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Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2229-9769 - ISSN (Online) 0128-2972
Published by UNIMAS Publisher Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Morphological Characterisation and Documentation of Freshwater Macrophytes
           in Pontian, Johor's Water

      Pages: 1 - 22
      Abstract: Freshwater macrophytes exist in varied life forms for example, emergent, submerged, floating-leaved and free-floating, and some of them have a heterophylly or multiple forms. The intraspecific variation in terms of morphology is common phenomena in macrophytes population; however, specific studies on morphology of freshwater macrophytes are still insufficient, especially in Pontian, Johor. Hence, this study aimed to characterise the freshwater macrophytes based on morphometrics and descriptive characteristics as well as to document their diversity and population. Thus, the morphometric measurements were done, the descriptive characteristics were documented in scientific photographs, the population of freshwater macrophytes was also estimated by using quadrat estimation technique. Additionally, the morphometrics of some collected samples were compared with the same sample in other studies to show the variation in the range of different measurements, the descriptive characteristics were also described as well as the population estimation assessed by area coverage was analysed in the form of statistical chart. The finding in this study showed variation in morphometric data and no intraspecific variation on phenotype of freshwater macrophytes in Pontian, Johor’s water.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4140.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Inter-Seasonal Phytoplankton Compositions and Density in Response to
           Abiotic Factors in Puah Reservoir Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Dam,
           Peninsular Malaysia

      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: The distribution of the phytoplankton community in different locations of Puah Reservoir, Malaysia was investigated from May to December 2019 to examine the phytoplankton compositions and density. Seven sampling locations were selected namely Terengganu Mati (P1), Limbing Besar (P2), Temba Outlet (P3), Pela-gong (P4), Sireh (P5), Centre Dam (P6) and Power Intake (P7). A total of 543 cell/mL were recorded from 35 genera in the reservoir. These identified species belonged to six major plankton groups: 12 green algae (35.29%), nine blue-green algae (26.47%), nine diatom (23.53%), two golden algae (5.88%), two filamentous (5.88%) and one flagellate (2.94%). During this period, Chlorophyta was the most abundant group (40% of the total phytoplankton), followed by Bacillariophyceae (29%), Pyrrhophyta (19%), Cyanophyta (12%) and Chrysophyceae (1%). The highest composition of phytoplankton was recorded at P7 (32%), followed by P3 (16%), P1 (14%) and P4 and P2 with the lowest (8% and 7%), respectively. The lowest density was observed during dry season (162 cell/mL) and high density during wet season (412 cell/mL). Species richness was discreetly greater in the wet season however, evenness index was ≥0.8, thereby indicating a similarity in species abundance. The water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen correlate positively with phytoplankton at P = 0.01. The overall mean values of temperature for wet and dry season were 29.3 ± 1.79 °C and 27.5 ± 1.55 °C while dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solid (TSS) were 16.2 mg/L and 4.7 mg/L, 3.4 mg/L and 2.9 mg/L, 15.2 mg/L and 12.7 mg/L, and 0.5 mg/L and 2.3 mg/L, respectively.  Water transparency, pH and DO were found to be important factors characterising each sampling location.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4215.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Diversity of Fisheries in Sarawak, Northwest Borneo: Present Status and
           Conservation Issues

      Pages: 32 - 51
      Abstract: Information on fisheries resources in East Malaysia is scarce and poorly known. The current review aims to compile a checklist of fisheries resources in the Northwest Borneo (Sarawak, Malaysia) from available published literature, address the resources' present status, and suggest future monitoring needs for selected critical species. The study also aims to determine several Sarawak land-use issues that are in flux and responsible for habitat degradation. Five hundred sixty-four species belonging to 123 families and 32 orders were recorded from Sarawak waters. Freshwater fish species comprised 48.0% of the total, followed by a marine (36.6%), marine-euryhaline (12.9%), and brackish water (2.5%) species. Of this, Cyprinidae was the most dominant group accounting for the greatest number of species (82 species), followed by Balitoridae (34 species), Bagridae (21 species) and Penaeidae (21 species). Therefore, available fisheries resources should be managed carefully as 48 species (9.0%) are currently vulnerable to extinction. Furthermore, the presence of 20 alien species in Sarawak water bodies also requires attention from the authorities due to the potential disruption of aquatic ecological balance. Changing land use issues in Sarawak such as forest degradation, agricultural expansion, peatland deforestation and conversion, logging, destruction of mangrove forests, and construction of hydroelectric power dams and flood mitigation channels pose significant challenges to fishery management in Sarawak. Our study documents the priority of fishery monitoring and conservation in Sarawak water bodies to ensure sustainable management of fisheries resources.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4651.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Preference of Broiler Chicken for Cassava-Moringa Based Diet

      Pages: 52 - 59
      Abstract: The poultry industry is under pressure from the rising cost of imported feed ingredients. In order for the industry to be profitable and sustainable, it has to reduce the cost of production by using locally available feedstuff. A study was carried out to evaluate feed preference of broiler chicken for cassava root chip, for three diets made by mixing different proportion in percentage of cassava root chip and ground Moringa leaf (90:10, 80:20, 70:30) and compare it to the preference for commercial starter diet. These diets were offered as free choice to five 20-days old chicken, one at a time over a period of five days. The three feed preference criteria assessed were (i) the visiting frequency to each diet station, (ii) time spent feed at each diet station, and (iii) amount of different treatment diet consumed. The hypothesis is that the preferred food will be visited more often; the chicken will spend longer time feeding on it and therefore consume it more. We found that broiler chicken consumed cassava root chip the least (2 g), visited it less often (9 visits) and spent less time (3.5 minutes) feeding on it. In contrast, feed consumption (6.12 g) and time spent (17 minutes) was highest for mixed diet containing 80% cassava and 20% Moringa leaf meal. Visiting frequency was highest for commercial starter diet (29 visits) and second highest (24 visits) for mixed diet of 80% cassava: 20% Moringa and 70% cassava: 30% Moringa. It is concluded that broiler chicken preferred the diet containing 80% cassava root chip and 20% Moringa leaf meal among all diets on offer.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.3819.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Characterisation of Trichoderma spp. and Assessment as Biocontrol Using
           Dual Culture Assay Against Fungi Associated with Black Pepper (Piper
           nigrum L.) Diseases in Sarawak

      Pages: 60 - 72
      Abstract: Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is one of the most widely used spices in food, beverage, cosmetics, and medicine. Black pepper production has suffered from various fungal diseases. Microbial biological control is an essential part of integrated disease management to reduce the heavy reliance on chemical fungicides. Trichoderma fungi comprise a large group of rhizocompetent filamentous fungi widely used in the biocontrol of plant pathogens. Three field surveys conducted on five black pepper farms in Belaga, Sarawak, identified three fungal diseases: yellowing, black berry, and foot rot. Based on the morphological and molecular characterisation, the identified fungal causal agents were Fusarium solani (yellowing disease), Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (black berry disease), and Phytophthora palmivora (foot rot disease). Twenty isolates of Trichoderma spp. were isolated from secondary forest and Biopark in Bintulu, Sarawak. Trichoderma isolates were characterised based on the morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic analysis using the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Trichoderma isolates were separated into five distinct species, namely T. harzianum, T. virens, T. brevicompactum, T. tawa, and telomorphic Hypocrea lixii. Among the Trichoderma fungi, T. harzianum was the most frequently (65%) isolated species. Trichoderma harzianum (Isolates of TJ9, 10, and 16) showed antagonistic and inhibitory effects by 61 to 70% on in vitro mycelial growth against three common fungal pathogens of black pepper, P. palmivora, C. gloeosporioides, and F. solani. This study highlights the potential of using native Trichoderma fungi as biocontrol agents in the black pepper integrated disease management program.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4358.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Potential of Trichoderma and AMF Mixture with Different Types of
           Fertiliser for Durio zibethinus Murray (Durian) and Artocarpus
           heterophyllus Lam. (Jackfruit) Growth

      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Over the years, the co-inoculation of Trichoderma and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) with different types of fertiliser in a field condition has been understudied. This study explores the potential of Trichoderma and AMF mixture (T-AMF) with different types of fertiliser for plant growth with the objectives to: (i) analyse the growth of Durio zibethinus and Artocarpus heterophyllus fertilised with different types of fertiliser and inoculated with T-AMF and (ii) determine the optimal combination of organic and chemical fertiliser with T-AMF. A randomized complete block design was applied using seven treatments namely, 50 g organic fertiliser (OF) + T-AMF, 100 g OF + T-AMF, 50 g chemical fertiliser (CF) + T-AMF, 100 g CF + T-AMF, 100 g OF,  100 g CF, and  control (without fertiliser and T-AMF). The growth analysis of D. zibethinus showed the highest mean height was at 100 g OF with T-AMF, stem diameter at 100 g CF with T-AMF, and the number of leaves at 50 g CF with T-AMF. For A. heterophyllus, the highest mean height and stem diameter was at 50 g OF with T-AMF and the number of leaves at 100 g OF with T-AMF. The optimal combination of fertiliser with T-AMF for D. zibethinus’ height was 100 g OF and number of leaves was 50 g CF.  The optimal combination of fertiliser with T-AMF for A. heterophyllus’ height and stem diameter was 50 g OF. The optimal combination for its number of leaves was 100 g OF with T-AMF. This concludes that the application of fertiliser with T-AMF reacted differently to plant species and their growth parameters. The co-inoculation of Trichoderma and AMF may present a cheaper and sustainable alternative, especially when the planting scale is huge.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4495.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Banana (Musa acuminata), Orange (Citrus reticulata), and Watermelon
           (Citrullus lanatus) Peels as Prebiotic

      Pages: 81 - 94
      Abstract: Fruit waste is being studied as a non-conventional alternative source of nutritional and mineral content that might be employed as functional food ingredients. This study aims to identify the 1) proximate and mineral composition of banana, orange and watermelon waste powder subjected to different drying methods; 2) prebiotic potential of the fruit waste powder (FWP) in growth enhancement of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei. The fruit peels were processed by two methods: freeze-dried and oven-dried. All FWP was sterilised and milled into particle size <180μm. The proximate (total ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre), mineral (Ca, Zn, Na, K, Mg, Cu) profiling was analysed in triplicate according to standard. Prebiotic activities of FWP were determined through the growth of L. casei analysed. Significant differences (p<0.05) result was observed between the proximate and mineral parameters in all FWP. Watermelon FWP had the highest moisture, ash, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and zinc content, while banana FWP contained the highest crude protein, crude fat, and magnesium content. Both banana and watermelon FWP were found to exhibit high crude fibre content. The orange WP was reported with the highest carbohydrate, calcium, and copper content. Although significant differences (p<0.05) in composition were noted, the oven and freeze-drying methods employed showed no pronounced effect. Calcium, copper content (all FWP), sodium and phosphorus (watermelon FWP), phosphorus (banana FWP) examined highly exceeded the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) limit. Banana FWP showed the highest L. casei net growth of log10 8.28±0.02– 8.36±0.01 CFU/mL and 91.61–98.66% of survival rate, thus showing its potential as prebiotic agents among other FWP. All types of FWP showed significant difference (p<0.05) in bacterial growth except for oven-dried orange FWP. Overall, the results revealed that all these fruit wastes could be exploited for the nutrient and value-added potential in food formulations due to their inexpensiveness, natural, safe, and environmental friendliness.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4528.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Development of a Pectin-Based Food Ink from Locally Sourced Durian
           Rind Waste for Possible Use as a 3D Printable Food Material

      Pages: 95 - 105
      Abstract: Durian (Durio zibethinus) is a popular seasonal fruit in Southeast Asia. Pectin can be extracted from the rind. Pectin is an excellent source of fibre and is available in two forms: high and low methoxyl pectin. Both of these types of substances can be employed as gelling agents. As such, the purpose of this research is to partially characterise durian pectin in order to facilitate the development of a pectin-based edible ink formulation. Four formulations of pectin-based food ink were developed and evaluated using a rheometer to determine the viscoelastic properties, a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) to determine the chemical functional groups available, and thermogravimetric analysis to determine the thermal stability using durian rind waste pectin and commercial pectin. The results indicated that durian pectin contains a low amount of methoxyl (LM) at 2.48 ± 0.31%, which is appropriate for the development of food ink, whereas commercial pectin has a high methoxyl (HM) content of 28.72 ± 0.47%. With viscosities of 31759.20 Pa/s and 7482.62 Pa/s, formulations 3 and 4 of LM pectin exhibited the highest viscoelastic properties. The third and fourth formulations of HM pectin, as well as the third and fourth formulations of LM pectin, contain components that include the alcohol, carbonyl compound, and carbonyl group are found in both pectin granules. The LM pectin formulation 2 offers the highest thermal stability (32.00% residual weight) and the lowest weight loss percentage (57.15%). Due to its capacity to form gel, the LM result demonstrated potential for use in the formulation of edible ink. Additionally, it can be used as a polymeric crosslinker in conjunction with other materials.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4529.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Multi-Stimuli-Responsive Organogel Based on Bisthiourea Compounds for The
           Removal of Selected Organic Dyes

      Pages: 106 - 124
      Abstract: The self-assembly of a series of bisthiourea containing amino acid side chains has been studied in a large range of organic solvents. Self-assembly is driven mainly by hydrogen bonding groups of thiourea and amino acids moieties. Of all the synthesized compounds, only bisthiourea with alanine side chains, 3.5 formed thermoreversible gel in 50:3 dichloromethane:water mixture at minimum gel concentration of 0.5%. SEM micrographs of the gel showed the formation of entangled cross-linked fibres. The addition of anions such as Cl¯, F¯ and AcO¯ disrupted the gel network of 3.5 thus inducing the gel-sol transition. To investigate the ability of the bisthiourea to form metallogel, metal ions such as Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ were introduced, however, none of them induce the formation of metallogel. In particular, the gels show good performance in the absorption of bromocresol green and Eriochrome black-T at 75% and 61% efficiency, respectively within 24 hours. The good dye absorption properties of gel 3.5 render the potential of bisthiourea gels as new dye absorption materials, which show significant benefit for water pollution treatment.    
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4261.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Identification of Corn Leaf Diseases Comprising of Blight, Grey Spot and
           Rust Using DenseNet-201

      Pages: 125 - 134
      Abstract: Corn is a vital commodity in Malaysia because it is a key component of animal feed. The retention of the wholesome corn yield is essential to satisfy the rising demand. Like other plants, corn is susceptible to pathogens infection during the growing period. Manual observation of the diseases nevertheless takes time and requires a lot of work. The aim of this study was to propose an automatic approach to identify corn leaf diseases. The dataset used comprises of the images of diseased corn leaf comprising of blight, grey spot and rust as well as healthy corn leaf in YCbCr colour space representation. The DenseNet-201 algorithm was utilised in the proposed method of identifying corn leaf diseases. The training and validation analysis of distinctive epoch values of DenseNet-201 were also used to validate the proposed method, which resulted in significantly higher identification accuracy. DenseNet-201 succeeded 95.11% identification accuracy and it outperformed the prior identification methods such as ResNet-50, ResNet-101 and Bag of Features. The DenseNet-201 also has been validated to function as anticipated in identifying corn leaf diseases based on the algorithm validation assessment.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4224.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Variation of the Pronotal Markings in Rhynchophorus (Coleoptera:
           Curculionidae) Species from Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu

      Pages: 135 - 140
      Abstract: The notorious palm weevils from the genus Rhynchophorus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are known to be polymorphic and show high phenotypic plasticity. Due to these characteristics, this study attempts to document the typologies based on the pronotal markings observed from Kuala Terengganu population. Samples were collected using baited traps with pheromones and fruits as well as through handpicking method, where the sampling sites were located at two villages, namely, Kampung Tanjung Paya and Kampung Pulau Sekati. A total of 100 individuals were collected of which 19 typologies were successfully identified. Of all, the most prominent pattern observed was typology A, represented by 37 individuals. Findings from this study suggested that the variation was driven by various factors including resource limitation, habitat preference, diet preference and competition. However, a comprehensive study should be initiated to measure possible factor(s) which possibly induce the pronotal variation within Rhynchophorus at a local scale.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4176.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Bats of Mount Silabur, Sarawak, and Its Potential for Conservation

      Pages: 141 - 156
      Abstract: Karst landscape is recognised as one of the biologically important areas especially for bats. The limestone caves and forest within the landscape provide essential resources for the local bat fauna, albeit bat populations are severely threatened by anthropogenic disturbances occurring within and surrounding the ecosystem. In Sarawak, studies on bat diversity are biased towards protected areas, leaving aside non-protected areas including private lands such as Mount Silabur. Surveys on bat diversity were conducted at the limestone outcrop and the surrounding matrix of Mount Silabur with the primary aim of developing the first checklist of bats at Mount Silabur. A total of 27 species were recorded from 12 sampling nights representing approximately 34% of the total bat species recorded in Sarawak. The Cox’s Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros coxi), a rare Bornean endemic species, was recorded from the cave system, signifying an important record for the area and also Sarawak. Furthermore, this is the sixth locality record for the species in Sarawak, Borneo. Interestingly, the total number of bat species recorded from Mount Silabur represented about 72% of the total bat species recorded (27 out of 38 species) from other major touristic caves in western Sarawak; Fairy Cave Nature Reserve and Wind Cave Nature Reserve. This warrants a need to develop an action plan to protect and conserve Mount Silabur cave system and the surrounding forest for its potential to serve as a shelter for bats and other cave and forest dependent taxa. The local community should implement and adhere to guidelines for cave related activities to minimise human driven disturbances on the ecosystem and its inhabitants.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4235.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Diet Analysis of Sympatric Colobine Monkeys from Bako National Park,
           Sarawak, Borneo

      Pages: 157 - 165
      Abstract: Habitat quality and abundant of food resources are among the key factors influencing the continued existence of primates in the wild. Although much has been studied on primate habitats and their diets, little is known about the nutritional value of the colobines’ foods. This study aimed to assess the dietary nutrient compositions of two sympatric colobine monkeys, Trachypithecus cristatus and Nasalis larvatus, in Bako National Park using proximate analysis of faecal, leaf and fruit samples of eight dominant tree species in Bako NP. Five nutrient parameters, namely crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash, phosphorus, and energy content, were choosen to assess the nutritional demands of the monkeys in the wild.  The faecal samples showed significantly higher percentage of crude fibre (27.58%) in N. larvatus compared to T. cristatus. In contrast, crude fat (8.52%), ash content  (1.79%) and phosphorus (5.76 mg/g) were found to be significantly higher in the faecal samples of T. cristatus than in N. larvatus. The nutrient composition of leaves samples from the tree species consumed by N. larvatus and T. cristatus showed a significantly higher percentage of crude protein (14.56%) in Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree) and higher ash (13.70%) in Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry). Meanwhile, nutrient composition in fruit samples showed highest percentage of crude fibre (32.58%) and crude fat (12.35%) in Calophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian laurel), whereas higher phosphorus (5.76%) and energy (24.26 KJ) were recorded in Ceriops tagal (Yellow mangrove). The higher crude fiber detected in N. larvatus’ faecal samples compared to T. cristatus  may indicates that N. larvatus experiences lower digestibility as they are incapable of completely digesting the tough leaves or fruits. This study provides useful information for the conservation and management of these primate species especially on their dietary requirements in captivity or in  a new habitat.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4418.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Geospatial Analysis of Habitat Suitability for Greater One-horned Rhino
           Rhinoceros unicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) in Central lowlands of Nepal using
           MaxEnt Model

      Pages: 166 - 176
      Abstract: The prime Greater One-horned Rhino’s (Rhinoceros unicornis) habitats include a mosaic of grasses, oxbow lakes, Shorea robusta forests, and alluvial floodplains and the major habitat of this species is riverine grasslands dominated by Imperata cylindrical and riverine forests dominated by Trewia nudiflora. This study was mainly focused on the analysis of habitat suitability of Rhinoceros unicornis in Nawalparasi, Chitwan, and Parsa districts of Nepal. The secondary data such as bioclimatic and topographical variables were collected from relevant sources. Spatial data were processed using various tools of ArcGIS while the presence data were converted using Excel, and analysis was done with Maxent. The results showed that approximately 75.17% (53.32 sq. km) of suitable area is occupied by Chitwan National Park. Similarly, Barandabhar Corridor Forest occupies 7.38% (18.89 sq. km) of the suitable area of the landscape. While, there is no area suitable for Greater One-horned Rhinoceros in Parsa National Park. Among Land Use Land Cover (LULC), the riverbed was found to be the most important variable. Invasion of invasive plants was found to be the most frequent disturbance factor followed by human disturbances and forest fires. Though grassland management is an important part of habitat management, it is highly recommended that the management of waterholes should be done. Protected Area manager should conduct localised habitat suitability assessment once the area is found suitable at the landscape level and further field verification should be done. Invasive plant control measures and alternatives to meet the forest product demand should be promoted.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4422.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
  • Arthropod Communities on Sonneratia caseolaris along Selangor River,
           Kampung Kuantan, Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

      Pages: 177 - 187
      Abstract: Sonneratia caseolaris commonly known as mangrove apple or Berembang in the Malay language, is a species of plant in the family Lythraceae. Area of S. caseolaris along Selangor River in Kampung Kuantan has become a natural habitat for a variety of arthropods. This study aimed to identify the species variations in arthropod communities at different selected stations along Selangor River at two different sampling times. Present study was conducted for six consecutive months (August 2010 until January 2011) at 19 selected stations along the Selangor River. Sampling was conducted once per day and night. Sweeping method by using sweep nets were used as the arthropod sampling method. Data analysis was done quantitatively to determine the composition of arthropod community. A total of 7,707 individual arthropods collected belonging to 10 different orders consisting of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Odonata, Lepidoptera, Blattodea, Mantodea and Araneae. A total of 4,563 arthropod individuals were sampled at night, which was more than the daytime (3,144 individuals), with Station 17 recorded the highest arthropod individual out of the 19 sampling sites. During the night, the firefly, that belongs to the Lampyridae family showed the highest arthropod composition. The presence of arthropod biodiversity along the Selangor River reveals that the S. caseolaris area is important in maintaining a diverse community of fireflies and other arthropods for conservation purposes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4463.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
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