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Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2229-9769 - ISSN (Online) 0128-2972
Published by UNIMAS Publisher Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Spatial and Temporal Disparities of Leptospirosis Transmission in Sarawak
           (Malaysia), 2011-2018

    • Authors: ROSDI KIRA, LESLEY MAURICE BILUNG, ROMANO NGUI, KASING APUN, LELA SU’UT
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: This study is to analyse the spatial distribution of leptospirosis and identify its high and low incidence clusters in Sarawak. The annual incidence rate at the district level was calculated using confirmed report of leptospirosis cases from year 2011 to 2018. Empirical Bayes estimation smoothing of relative risks was used to display the spatial distribution of leptospirosis across the study region. Moran's Global Index and Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) were used to analyse the existence of global and local spatial autocorrelation. Data were analysed using ArcGIS and Geoda software at the district level. The annualised average incidence reported during the study period was 20.83 per 100,000 population, with the highest cases reported in year 2018 (n = 870). The Global Moran's Index revealed spatial clustering of leptospirosis incidence in 2012 (Moran's I: 0.23), 2013 (Moran's I: 0.33), and 2014 (Moran's I: 0.45), while 2011 (Moran's I: -0.01), 2015 and 2016 (Moran's I: 0.09), 2017 (Moran's I: 0.13), and 2018 (Moran's I: 0.04) showed random patterns. High incidence clusters of leptospirosis were primarily congested in the Southeast of Sarawak, involving districts such as Kapit, Belaga, Song, Tatau and Lubok Antu. Spatial and temporal patterns of leptospirosis incidence were heterogeneous across Sarawak. This study facilitates the implementation of targeted interventions and control measures for leptospirosis in Sarawak by identifying spatial cluster and outliers.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4456.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Community Study of Brachyuran Crab at Setiu Lagoon, Terengganu, Malaysia

    • Authors: MOHAMAD TAUFEK ZAKIRAH, ZAKARIA NURUL- ZALIZAHANA, NURULAFIFAH YAHYA, AHMAD SYAFIQ AHMAD NASIR, ZAINUDIN BACHOK
      Pages: 11 - 23
      Abstract: Brachyuran crab of Setiu Lagoon was systematically sampled between July 2011 and May 2012 to determine the community structure of animals and their relationship with environmental parameters. The semiterrestrial crabs were collected from a 100 m2 quadrat at eight stations. In addition, fishing devices were used to collect true aquatic crabs employed at the subtidal habitat. Forty-four species and 13 families were identified representing semiterrestrial and true aquatic crabs (i.e., Sesarmidae, Varunidae, Grapsidae, Ocypodidae, Macropthalmidae, Dotillidae, Camptandriidae, Pilumnidae, Portunidae, Eriphiidae, Oziidae, Dorippidae and Leucosiidae). Parasesarma plicatum, Perisesarma eumolpe, Clistocoeloma merguiense, Haberma sp., Uca (Austruca) annulipes, Uca (Gelasimus) vocans, and Moguai aloutos) were widely distributed in this lagoon. ST5 (at mix mangrove forest) recorded the highest number of species with density (12 ind.m-2), species richness (D = 2.68 ± 0.72), species evenness; (J’ = 0.90 ± 0.06) and species diversity (H’ = 2.17 ± 0.32) as compared to other stations.  The results indicated that water salinity, pH and sediment grain size influence the community pattern of brachyuran in this lagoon.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4518.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Comparative Diversity of Bats in Two Contrasting Habitats in Terengganu

    • Authors: HASRULZAMAN HASSAN BASRI, NOR ZALIPAH MOHAMED, NUR JULIANI SHAFIE, MOHD. TAJUDDIN ABDULLAH
      Pages: 24 - 38
      Abstract: Differentiations in the habitat and resource utilisation lead to segregation and specialisation of niches for bats within the structurally complex tropical rainforest in Malaysia. This research aims to characterise chiropterans’ assemblages found in two different habitat types in Tasik Kenyir (dipterocarp forest) and Setiu (oil palm plantation). A total of 48 sampling nights were conducted within two years period from March 2017 to March 2019 which covered four sampling sites in Tasik Kenyir and four sites at Setiu. Two standard four-bank harp traps and 10 mist nets were deployed throughout the study at every site to capture bats at understory levels. This makes a total of 576 sampling efforts for both areas. Song Meter SM2bats and Echo Meter Touch from Wildlife Acoustic were used to record the echolocation of insectivorous bats. The total number of individuals and species observed were used to determine species diversity, richness, and evenness. Paleontological statistic software was used to generate the rank abundance and species accumulation curves. Bray-Curtis similarity index was used to generalise the index that represents the relative abundance of the sampling sites. A total of 835 individuals comprising 31 species from six families were captured at both study areas. Out of 835 individuals, 695 were captured within Tasik Kenyir comprising 27 species from six families (H = 2.381) while 140 individuals were captured in Setiu comprising 20 species from five families (H = 2.40). The diversity of bats in Tasik Kenyir was hypothesised to be higher than in Setiu as the habitat possess a larger undisturbed forest. However, the result showed the opposite in which no significant difference was detected from the diversity index calculated between these two areas. Detailed studies need to be conducted to determine if some areas are used as transient habitats for bats.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4559.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Thermal Treatment on Kelulut Honey Towards the Physicochemical,
           Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    • Authors: MARDHIAH MOHD SHAHABUDDIN, MOHD ALHAFIIZH ZAILANI, WAN ROSLINA WAN YUSOF, NOORASMIN MOKHTAR AHMAD
      Pages: 39 - 47
      Abstract: Heat treatment on commercial honey could deteriorate its quality associated with physicochemical and bioactive capacities. In this study, the effects of thermal treatment (50 °C, 75 °C and 90 °C) on the physicochemical properties (i.e., pH, colour intensity), total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were investigated on the Kelulut honey. The results revealed a significant increase in TFC (0.154 mg QE/g honey) for the heat-treated Kelulut honey compared to the control (0.085 mg QE/g honey). The antioxidant activity of the heat-treated honey revealed an increase in 2, 2- Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl levels by 42%, while the ferric reducing antioxidant power levels were reduced significantly by 22.4% compared to the untreated honey. The antimicrobial activities of heat-treated honey declined against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi bacteria at 75 °C and 90 °C. Based on the effects observed in the bioactive capacities of the heat-treated honey, it is therefore recommended to minimize thermal treatment on the honey during the processing to maintain its natural nutritional quality and benefit consumers.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4645.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A Preliminary Study on the Beetle Fauna in Peat Swamp Forest of Kota
           Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia

    • Authors: ISAAC STIA MARCELLINUS, SITI NURLYDIA SAZALI, RATNAWATI HAZALI, FARAH NABILLAH ABU HASAN AIDIL FITRI , AHMAD IRFAN ABDUL RAZAK
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: The largest peatland in Malaysia is in Sarawak with approximately 1.66 million ha (13%) of total area, distributed widely in Sibu division followed by Sri Aman, Miri, Kota Samarahan, Sarikei and Bintulu. Despite being the most diverse animal species, the study of insects in peat swamp forest, particularly beetles, is still in the incipient stage. Therefore, this study aimed to provide recent information on the beetle species composition in a peat swamp forest of Real Living Lab, UNIMAS (RLL) located in Kota Samarahan. Beetles were sampled for five consecutive days and nights within a seven-day sampling trip in August 2020. Three sampling methods were employed in this study, namely handpicking method (HPM), modified Pennsylvanian light trap (MPLT) and pitfall trapping (PFT). A total of 15 families representing 37 species and morphospecies with 185 individuals were successfully collected. The most speciose family from the beetle assemblages in RLL is Scarabaeidae with eight species collected (21.62%), followed by Curculionidae with six species (16.22%) and Staphylinidae with five species (13.51%). The most abundant family was also represented by Scarabaeidae with 64 individuals (34.59%), followed by Scolytidae with 27 individuals (14.59%) and Carabidae with 23 individuals (12.43%), respectively. This suggests that these families are good candidates as biodiversity indicator of peat swamp forests. This study is still in its preliminary stage; hence it is important to conduct further beetle samplings in future to better understand the potential of beetle as a bioindicator in the peat swamp habitat as an effort to conserve and protect the habitat and the biodiversity that came along with it.  
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4655.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Diversity of Dragonflies (Odonata) at Pancur Resort Alas Purwo National
           Park, Indonesia

    • Authors: ABDU ROHMAN, DINDA PUTRI RAHMA DHARMAWAN, WACHJU SUBHAN, JEKTI PRIHATIN, VENDI EKO SUSILO, SELVI ARIYUNITA, BANDA NURHARA
      Pages: 57 - 62
      Abstract: Alas Purwo National Park is one of the conservation areas located in the east of the island of Java. Dragonflies are crucial to the ecosystem's equilibrium as predator, bioindicator, and vector for disease control. The sensitivity and presence of dragonflies affect the diversity of dragonflies in a habitat. This inventory can assist the Alas Purwo National Park with additional data and be a basis for making conservation policies. The study aimed to determine the type and diversity index of the dragonflies in this park. The sample location was determined using purposive sampling, and the sample conducted utilised road sampling. This research observed seven species: Orthetrum glaucum, Orthetrum chrysalis, Lathrecista asiatica, Potamarcha congener, Copera marginipes, Prodasineura autumnalis, and Nososticta insignis. The Libellulidae family had the most species; on the other hand, the Protoneuridae family had the fewest Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H' = 1.6). Based on the criteria, the diversity index demonstrated moderate results. Pancur Resort Alas Purwo National Park provided a good environment and supported the survival of dragonflies.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4668.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Utilisation of Fermented Wheat Bran Extract Medium as A Potential Low-cost
           Culture Medium for Chlorella ellipsoidea

    • Authors: TASLIMA AKTER, MD. MAHADI HASAN, MOUSUMI DAS, MD. NURUNNABI MONDAL, SAHADAT HOSSAIN, MOHAMMAD BODRUL MUNIR, MD. AMZAD HOSSAIN
      Pages: 63 - 73
      Abstract: Microalgae, Chlorella ellipsoidea is an excellent energy source for food and biofuel production. Nevertheless, the production cost of C. ellipsoidea using Bold's Basal Medium (BBM) is expensive, which led to the exploration of alternative low-cost medium for large-scale production. Low-cost fermented wheat bran extract medium (FWBEM), which has good nutritional properties, might be an alternative feedstock for mass production of C. ellipsoidea. The present study was conducted to evaluate the growth and production of C. ellipsoidea using different concentrations of FWBEM. Wheat bran was fermented at the concentration of 8.33, 6.66, and 5.00 g/L water labelled as T2, T3, and T4, respectively. The BBM was used as the control medium (T1). The growth and production of C. ellipsoidea were monitored for three days in terms of cell dry weight, specific growth rate, optical cell density, chlorophyll a content, and cell numbers. Those growth data revealed that C. ellipsoidea cultured at 6.66 g/L (T3) did not vary significantly with the standard inorganic BBM. However, T2 and T4 showed substantially lower cell growth and chlorophyll a content than control and T3. Compared to the BBM, a significant reduction in production cost was obtained in the FWBEM. Based on the cell biomass growth, pigmentation, and production cost,  FWBEM at a 6.66 g/L could be used as an alternative medium. Therefore, FWBEM has excellent potential to be used for the low-cost production of C. ellipsoidea.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4695.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Tajul Muluk: A Traditional Malay Text of Ethnobotany and Ethnomedicine

    • Authors: MOHD AFFENDI MOHD SHAFRI, AIN NAJIHAH NAZARUDIN
      Pages: 74 - 81
      Abstract: Ethnobotanical and ethnomedical knowledge of the Malays could be known either through oral sources or documented sources. The traditional sources of Malay medicine are useful for traditional and modern pharmaceuticals development in Malaysia and for conservation of biodiversity. This study aims to extract and categorise the ethnobotanical and ethnomedical contents documented in the medical chapter of Tajul Muluk, in the Malay ancient text. Transliteration and data extraction were carried out in order to identify and classify the information in the text. The manuscript has 292 medical interventions for 56 different diseases such as cough, fever, and mental health issues. There are descriptions available for different medical formulations using 209 plant-based materials, 12 animal-based materials and 40 other types. Many of the name and use of the materials are now rare or not well-known in modern today’s society. Medical descriptions listed in Tajul Muluk will be a documented proof of herbs used by local Malay population utilised as ethnobotanical and ethnomedical resources. Hence retrieving useful ancient documental knowledge should be explored in finding useful cures and alternatives therapeutics for various diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4721.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Diversity of Arthropods in an Oil Palm Plantation in Sabah

    • Authors: DZULHELMI MUHAMMAD NASIR, RADZMIN ISHAK, NURSYEREEN MOHD NASIR, ASSYIRA HASI, PHILIP YAP, NORKASPI KHASIM, CHRISTHARINA S. GINTORON, KAMIL AZMI TOHIRAN
      Pages: 82 - 87
      Abstract: Malaysia is one of the largest palm oil-producing countries in the world. Located in the Southeast Asia region, this country is also known as one of the mega biodiversity-rich countries which contains numerous species. In this study, arthropods were sampled using sticky traps at three sites within an oil palm dominated landscape. We examined how vegetation structure affects arthropod community distribution within an oil palm plantation. The number of arthropod species was significantly greater at higher vegetation complexity structures. The findings also showed that the number of arthropod species that had been recorded for the three sites had nearly reached asymptote. This study suggests that maintaining vegetation complexity through sustainable agriculture practice as recommended by the Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO) may be useful in supporting arthropod species within oil palm plantations.  
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4722.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Cow Urine on the Biochemical and Microbial Properties of Cow
           Dung Derived Biogas Slurry

    • Authors: MD. ASHRAFUL HOQUE, MST. SANJIDA NASRIN, MD. RAIHANUL FARDOUS, MD. NURUL ISLAM, MD. SHAHIDUL ISLAM
      Pages: 88 - 95
      Abstract: Biogas slurry (BGS) is an anaerobic digested organic material that can be used as an organic fertiliser. As cow urine (CU) is rich in plant nutrients, it may be used as diluting agent in biogas production to enhance the fertiliser quality of BGS. To explore the potency of CU on the fertiliser quality of BGS, four experimental trials were constructed by mixing cow dung (CD) and CU in varying proportion designated as T0 (50% CD + 50% Water) as control, T1 (50% CD + 50% CU), T2 (40% CD + 60% CU), T3 (30% CD + 70% CU) for biogas production. The quality of BGS was evaluated by studying its biochemical and microbial properties. The enzymatic activities revealed that all the CU amended samples showed better activities than control and were increased with the increase in CU. Compared to the control, the increase in urease, protease and phosphatase activities were 11.6% to 64.6%, 4.6% to 29.6% and 22.1% to 50.0%, respectively while cellulase activities were decreased from 25.9% to 3.1%. Most of the bacterial populations also increased in CU amended samples; total bacteria (TB) 20% to 60%, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) 33% to 67% and nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) 0% to 33%. Phytohormone, indole acetic acid (IAA) content and glycemic index (GI) were also increased with increase in CU (IAA- 23.5% to 59.5% and GI- 6.2% to 100.5%).  With respect to all parameters analysed, CU amended samples can be considered superior to the control one except for their cellulase activities. Thus, utilization of cow urine improves the quality of BGS as organic fertiliser. This finding will help in reducing environmental pollution by utilizing hazardous cow urine as well as improving fertiliser quality of biogas slurry for agronomic use.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4873.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Leaf Extract of Morinda
           elliptica

    • Authors: HENRY YUSUFU WAKAWA, FASIHUDDIN BADRUDDIN AHMAD, SALE MUSA PUKUMA, HENRY BULAMA, JAMIMAH MOHAMMED MALGWI
      Pages: 96 - 100
      Abstract: This work was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Morinda elliptica by determining the zone of growth inhibition of the leaf extract against selected bacterial and fungal strains. Antifungal and antibacterial properties of the extract at different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 μg/ml) were investigated after successive maceration in four solvents in order of increasing polarity [hexane (180 g), dichloromethane (342 g), ethyl acetate (471 g), and methanol (384)]. The agar disc diffusion method was used against selected human bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhii, Staphylococcus aureus, and the antifungal activity of the extract against Aspergillus brasiliences and A. flavus. Zones of growth inhibition of the extract were then compared with the standard antibiotic chloramphenicol (500 μg/ml) for the antibacterial activity, and against nystatin (500 μg/ml) for antifungal activity. The result of the study showed a remarkable bactericidal activity of the plant extract against the test organisms E. coli (14.667 + 0.577) and S. typhii (13.667 + 0.577) with a weak activity against the growth of S. aureus as compared to standard (21.667 + 0.577) at 500 μg/ml. The result of the antifungal activity showed considerable activity of the plant extract against the growth of A. brasiliences (11 + 0.1000) and weak activity against the growth A. flavus at 500 μg/ml. The findings of the study indicated that the leaf extract of M. elliptica is a reservoir of bioactive compounds. The compounds can be useful in the development of new pharmaceutical products that can be effective against human pathogenic strains E. coli and S. typhii. This could serve as a lead for understanding a novel mechanism of action in future research activities.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4875.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Synthesis of Conjugated bis-Schiff Base and Their Complexes as
           Dye-Sensitizer for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Application

    • Authors: NURSYAFIRA ADZIRA HALMI, MENG GUAN TAY
      Pages: 101 - 118
      Abstract: Schiff base and their metal complexes have been widely used as photovoltaic materials due to their excellent π-electron transfer properties along the molecule. A total of eleven conjugated symmetrical bis-Schiff base and their complexes with different π-spacers have been synthesized and spectroscopically characterized in order to investigate their conversion efficiency in dye-sensitizer solar cells (DSSC). All compounds were either substituted with hydroxy (-OH) or methoxy (-OMe) as the electron donor and difluoro boron (BF2) as the electron acceptor or without any substituent. All compounds were applied as dye-sensitizer in DSSC using titanium (IV) oxide (TiO2) coated on a fluoride doped tin oxide glass as the working electrode and electric paint containing carbon black, whereas graphene coated indium tin oxide glass as the counter electrode. The power conversion efficiencies of the eleven bis-Schiff bases were compared to N3 Dye as the benchmark standard. The results showed that the compound with aromatic ring bridge as the π-spacer and -OMe substituent gave the highest efficiency at 0.0691% whereas the compound with aromatic ring and BF2 gave the lowest efficiency at 0.0012%.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4820.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Histopathology of Pre-diabetic White Rat (Rattus norvegicus L.) Renal
           After Treatment with Turmeric Powder and Organic Quail Eggs

    • Authors: AZURA ZUHRI LAZUARDI, TEGUH SUPRIHATIN, SILVANA TANA
      Pages: 119 - 133
      Abstract: Pre-diabetic is a disease that is caused by insulin resistance, which is identified by higher blood glucose levels than normal. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) contains curcumin compounds that act as antioxidants to prevent damage from free radicals and to repair damaged kidney tissue from pre-diabetic condition. Organic quail eggs are supplements that can help to repair kidney tissue. This study investigated the effect of turmeric powder and organic quail eggs on pre-diabetic kidney tissue histopathology of male white rats. Twenty-five male white rats (Rattus norvegicus L.)  were used in this study and they were divided into 5 treatment groups, namely D0 (normal white rats were given standard diet), D1 (positive control, pre-diabetic white rats were given standard diet), D2 (pre-diabetic white rats were given turmeric powder 1.35 mg/head/day), D3 (pre-diabetic white rats were given 1 organic quail egg/head/day), and D4 (pre-diabetic white rats were given turmeric powder 1.35 mg/head/day and 1 organic quail egg/head/day). This research was done within 60 days. The results of the study were analysed using the ANOVA and Duncan tests. The analysis results showed that turmeric powder and organic quail eggs treatments had a significant effect on the observed parameters. The conclusion of this study is that the effect of turmeric powder and organic quail eggs has the potential to repair the kidney tissue of pre-diabetic white rats
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4920.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Tensiometric and Fluorescence Study of Cationic Gemini Surfactant with
           Some Special Alcohols

    • Authors: RIYAJ MOHAMMAD
      Pages: 134 - 141
      Abstract: Special alcohols have been used as additives to study interfacial properties of cationic Gemini surfactant pentanediyl- 1, 5-bis (dimethyldodecylammonium bromide) (12-5-12). As these branched chain alcohols (in comparison with linear chain alcohols) are playing a measure roll in creating a microemulsion with Gemini surfactants. The surface tension values were measured by using ring detachment method. During the experiments, the ring was cleaned well by heating it in alcohol flame. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) values were obtained from surface tension (γ) versus logCt plots. The γ values decreased continuously and then become constant along a wide concentration range. The point of break, when the constancy of surface tension begins, was taken as the cmc of the system. Calculated Parameters are cmc, Гmax (maximum surface excess concentration), Amin (minimum surface area per molecule), C20 (the concentration of surfactant where the surface tension of the solvent is being reduced by 20 mN.m-1),  (free energy of the given air/water interface), and the standard Gibbs energy of adsorption, ΔG­­0ads. An important property of micelle formation is the mean aggregation number which provides direct information about the general size and shape of the aggregates formed by amphiphiles in solution, and how these properties are related to the molecular structure of the amphiphiles. Mixed micellization behavior has been shown by these parameters. The mean aggregation number (Nagg­) of mixed micelles has been obtained by using the steady state fluorescence quenching method. Some other concerned parameters including dielectric constant (D), binding constant (KSV) were calculated in this study by using the ratio of intensity of peaks.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4985.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Terminalia catappa Leaves Effects on Aquatic Primary Productivities

    • Authors: SURIYANTI SU NYUN PAU, NUR KHAIYYIRAH ZAMRI, FATIN QURRATU’ AINI ZAINI, DZULHELMI NASIR, ZAIDI CHE COB, AHMAD AFANDI MURDI
      Pages: 142 - 146
      Abstract: Terminalia catappa leaf, also known as Ketapang leaf, is well known for its medicinal properties and long history of use in aquaculture. Studies on the effects of leaf extracts on fish productivity are scarce. This study performed a time-series observation of ground young and mature T. catapppa leaves on tropical phytoplankton productivity. The young and mature leaves were prepared as fine powder separately. For the time-series experiment, 10 grams of each ground leaf were added to 10 L of lake water containing phytoplankton and incubated at room temperature with ambient illumination. The chlorophyll a saturation optical density was quantified on alternate days using a spectrophotometer and the data were analysed using Origin 6.0 Software. On Day 11, the chlorophyll a percentage had decreased by 73% and 81% in the control and mature leave treatment carboys, respectively. Meanwhile, the sample treated with young leaves of T. catappa showed only a 29% decrease. The results have shown that phytoplankton treated with young T. catappa powder demonstrated a positive but weak correlation (R² = 0.123), represented by the chlorophyll saturations. This study supported the hypothesis that young T. catappa leaves sustained phytoplankton growth.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4642.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A Note on New Records of Ferns at Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve, Johor,
           Malaysia

    • Authors: GBENGA FESTUS AKOMOLAFE, ZAKARIA RAHMAD, FARAH ALIA NORDIN, RUSLY ROSAZLINA
      Pages: 147 - 152
      Abstract: On a scientific expedition to Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve at Muar, Johor, Malaysia, 71 fern species belonging to 16 families and 25 genera were collected and identified. Fifty-one of the ferns are native to Peninsular Malaysia while the remaining 20 are non-native. Five newly recorded fern species in Johor, Southern Peninsular Malaysia, namely Angiopteris helferiana, Lindsaea trichomanoides, Lomariopsis brackenridgei, Pteris umbrosa and Pteris cretica were briefly described.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.33736/bjrst.4656.2022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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