break lick sensing, allowing for licking and drinking microstructure analysis. The goal of this design is to provide a user friendly, affordable apparatus that can study unique, complex behaviors without requiring the purchase of specialized scientific equipment or software. Its applications range from studying alcohol preference in animal models of addiction to sucrose preference in motivational deficits and reward evaluation. This design costs less than $180 CAD to build with decreased cost on each additional device. This design has been successfully tested for accuracy and validated using alcohol preference as an example. The apparatus showed consistency between drinking bouts and volume consumed and is shown to be accurate to ±0.086 ml of the actual volume. This design makes using the two-bottle choice paradigm more accurate, while also making its data more robust and informative while allowing for microstructure analysis of both licking behavior and volume consumed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Open-source Automatic Weather Station and Electronic Ablation Station for
           measuring the impacts of climate change on glaciers

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: HardwareX, Volume 5Author(s): Guilherme Tomaschewski Netto, Jorge Arigony-Neto Glaciers are natural sensors to identify changes in climate and weather patterns, so the importance of monitoring them in a forceful way. In this paper, we show the development and application of a set of low cost sensors, customized for the characteristics of glacial environments. Two modules are part of the project: (1) an Automatic Weather Station; and (2) an Electronic Ablation Station. We also show the results of field tests performed on glaciers of southern Patagonia.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A novel analogue keyboard for embedded applications, based on integer
           division truncation

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: HardwareX, Volume 5Author(s): M. Mariola, C. Bemont, F. Petruccione Modern micro-controllers are powerful control devices available in a range of packages with a variable number of input/output pins. Smaller microcontrollers, for example the Attiny45, have only six available pins for input/output but relatively powerful performance in terms of processing. However, it is often not possible to exploit the resources of such a microcontroller due to the limited number of pins available. Using an analogue keyboard only one pin of a microcontroller is required. In other analogue keyboards, each character or command corresponds to an analogue value produced on the nodes of a voltage divider composed of several resistors. The principle difference between the system proposed here and previous analogue keyboards is in the algorithm. Because no resistor has zero tolerance, the voltage drop across the voltage divider nodes in a standard analogue keyboard is never precisely as expected. Thus, in order to function correctly, the microcontroller must be programmed for such a system so as to recognise that each analogue value lies between two particular fixed values. In the proposed system, the discretisation is instead entrusted to an approximation from an integer division. Using the same approach, it is also possible to easily convert a standard potentiometer into a discrete switching device. This keyboard is not intended to replace a standard alphanumeric computer keyboard, rather it is an alternative for any case where a cheap, compact micro-controller based device requires control, particularly when a microcontroller has limited input/output pins. Lastly it can be implemented as an analogue rotating selector, and is adaptable because the number of selection steps/keys is set purely as a software parameter.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A simplified LED-driven switch for fast-scan controlled-adsorption
           voltammetry instrumentation

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: HardwareX, Volume 5Author(s): Rhiannon Robke, Parastoo Hashemi, Eric Ramsson Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an analytical tool used to probe neurochemical processes in real-time. A major drawback for specialized applications of FSCV is that instrumentation must be constructed or modified in-house by those with expertise in electronics. One such specialized application is the newly developed fast-scan controlled-adsorption voltammetry (FSCAV) that measures basal (tonic) in vivo dopamine and serotonin concentrations. FSCAV requires additional software and equipment (an operational amplifier coupled to a transistor-transistor logic) allowing the system to switch between applying a FSCV waveform and a constant potential to the working electrode. Herein we describe a novel, simplified switching component to facilitate the integration of FSCAV into existing FSCV instruments, thereby making this method more accessible to the community. Specifically, we employ two light emitting diodes (LEDs) to generate the voltage needed to drive a NPN bipolar junction transistor, substantially streamlining the circuitry and fabrication of the switching component. We performed in vitro and in vivo analyses to compare the new LED circuit vs. the original switch. Our data shows that the novel simplified switching component performs equally well when compared to traditional instrumentation. Thus, we present a new, simplified scheme to perform FSCAV that is cheap, simple, and easy to construct by individuals without a background in engineering and electronics.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • An open-source multi-robot construction system

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: HardwareX, Volume 5Author(s): Michael Allwright, Weixu Zhu, Marco Dorigo We describe a completely open source system for performing experiments in multi-robot construction in laboratory settings. The system consists of robots that are capable of assembling cubic blocks into structures, which can be up to three blocks in height. The building material contains microcontrollers and multi-color light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that can be programmed by the robots using a near-field communication (NFC) interface. This mechanism is implemented to facilitate experiments where the intelligence that coordinates the construction can be embedded not only in the robots but also in the building material.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Low cost fast frequency switching driver for Acousto-Optic Modulators used
           in laser cooling

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: HardwareX, Volume 5Author(s): Aniket Bhandare, Abhishek Patnaik, David Pommerenke, Sachin Sharma, Daniel Fischer In many laser atom cooling experiments, Acousto-Optic Modulators (AOM) are used to modulate a laser beam frequency close to an electronic resonance of the atoms. Commercially available RF drivers for the AOMs tend to be expensive ($2k and above) and can also require supplementary equipment such as power supplies and amplifiers. This article presents a low cost, compact, re-configurable, and portable modulator driver system. This system can switch between two frequencies within a period of few hundreds of ns, while giving the user complete control over the frequency range and output power up to about 2 W. This fast switching allows to toggle a laser beam between two optical fibers which could be used for cooling, imaging, or optical pumping of the laser-cooled atoms.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • General-compensation-purpose Static var Compensator prototype

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: HardwareX, Volume 5Author(s): Hildo Guillardi, Eduardo Verri Liberado, José Antenor Pomilio, Fernando Pinhabel Marafão Static var Compensator (SVC) has a general topology and its operational principle allows its application with distinct compensation purposes, such as voltage regulation or load balancing. Thus, this paper presents the development of a SVC prototype that could be used to test and validate a variety of control strategies proposed for the SVC applications. These strategies may include distributed/cooperative approaches, since the designed prototype has two control units with independent metering hardware. The design of the analog signal conditioning boards developed for voltage and current measurement is also presented. Design and control methods for reactive compensation under unbalanced and/or distorted voltages or loads are described and validated using the presented prototype.
       
  • Multi-axis stress sensor characterization and testing platform

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: HardwareX, Volume 5Author(s): Talha Agcayazi, Marc Foster, Hannah Kausche, Max Gordon, Alper Bozkurt Multi-axis mechanical stress sensors have become an important tool in numerous fields. To characterize the quality and resolution of a new stress sensor, researchers use test platforms to apply controlled amounts of shear and normal stresses. Since commercially available multi-axis test platforms are expensive, in many cases researchers end up needing to build their own sensor characterization platforms. In this study, we describe a cost-effective multi-axis stress sensor characterization platform to reduce development time, enable accurate benchmarking and provide an open source standard for stress sensor characterization for other researchers. In our design, we combined a 3-axis translational stage and a 3-axis force and torque (F/T) sensor through custom hardware and software. Our platform is cost effective and can reach the limits of the F/T sensor (Fxy = ±65 N and Fz = ±200 N) without losing any accuracy to structural bending. We provide detailed construction and operation instructions as well as results of extensive static and cyclic load experiments. To further validate our system, we show characterization results from a custom stress sensor as a case study. The modular nature of our platform also enables other researchers to customize this characterization platform for their unique experimental requirements.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Sample treatment platform for automated integration of microextraction
           techniques and liquid chromatography analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: HardwareX, Volume 5Author(s): Deyber Arley Vargas Medina, Luís Felipe Rodriguez Cabal, Fernando Mauro Lanças, Álvaro José Santos-Neto Sample preparation performance influences the quality of every chemical analysis. Since it is the most labor-intensive stage in the nearly all-analytical protocols, sample preparation automation would be desirable, to increase the analytical throughput, maintaining precision and accuracy, while preventing risks of human exposure to chemical or biological agents. Among different lab-automation strategies, robots have long been an important prospect. Nevertheless, widespread adoption of dedicate “robot-chemist” with analytical purposes continues being limited. Open resources that enable non-specialist analysts and researchers to make their own prototypes are still necessary. We have assembled an open-source innovative platform, able to guarantee the online hyphenation of the sample preparation microtechniques with liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry or any other detection system. It is a multi-purpose cartesian robot, programmed to perform sample clean-up operations, allowing the automated pre-concentration of analytes through the performance of solid and liquid phase microextraction protocols, actuating a microextraction syringe driver, and equipped with an in-syringe-stirring mechanism and an adapted interface for online coupling with liquid chromatography or mass spectrometry analysis. The entire sample preparation procedure can be performed by the developed prototype and the enriched extract automatically injected into the separation and detection system. The analytical performance of the developed prototype was assessed for the extraction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from sewage water, by headspace dynamic single drop microextraction (SDME), dynamic hollow-fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS). The developed prototype displayed excellent precision and accuracy for the execution of the microextraction protocols, proving to be a promising and competitive open source analytical tool able to extend the state-of-the-art of sample preparation microtechniques.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Methods to simplify cooling of liquid Helium cryostats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: HardwareXAuthor(s): Rafael Álvarez Montoya, Sara Delgado, José Castilla, José Navarrete, Nuria Díaz Contreras, Juan Ramón Marijuan, Víctor Barrena, Isabel Guillamón, Hermann Suderow Liquid Helium is used widely, from hospitals to characterization of materials at low temperatures. Many experiments at low temperatures require liquid Helium, particularly when vibration isolation precludes the use of cryocoolers and when one needs to cool heavy equipment such as superconducting coils. Here we describe methods to simplify the operations required to use liquid Helium by eliminating the use of high pressure bottles, avoiding blockage and improving heating and cooling rates. First we show a simple and very low cost method to transfer liquid Helium from a transport container into a cryostat that uses a manual pump having pumping and pressurizing ports, giving a liquid Helium transfer rate of about 100 liters an hour. Second, we describe a closed cycle circuit of Helium gas cooled in an external liquid nitrogen bath that allows precooling a cryogenic experiment without inserting liquid nitrogen into the cryostat, eliminating problems associated to the presence of nitrogen around superconducting magnets. And third, we show a sliding seal assembly and an inner vacuum chamber design that allows inserting large experiments into liquid Helium.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • An affordable and portable autonomous surface vehicle with obstacle
           avoidance for coastal ocean monitoring

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: HardwareXAuthor(s): Daniel F. Carlson, Alexander Fürsterling, Lasse Vesterled, Mathias Skovby, Simon Sejer Pedersen, Claus Melvad, Søren Rysgaard Bathymetry measurements are needed in shallow, near-shore environments to estimate the potential distribution of macroalgae and seagrass, which contribute to oceanic carbon sinks in Greenland and other Arctic locations. Additionally, ocean current observations near icebergs and marine-terminating glaciers are necessary to estimate their melt rates. Rocky coastlines, icebergs and glaciers, however, present a significant safety risk to manned vessels. We developed an affordable and portable autonomous surface vehicle (ASV) that can safely obtain bathymetry and ocean current measurements in dangerous environments. The Arctic Research Centre Autonomous Boat (ARCAB) is a student-built ASV that can be transported on a euro-pallet and operated from a small boat and from shore. ARCAB has a minimum battery life of 2 hours and accommodates a SonTek M9 RiverSurveyor system for bathymetry and ocean current measurements. ARCAB is controlled by a National Instruments myRIO-1900 and features autonomous waypoint navigation, obstacle avoidance, and return-to-home functionality. We demonstrate the use of ARCAB in Greenland in January 2019.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Open-source wideband (DC to MHz range) isolated current sensor

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: HardwareXAuthor(s): Burkhard Ulrich A low-cost open-source wideband current sensor, measuring currents in a frequency range from DC to 5 MHz, is proposed. The sensor provides galvanic isolation, low insertion impedance, and can be used together with an oscilloscope as replacement for an expensive current probe, or as circuit integrated sensor, to measure currents with peak values up to 20 A. The hardware of the sensor consists of standard parts soldered on a printed circuit board; no special custom parts and/or manufacturing steps are needed to build. Applications are general measurement and laboratory use, e.g. measuring current waveforms in lab experiments. But the sensor can also be integrated in control circuits requiring measurements of time varying currents, e.g. for high speed current mode control in power electronics.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • OMIS: The Open Millifluidic Inquiry System for small scale chemical
           synthesis and analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): R.J. LeSuer, K.L. Osgood, K.E. Stelnicki, J.L. Mendez With the continued establishment of hacker-spaces and fab-labs hosted in academic libraries, there is an increase in the availability of resources for designing scientific instrumentation in the undergraduate curriculum. Many available designs, however, may be too complex to fabricate in teaching environments. Presented here is OMIS, the Open Millifluidic Inquiry System, which is a platform for performing small-scale chemical synthesis and analysis. OMIS consists of a 3D printed syringe pump, control hardware based upon the Arduino microcontroller and 3D printed reaction vessels. The OMIS syringe pump utilizes a low-power stepper motor which simplifies the instrument construction and allows for power to be supplied from batteries or the USB port of a computer. The simple design of OMIS allows for the instrument to be fabricated in one day, including the time to 3D print components. The OMIS syringe pump is able to deliver fluids at rates between 60 and 300 μL/min, depending on syringe size, with a reproducibility of 3%. Several applications of OMIS are presented, including a demonstration of laminar flow in a 3D printed millifluidic chip, implementation of a low-volume flow-cell cuvette insert and the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • RepRapable Recyclebot: Open source 3-D printable extruder for converting
           plastic to 3-D printing filament

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Aubrey L. Woern, Joseph R. McCaslin, Adam M. Pringle, Joshua M. Pearce In order to assist researchers explore the full potential of distributed recycling of post-consumer polymer waste, this article describes a recyclebot, which is a waste plastic extruder capable of making commercial quality 3-D printing filament. The device design takes advantage of both the open source hardware methodology and the paradigm developed by the open source self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) 3-D printer community. Specifically, this paper describes the design, fabrication and operation of a RepRapable Recyclebot, which refers to the Recyclebot’s ability to provide the filament needed to largely replicate the parts for the Recyclebot on any type of RepRap 3-D printer. The device costs less than $700 in mate rials and can be fabricated in about 24 h. Filament is produced at 0.4 kg/h using 0.24 kWh/kg with a diameter ±4.6%. Thus, filament can be manufactured from commercial pellets for
       
  • An inexpensive modified weight-bearing device assembled in-house for high
           throughput unbiased behavioral pain assessment in mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Brendan Drackley, Matt Holtz, Jay Yang Assessment of pain in rodents is essential for analgesic development and investigations of fundamental neurobiology of pain. We have previously reported on a modified weight bearing apparatus we call VASIC (voluntarily accessed static incapacitance chamber) enabling unbiased and high throughput assessment of pain in rats. The present report provides a detailed description of the construction of the apparatus with all necessary computer assisted design files for the printed circuit board and the plastic components, and the required software for controlling the data capture and data analysis hosted in an online source file repository to allow assembly of the device in-house at a cost affordable to most academic laboratories. We extend the application of the apparatus to assess weight bearing in mice to enable the use of genetic mice models to study pain.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Low-cost touchscreen driven programmable dual syringe pump for life
           science applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Valentina E. Garcia, Jamin Liu, Joseph L. DeRisi Syringe pumps are powerful tools able to automate routine laboratory practices that otherwise consume large amounts of manual labor time. Commercially available syringe pumps are expensive, difficult to customize, and often preset for a narrow range of operations. Here, we show how to build a programmable dual syringe pump (PDSP) that overcomes these limitations. The PDSP is driven by a Raspberry Pi paired with a stepper motor controller to allow maximal customization via Python scripting. The entire setup can be controlled by a touchscreen for use without a keyboard or mouse. Furthermore, the PDSP is structured around 3D printed parts, enabling users to change any component for their specific application. We demonstrate one application of the PDSP by using it to generate whole cell lysates using a cell homogenizer in an automated fashion.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • An open-source lickometer and microstructure analysis program

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Martin A. Raymond, Thomas G. Mast, Joseph M. Breza Described herein is a design for a user-constructed electronic lickometer, intended to allow users to conduct relatively simple behavioral experiments with rodents while avoiding several common stumbling blocks. Primarily, this system does not require the purchase of specialized scientific equipment or software. Additionally, it is possible for users to construct and operate this lickometer without the prerequisite of advanced knowledge of electronics or programming. Overall, the goal of this apparatus is to provide a simple and affordable alternative for users seeking to study ingestion behaviors in rodents, while still allowing the user to obtain high-resolution data and conduct sophisticated microstructural analysis of the behavior in question. All of this is achieved using low-cost and commonly available materials for the construction of the apparatus itself, and open-source software to collect and analyze data. The only substantial prerequisites for this design are a PC with a 3.5 mm microphone input and a comfortable understanding of power tools. Finally, a validation of the operation of the describe apparatus is included.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Implementation of a flexible, open-source platform for ion mobility
           spectrometry

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Tobias Reinecke, Brian H. Clowers When operated as a stand-alone device, an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) routinely offers low limits of detection (pptv-range) for gas-phase analytes even for measurement times less than a second. Mass analyzers further enhance the analytical power of IMS separations, however, high performance drift-cell IMS instruments are often highly customized, relatively large, and require extensive expertise to operate. In this work we present an optimized, low cost IMS system that leverages an easy-to-assemble ion gating structure that enables IMS spectra with resolving powers exceeding 90 for a drift cell only 10 cm in length. The IMS presented in this work consists of stacked rings divided by spacers all fabricated from printed circuit boards (PCB). The rings are connected via a slotted PCB-board containing a surface mounted voltage divider that connects directly to the ring electrodes allowing a fast and easy assembly. This highly modular design enables e.g. the realization of variable drift tube lengths or single and dual gate setups. Instead of the commonly used Bradbury Nielsen gates, the IMS is equipped with a 3-grid ion gate allowing the generation of short (
       
  • Low-cost Sieverts-type apparatus for the study of hydriding/dehydriding
           reactions

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Juan Luis Carrillo-Bucio, Juan Rogelio Tena-Garcia, Eduardo Paul Armenta-Garcia, Osiry Hernandez-Silva, José Gerardo Cabañas-Moreno, Karina Suárez-Alcántara The design and construction of a low-cost equipment for the study of hydriding/dehydriding reactions of different materials are presented. This is a Sieverts-type apparatus where a small amount (0.2–1 g) of solid hydrogen storage materials can be characterized. The apparatus combines the features of double lines (sample and reference) to eliminate small thermal effects on the reservoir and sample-holder volumes, with a Δp = Δpsample − Δpreference approach to eliminate the need of a differential pressure transducer and to reduce costs. This apparatus can work from vacuum to 10 MPa hydrogen pressure and from room temperature to 673 K. Pressure, temperature and volume data are transformed by a real gases equation state and mass balance into hydrogen uptake or release in wt%. Characterization of typical hydrogen storage materials such as LiAlH4 and Mg is presented to validate the performance of the apparatus.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Low-cost equipment for electroformation of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Javier Alejandro Bellon, Marcelo Javier Pino, Natalia Wilke Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) constitute a very useful model for biomembranes. They are usually generated by electroformation using sinusoidal potential waves applied between two platinum electrodes or electrodes composed of glasses covered by indium tin oxide (ITO).Here we present the design of a programmable, compact and low cost wave generator that allows applying different waveforms, even with initial non-periodical shapes. Thus, it allows to optimize the potential waveform for the particular GUV’ composition.We also describe the design of a low cost, reusable chamber with stainless steel electrodes that allows using very small volumes of solution (0.3 mL). With this chamber, a larger number of GUVs were generated in less electroformation times compared to ITO electrodes. The general characteristics of the obtained GUVs are comparable to those electroformed in platinum or ITO surfaces.The chamber, combined with the wave generator comprises a simple, reusable, programmable and low cost system for the formation of GUVs.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • PiFlow: A biocompatible low-cost programmable dynamic flow pumping system
           utilizing a Raspberry Pi Zero and commercial piezoelectric pumps

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Timothy Kassis, Paola M. Perez, Chloe J.W. Yang, Luis R. Soenksen, David L. Trumper, Linda G. Griffith With the rise of research utilizing microphysiological systems (MPSs), the need for tools that enable the physiological mimicking of the relevant cellular environment is vital. The limited ability to reproduce crucial features of the microenvironment, such as surrounding fluid flow and dynamic changes in biochemical stimuli, severely limits the types of experiments that can be carried out. Current equipment to achieve this, such as syringe and peristaltic pumps, is expensive, large, difficult to program and has limited potential for scalability. Here, we present a new pumping platform that is open-source, low-cost, modular, scalable, fully-programmable and easy to assemble that can be incorporated into cell culture systems to better recapitulate physiological environments. By controlling two commercially available piezoelectric pumps using a Raspberry Pi Zero microcontroller, the system is capable of producing arbitrary dynamic flow profiles with reliable flow rates ranging from 1 to 3000 µL/min as specified by an easily programmable Python-based script. We validated the accuracy of the flow rates, the use of time-varying profiles, and the practicality of the system by creating repeatable dynamic concentration profiles using a 3D-printed static micromixer.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Response spectrum devices for active learning in earthquake engineering
           education

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Richard K. Slocum, Rachel K. Adams, Kamilah Buker, David S. Hurwitz, H. Benjamin Mason, Christopher E. Parrish, Michael H. Scott Structural and geotechnical engineers regularly use response spectra to assess the response of civil infrastructure to earthquakes; however, the underlying concepts of response spectra are often difficult for civil engineering students to grasp. Hardware specifications for two low cost response spectrum devices (RSDs) facilitate an inductive approach for teaching response spectrum concepts to students. The RSDs, which consist of wooden masses, compression springs, and accelerometers, can be excited manually or on a portable shake table to show the effects of mass and stiffness on the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake ground motion. Auxiliary Python scripts record real time accelerometer data, enabling students to compare the observed RSD response to numerical computations.
       
  • Peta-pico-Voltron: An open-source high voltage power supply

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Samuel Schlatter, Patrin Illenberger, Samuel Rosset We present the design (hardware + software) of “Peta-pico-Voltron”, a low-current high voltage power supply for electrostatic actuators. Developed primarily for dielectric elastomer actuators, it offers a low-cost solution to generate user controllable voltages up to 5 kV, either continuous, or as square waves with a frequency range between 1 mHz and 1 kHz. The high voltage power supply was developed as an answer to the lack of commercial devices that combine a low cost (15 V/µs for a 1 pF load). The PCB is designed to be easy to assemble, with a minimum of panel-mounted elements: the unit is controlled from a computer with a user-friendly interface. A Python library of functions is provided, which enables seamless integration of the power supply with other instruments. Alternatively, simple commands can be sent via a serial connection, which makes it possible to control the power supply with any programming language. The PCB footprint with the soldered components is 120 × 55 × 25 mm3 with a weight of 60 g, thus making it a very compact and portable power supply. We also present a battery management circuit to make the system completely standalone when combined with a Raspberry Pi, a touch screen, and a battery.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • An automatable, field camera track system for phenotyping crop lodging and
           crop movement

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Alexander Q. Susko, Fletcher Gilbertson, D. Jo Heuschele, Kevin Smith, Peter Marchetto High throughput phenotyping systems enable rapid data collection for plant breeders. Some plant traits such as lodging, or the breaking and falling over of plant stems under wind stress, are complex and not easily measured through existing high throughput imaging platforms. We present designs for an automatable camera system that can be used in the quantification of crop lodging and crop movement under field wind conditions. Using a 360FLY 4K hemispherical video camera, industrial curtain track, and a raspberry pi computer, the camera system is capable of capturing aspects of crop lodging and movement unquantifiable by other phenotyping systems, such as unmanned aerial vehicles. The design is versatile and inexpensive relative to commercial camera track systems, and could be employed to quantify a variety of plant traits from detailed images in a field setting.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Auto-HPGe, an autosampler for gamma-ray spectroscopy using high-purity
           germanium (HPGe) detectors and heavy shields

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Matheus C. Carvalho, Christian J. Sanders, Ceylena Holloway Radionuclide measurements have proven to be essential for determining processes related to pressing environmental issues as well as reconstructing historical events related to natural and anthropogenic activities. The detection of radionuclide tracers in environmental and geological samples provides unique and essential insights into specific sources and sinks. Despite its usefulness in measuring natural and anthropogenic radioisotopes, high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detectors are rarely automated as a result of the heavy shielding required to use this equipment. Consequently, the commonly available autosamplers for this kind of analysis can be very expensive, exceeding AU$400,000. Here we present auto-HPGe, an autosampler for gamma ray detection in heavy shields that costs about AU$1100 to build. Auto-HPGe has potential to make HPGe analysis more attractive to scientists, especially when the equipment is located in remote locations or when the ability to change samples at odd hours is limited.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Approaches to open source 3-D printable probe positioners and
           micromanipulators for probe stations

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Iiro Hietanen, Ismo T.S. Heikkinen, Hele Savin, Joshua M. Pearce Three types of highly-customizable open source probe positioning systems are evaluated: (a) mostly 3-D printed, (b) partially printed using OpenBeam kinematic constraints, and (c) a 3-level stack of low-cost commercial single axis micropositioners and some printed parts. All systems use digital distributed manufacturing to enable bespoke features, which can be fabricated with RepRap-class 3-D printer and easily accessible components. They are all flexible in material choice for custom components. The micropositioners can be set up for left-right use and flat or recessed configurations using either mechanical or magnetic mounting. All systems use a manual probe holder that can be customized and enable a quick swap probe system. System (a) is purchased for $100 or fabricated for 200 µm, (b) 40 µm and (c) 10 µm. A tradeoff is observed for 3-D printed percent between cost and accuracy. All systems provided substantial cost savings over proprietary products with similar functionality.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Mouthguard-based wireless high-bandwidth helmet-mounted inertial
           measurement system

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): John Lund, Anthony Paris, Jennifer Brock Characterizing head impacts in athletic and occupational settings requires the evaluation of accelerations of the head. Often athletic and occupational scenarios with a heightened risk of head injury or impact already utilize helmet and/or mouthguard hardware. We present a device which relies on existing safety equipment to implement a mouthguard-based inertial measurement device. This device uses high-bandwidth spatially-separated single axis accelerometers and a helmet-mounted data collection and transmission system to record and report accelerations of the head with a measurement bandwidth and resolution that exceeds existing mouthguard-based inertial measurement systems. The device is capable of recording data for the duration of an athletic event (∼3 h) and transmitting impact events wirelessly to a receiver unit outside of the field of play, allowing for the real-time monitoring and recording of head impact events.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Open source low-cost power monitoring system

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Shane Oberloier, Joshua M. Pearce This study presents an entirely open-source, low-cost power monitoring system capable of many types of measurements including both loads and supplies such as solar photovoltaic systems. In addition, the system can be fabricated using only open source software and hardware. The design revolves around the Digital Universal Energy Logger (DUEL) Node, which is responsible for reading and properly scaling the voltage and current of a particular load, and then serializing it via an on-board ATTiny85 chip. The configuration of the DUEL node allows for custom sensitivity ranges, and can handle up to 50 A and 300 V. Up to 127 DUEL nodes communicate via Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) on a bus, which can be monitored and logged through an Arduino UNO, or other compatible microcontroller. Using accessible equipment, the DUEL node can be calibrated to a desirable accuracy and error. The DUEL nodes are also completely customizable, making them fit for any input range, where all commercially-available products are fixed range. The open source solution out performs commercial solutions as the price per measurement ($18.25) is significantly smaller, while the number of serviceable channels (1 2 7) is significantly higher.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • RFID based food rationing system

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Rakesh Kumar Jha, Yamini Srivastav, Vedika Sumbli, Trisha, Vidula Gandhi, Shubha Jain India’s Public Distribution System (PDS) comprises ration shops which are responsible for distribution of ration to many poor families. Necessary commodities such as rice, kerosene, sugar, wheat etc., are supplied to the less privileged sections as per the eligibility and at fixed rates by the Indian government. However, the existing system suffers from major drawbacks such as storage of food grains, manual and inconsistent tallying of records against stock, black marketing and housekeeping. Hence, the conventional system needs some modification to ensure there is minimal wastage and food grains reach the right people. The major contribution of the hardware lies in acquiring records from the warehouses located in far off places to a centralized server managed by the administrator. This system also solves the problem of black marketing with the use of Aadhar cards and biometric scanning which are used for the verification of the consumer at the time of purchase. In addition to the above, another aspect of the system is the management of two types of databases, one of them is used for storing the data of the consumer and the other for maintaining the record of the availability of the ration in various warehouses which are located in different parts of the country.Graphical abstractVillages comprising a particular district will have their own granaries. The seller at each granary will have access to the database through an ID and password. The consumer at each granary will be verified through a triple security check: first through his/her Aadhar card and next through a biometric scan. After these steps, the data will be updated on the server, and an SMS will be sent to the consumer regarding his purchases. If at any of these steps the verification fails, the seller shall go back to the previous step. This model can provide a platform for reliable, secure and end user delivery system for all type users including non-educated users. It can also help protect cheating and corruption in food distribution system.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • An IMU-based traffic and road condition monitoring system

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Tian Lei, Abduallah A. Mohamed, Christian Claudel This paper presents a new type of wireless platform designed for real-time traffic estimation and road surface monitoring. The sensor platform is built around a 32-bit ARM Cortex M4 micro-controller and a LSM9DS0 Inertial Measurement Unit module. This platform is mainly designed for probe vehicles and can be easily installed in a vehicle equipped with a USB charger. The hardware architecture design and software programming system of the proposed platform are introduced as well as its cost evaluation from the first generation to the third generation. The article then demonstrates some applications of such a platform in smart cities, including trajectory estimation and road condition monitoring. All design files have been uploaded and shared in an open science framework, and can be accessed from https://osf.io/524y9/?view_only=85859a345a7b429fbb8fe194966daa5b. It is licensed under the GNU General Public License v3.0.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Programmable and low-cost ultraviolet room disinfection device

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Marcel Bentancor, Sabina Vidal Here is presented a room disinfection device based in Ultraviolet-C radiation. Initially, it was designed for the periodic conditioning of culture rooms. It offers the capacity to be remotely programmed using an Android mobile device and it has an infrared detection security system that turns off the system when triggered. The system here described is easily scalable to generate higher ultraviolet dosages adding more UV-C lamps. The experimental tests showed the very high effectiveness of this device to eliminate high bacterial inocula. The sanitizing method employed by this device affects a very wide range of microorganisms and it has several advantages respect to chemical based-sanitizing methods. The total cost to make this open source device is below USD 180 and it is easily customizable which is different respect to proprietary commercial devices actually available. This device represents an open source, secure, fast and automatized equipment for room disinfecting. The device is configured in less than three minutes and it does not require continuous monitoring.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Actifield, an automated open source actimeter for rodents

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Victor Wumbor-Apin Kumbol, Elikplim Kwesi Ampofo, Mary Ayeko Twumasi Locomotor activity in rodents is routinely assessed in the evaluation of drugs and other behavioural studies. Several proprietary lab equipment are available to measure locomotion, however their prohibitive cost may pose a challenge to newly-established and poorly funded labs. To overcome this challenge we present Actifield, an open source hardware setup to measure locomotor activity in rodents. The design consists of 3D printed and laser-cut parts as well as “off-the-shelf” electronic components. Here we demonstrate that rodent locomotor activity can be recorded using the IR motion detection system employed in Actifield. Moreover, we show in validation experiments that this hardware system is comparable to commercial and open source video tracking systems. Actifield would be particularly useful to labs in need of a reliable and inexpensive equipment that can be easily built.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Professor: A motorized field-based phenotyping cart

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Alison L. Thompson, Alex Conrad, Matthew M. Conley, Henry Shrock, Bryce Taft, Charles Miksch, Talon Mills, John M. Dyer An easy-to-customize, low-cost, low disturbance, motorized, and adjustable proximal sensing cart for field-based high-throughput phenotyping is described. General dimensions, motor specifications, and a remote operation application are given. The cart, named Professor, supports mounting multiple proximal sensors and cameras for characterizing plant traits grown under field conditions. Professor easily adapts to multiple sensor configurations supporting detection of multiple target traits and has two axes of adjustable clearance by design. Professor is useful as a field-based phenotyping platform and offers a framework for customized development and application.
       
  • The smARTS_Museum_V1: An open hardware device for remote monitoring of
           Cultural Heritage indoor environments

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): Mainardo Gaudenzi Asinelli, Moisès Serra Serra, Judit Molera Marimòn, Jordi Serra Espaulella This paper presents an easy-to-use, easy-to-customize, and low cost device for remote monitoring of Cultural Heritage environments such as museums, art galleries, and historical archives. The prototype allows measurements of temperature, relative humidity, and dew point. The chip used is an ESP8266 characterized by on-board Wi-Fi. The hardware design is flexible in order to host extra sensors via I2C bus and easy replacement of microcontroller and sensors in the event of either malfunctions or substitution with newer versions. The device is programmable using the Arduino IDE. The data are sent to an IoT platform that allows real-time visualization, analyses, and download. Tests were performed in laboratory and at the Casa de Convalescencia in Vic (Spain), by monitoring the microenvironment of an exhibition cabinet hosting 18th century ceramics. The results achieved are promising: the open hardware and software approach allows plan further implementations and provides a solid base for device customizations; in terms of technology applied to Cultural Heritage, the implementation of open hardware does not only can lower significantly the costs, but also provides scientifically reliable alternatives to off the shelf technology, as well as enhances end-users capability to develop customized devices that can better address specific needs.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Design and construction of an omnidirectional sound source with inverse
           filtering approach for optimization

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: HardwareX, Volume 4Author(s): David Ibarra, Rodrigo Ledesma, Edgar Lopez The aim of this study is to design an efficient omnidirectional point source whose analysis and design is also described here. The point source was designed with the help of MATLAB and SolidWorks software respectively for calculating the optimal dimensions. This point source is composed of a base in which the speaker is settle, and a cone that provides the omnidirectionality. Three different bases with three different cones were implemented and tested to determine which combination gives less reflection on rear part of cabinet. To enhance a flat response and true omnidirectionality, an Inverse Filtering Method will be introduced to the study. As a result, we observe that the point source is best suited with a cylindrical base and a 20 cm long cone. The radiation patterns showed omnidirectional results for frequencies lower than 15 kHz, and maximum deviation of 4 dB for 30 degrees.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
 
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