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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
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Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology
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ISSN (Online) 2539-6293
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  • Developing a web application to provide information on common work-related
           asthma causative agents

    • Authors: Nut Sangjumrus, Naesinee Chaiear, Kanda Saikaew, Apichart So-ngern, Peter S. Burge
      Pages: 26-04-13 (
      Abstract: Occupational asthma (OA) is one of the most common occupational lung diseases. There are currently about 300 documented asthmagens. Patients have a chance to be cured if the OA is handled correctly. Diagnostic delay is often due to the attending not taking the occupational history. The aim of our study was to develop a web application that would deliver fast and accurate information. Methodology: The three phases of web application development were included. Sourcing input data from a systematic review of 1,403 studies found when searching for review and systematic review and full text and inclusion criteria. A total of 276 eligible studies were selected, and after reviewing abstract, 25 were fully reviewed and summarized into 2 groups-14 high molecular weight agents and 14 low molecular weight agents. The industrial code was then reviewed, and prototypes developed. Evaluation of prototypes for System Usability Scale (SUS) by experts was performed. The expert suggestions were reviewed and revised to create a second prototype. Trialing web application for use by primary care physicians. The final web application was evaluated by primary care physicians was implemented. The median of SUS was 75, which is greater than the average. In future, we seek to develop tools for analyzing the probability of diagnosing OA, which would help making diagnosis more convenient. The earlier diagnosis can be achieved, the better the prognosis.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
  • Volatility linkages among the returns of oil, gold, and stock market:
           Evidence from Thailand

    • Authors: Parichat Sinlapates, Nattawadee Romklang, Surachai Chancharat
      Pages: 26-04-11 (
      Abstract: This paper examines the return and volatility linkages between oil, gold, and Thai stock markets by applying the multivariate Baba-Engle-Kraft-Kroner (BEKK)-GARCH model to daily data from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2020. To better understand the impact of the global financial crisis, we divide the data into three sub-periods: the pre-crisis period (January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2006), the crisis period (January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009), and the post-crisis period (January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2020). We find that the return spillovers vary across the whole and three sub-periods for oil, gold, and stock. Moreover, the volatility transmissions are found to be different during the whole and three sub-periods for oil, gold, and stock in Thailand. These findings provide useful information to investors, portfolio managers, and policymakers regarding portfolio diversification and risk management.
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
  • Updates on core stabilization exercise and strengthening exercise: A
           review article

    • Authors: Su Su Hlaing, Rungthip Puntumetakul, Sawitri Wanpen, Pongsatorn Saiklang
      Pages: 26-04-12 (
      Abstract: Nowadays, core stabilization exercise (CSE) and strengthening exercise (STE) are widely used in clinical practice to treat lower back pain. CSE focuses on the transversus abdominis (TrA) and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles, is based on a motor relearning approach, and retrains the function of the local trunk muscles, whereas STE emphasizes the global muscles. Both exercises reduce pain and functional disability, provide neuromuscular control, and enhance the stability of the spine. Although a variety of previous studies have compared the effectiveness of these two forms of exercise, the heterogeneity of treatment procedures and participants produced conflicting results. The aim of this article is to compare and contrast CSE and STE in four different categories: exercise performance, neuromuscular activation and muscle involvement, intensity and duration, and exercise adherence. Most previous research has concluded that there is no significant difference in effectiveness between the two forms of exercise because both utilize a similar approach. Therefore, both exercises can help to reduce lower back pain problems, and we suggest that therapies should be chosen according to which exercise is the most appropriate for the problems presented by each individual patient in terms of the severity and pathology of the lower back pain. Further studies need to explore the effects of CSE and STE in terms of motor control-proprioceptive sense, balance, and muscle thickness-in the early stages of lower back pain.
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
  • Ethanol and beta-glucan production from an economically feasible medium
           prepared from paper napkin hydrolysate

    • Authors: Raksmey Thin, Atiya Techaparin, Preekamol Klanrit, Poramaporn Klanrit, Jirawan Apiraksakorn
      Pages: 26-04-10 (
      Abstract: At present, the zero-waste concept is a major concern and a challenging topic. Among several renewable materials that contain high cellulose content, napkin papers are potential sources of ethanol production and other value-added products. This work aimed to study the feasibility of an economic medium formulation from napkin hydrolysate for ethanol production and subsequent beta-glucan extraction from the spent yeasts. The medium costs per gram of ethanol produced from napkins and 3 different nitrogen sources, i.e., yeast malt extract (YM), urea, and ammonium sulfate, were compared. The results revealed that the new medium formulation from napkin-ammonium sulfate is economical at 18% ethanol production over commercial YM medium. Furthermore, the remaining yeast cells from the fermentation process were autolyzed, and beta-glucan was extracted prior to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for compositional and structural analyses. The FTIR integration peaks indicated that the S. cerevisiae TISTR 5339 cell wall contained beta-1,3-glucan as the main polysaccharide component. Overall, this study was successful in developing a practical, economical medium for the biotransformation of napkins to ethanol and producing value-added beta-glucan from the spent yeast from the ethanol production process; these products can potentially be used in the pharmaceutical or food industries in the future.
      PubDate: 2021-08-26
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
  • Assessment of machine learning on sugarcane classification using Landsat-8
           and Sentinel-2 satellite imagery

    • Authors: Teerapat Butkhot, Pipat Reungsang
      Pages: 26-04-08 (
      Abstract: Agriculture and agricultural product development are important aspects of a country's economic development. Sugarcane is one of the key industrial crops in Thailand, Brazil, China, and India. Therefore, monitoring sugarcane growth and harvest is important for evaluating yield, optimizing logistic operations, and forecasting crop productivity. To monitor sugarcane growth more effectively and efficiently, this study aimed to classify the sugarcane cultivation regions in Chuenchom District, Maha Sarakham Province, Thailand, using Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellite images. To this end, three algorithms were used for classification: support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and maximum likelihood (ML). A combination of parameter sets using four bands (red, green, blue, and NIR) and two vegetation indices: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was set up for the classification. The overall accuracy and kappa coefficient values were computed to validate the classification results with visual interpretation of high-resolution images. Results from the study showed that RF outperformed the SVM and ML classification techniques with overall accuracy and kappa coefficient values of 75.93 and 0.616, respectively, for Landsat-8 images and 78.60 and 0.656, respectively, for Sentinel-2 images. Specifically, RF classification with red, green, blue, and NIR provided the highest accuracy for the Landsat-8 images, while RF classification with red, green, blue, and NDVI proved to be the most accurate for the Sentinel-2 images. In summary, both Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellite images have great potential for sugarcane mapping using remote sensing.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
  • Synchrotron fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and scanning
           electron microscopy assessment of key physical meat properties of Thai
           native chickens for selection in breeding programs

    • Authors: Sukanya Charoensin, Wuttigrai Boonkum, Kanjana Thumanu, Banyat Laopaiboon, Monchai Duangjinda
      Pages: 26-04-09 (
      Abstract: In this study, synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to examine the key physical meat properties of the muscle texture and secondary structure of protein from the chicken breast meat in Thai native chickens (TNCs), Thai synthetic chickens (TSCs), and Thai native crossbred chickens (TNC crossbreds) compared to commercial broilers (BRs). In total, 500 one-day-old chickens of all breeds were raised until the slaughter weight of each breed was reached. The experiment was a completely randomized design, and breast meat samples were collected from each breed at the market weight. SEM analysis was employed to identify the texture characteristics of chicken meat among different groups. Compared to BR birds, TNCs, TSCs, and TNC crossbreds exhibited higher numbers of muscle fibers and lower muscle fiber diameters. S-FTIR analysis revealed differences between the average original spectra and normalized spectra, reflective of the absorbance of the protein secondary structure and lipids among the groups. TNC meat contained protein with an increased content of α-helix and lower lipid content; therefore, TNC breeds can potentially provide chicken meat with a good texture and be suitable to be functional chicken meat; in addition, it can be beneficial for designing breeding programs for subsequent breed development.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
  • The synthesis of triamine-bearing porous silica for the effective
           adsorption of nitrate and phosphate ions

    • Authors: Phuoc T. Phan, Thai A. Nguyen, Nhat H. Nguyen, Long G. Bach, Phuoc S. Le, Trung T. Nguyen
      Pages: 26-04-05 (
      Abstract: This work focuses on determining the effect of material synthesis conditions and studying on kinetic, isothermal and thermodynamic parameters of nitrate and phosphate adsorption by triamine-bearing porous silica (TRI-P- ) material. The innovation of this study is to improve the surface of  through chemical corrosion reaction with hydrofluoric acid (HF) before grafting with triamine silane. In the suitable condition of synthesis including 5% of HF concentration, and a ratio of 3 mL/g between the volume of Triamine-Silane and the weight of P- , the uptake rates of nitrate and phosphate adsorption are 33.4 and 10.8 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the adsorption data of these ions are highly compatible with Pseudo-second-order kinetics in which values ​​of the correlation coefficients (r2) are greater than 0.99. Moreover, these adsorption processes have been well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models (r2>0.96). The nitrate and phosphate adsorption capacities are 125.0 and 112.4 mg/g, respectively. Along with the good resulting adsorption, the large number of adsorption cycles also highlight the usefulness of this material. In general, this material can be used to remove nitrate and phosphate ions in advanced feedwater and wastewater treatment processes.
      PubDate: 2021-08-06
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
  • Proportion of occupational progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease
           in the tertiary hospitals of Thailand

    • Authors: Chokan Rittidet, Naesinee Chaiear, Panaya Tumsatan, Pornanan Domthong, Warawut Sukkasem, Peter S. Burge
      Pages: 26-04-07 (
      Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)-the prototypical progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (PF-ILDs)-is associated with occupational exposure. Other unidentified PF-ILDs may also be work-related. This study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of occupational related causes in unknown aetiology PF-ILDs. We conducted a descriptive study with a sample of 112 patients in two tertiary hospitals in Khon Kaen, Thailand, between 2016 and 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the findings. The response rate was 26.8% (30/112). Demographic data and clinical information were reviewed from medical records. Telephone interviews were used to explore occupational histories. A multi-disciplinary team (MDT) was held to reach a consensus on the final diagnosis of 8 participants who had significant exposure per their respective interview. The result demonstrated that 16.7% (5/30) of respondents were possible occupational related PF-ILDs and the majority (3/5) were due to metal dust exposure. The result is inconsistent with the occupational burden related to the IPF but resembles the proportion of occupational ILDs in USA and Europe. Moreover, we found that only 23.7% (7/30) had occupational histories taken by their treating physician. Therefore, a multi-disciplinary approach with an occupational physician in the team was used to precisely diagnose occupational related unknown ILDs.
      PubDate: 2021-08-06
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
  • Current applications of porous polyethylene in tissue regeneration and
           future use in alveolar bone defect

    • Authors: Teerapan Sosakul, Jintamai Suwanprateeb, Bunyong Rungroungdouyboo
      Pages: 26-04-06(8
      Abstract: The success of dental implant depends on the quantity and quality of the alveolar bone support. Autogenous bone is still the gold standard for using as a bone graft to reconstruct or augment the alveolar ridge to properly support the dental implant placement.  However, it has been associated with the increase in operation time, cost and donor site morbidity. Various allografts, xenografts and synthetic materials have been used as substitutes for autogenous bone, but they have been reported to not heal as predictably as autogenous bone and new type of bone grafts are still needed to be sought. Porous polyethylene has been successfully used in several applications such as cranial reconstruction, nasal reconstruction, ear reconstruction, orbital reconstruction and correction of maxillofacial contour deformities due to its highly stable, adaptable and has been shown to stimulate tissue regeneration by acting as a scaffold for rapid hard and soft tissue ingrowth. In this paper, the properties and current applications of porous polyethylene in tissue regeneration are reviewed and the outlook for its use in alveolar bone defect is discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-08-06
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
  • Simulation and optimization model for a cross-docking distribution center:
           case study of a railway business

    • Authors: Matukorn Chaiyarot, Komkrit Pitiruek
      Pages: 26-04-04 (
      Abstract: One of the various issues experienced in execution of manufacturing systems in supply chain management is the bottleneck. Bottlenecks frequently occur during operation of real systems. Railway businesses encounter the same issue. In this research, simulation models were developed to explore and eliminate bottlenecks to improve the internal production zone of a rail freight cross-docking center (RFCDC) distributing goods to customers. This research developed the proposed model using ARENA software and performance criteria. Assessment considered data about the output of finished goods, the work-in-process holding inventory, the maximum net profit, and the average total time required. The proposed model demonstrated the best results considering all criteria and compared them to a real operation system, revealing 28.2%, 99.7%, 41.4% and 99.5% improvement in finished goods capacity, work‑in‑progress, profit and total process time, respectively. The proposed model is recommended for implementation in the RFCDC of this case study as a decision tool for resource allocation and planning.
      PubDate: 2021-08-05
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
  • Improving properties of modified silica by admicellar polymerization
           technique for inner rubber tube products

    • Authors: Thamchoto Prajaksood, Thirawudh Pongprayoon, Komkrit Pitiruek
      Pages: 26-04-03 (
      Abstract: Modified silica using admicellar polymerization technique (APT) has shown to effectively reinforce natural rubber products. The study has shown that reinforcing natural rubber with APT-modified silica at the 40 phr yields excellent mechanical and ozone aging resistant properties. For the 40 parts per hundred of rubber (phr) sample, the cure time was found to be 138.23 ± 1.06 s. The tensile strength, the 300% modulus and the tear strength were 21.55 ± 0.40 Megapascal (MPa), 4.62 ± 0.17 MPa and 73.67 ± 1.58 MPa, respectively. The elongation at break was measured to be 579.96 ± 6.70%. The hardness was 55.33 ± 1.15 shore A. These surpass the standard values for motorcycle and bicycle rubber inner tube products, according to the Thai Industrial Standard (TIS) 683-2530 and TIS 652-2529. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that their outstanding mechanical properties were related to the better adhesion between the silica particles and the rubber matrix, resulting from the thermal admicellar polymerization process. The minimal cracks observed after the ozone aging resistance test also suggest high durability.
      PubDate: 2021-07-03
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
  • Development of a geopolymer made from bagasse ash for use as a
           cementitious material

    • Authors: Songrit Puttala, Warit Hiranphattararoj, Sahalaph Homwuttiwong
      Pages: 26-04-01 (
      Abstract: This research aimed to improve the properties of geopolymer made from bagasse ash. Bagasse ash, directly collected from disposed landfills, was burnt and ground to a higher fineness. Both original and re-burned bagasse ash were used as source materials, which were mixed with an alkaline solution to influence the geopolymer properties. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was applied to replace the bagasse ash between 5-15% by weight of the binder, and two methods of curing were observed. It was found that the re-burned bagasse ash tended to exhibit better compressive strength compared to original ash, and was compatible with both curing methods. The geopolymer from original bagasse ash, only with heat curing at 75 °C, exhibited useable compressive strength. The strength of geopolymer increased with an escalating amount of the OPC, whilst the workability was reduced. Geopolymer, which was made with OPC cured under moist conditions at room temperature, had an initial compressive strength that was lower than that with heat curing. However, this compressive strength was developed and became higher at a later age. From this study, the highest compressive strength of geopolymer produced from re-burned bagasse ash and blended with 15% of OPC was 49.9 Megapascal (MPa)at 90 days. In addition, geopolymer concrete displayedbetter abrasion resistance compared to the OPC concrete.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
  • Prevalence and risk factors of proteinuria in patients with type 2
           diabetes mellitus

    • Authors: Boonyong Jeerasuwannakul, Bundit Sawunyavisuth, Sittichai Khamsai, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
      Pages: 26-04-02 (
      Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease in clinical practice. Proteinuria or urine protein-tocreatinine ratio (UPCR) is an indicator for tubular biomarker for diabetic kidney disease. There is limited data on risk factors of proteinuria in patients with DM particularly in Thai or Asian populations. This study aimed to evaluate prevalence and risk factors of proteinuria in patients with type 2 DM in Thai population. This was a retrospective study conducted at Roi Et Hospital, Roi Et, Thailand. The study criteria were adult patients diagnosed as diabetes mellitus type 2 and treated at Diabetes Mellitus clinic, Roi Et Hospital for at least three months. The primary outcome of the study was presence of proteinuria of over 150 mg/g by UPCR. Factors predictive of proteinuria were computed by logistic regression analysis. During the study period, there were 299 patients met the study criteria. Of those, 92 patients (30.77%) had proteinuria. There were eight factors eligible for multivariate logistic regression analysis for proteinuria. Of those, only fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was independently associated with proteinuria with adjusted odds ratio of 1.009 (95% CI 1.004, 1.0156). The FPG of 136 mg/dL or over had sensitivity of 80.43%. In conclusion, prevalence of proteinuria in patients with type 2 DM was 30.77% in provincial hospital setting. FPG may be associated with presence of proteinuria. A cut off point of FPG of 136 mg/dL had good sensitivity as a predictor of proteinuria in patients with type 2 DM.
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 04 (2021)
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