A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alfarama Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access  
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Avrasya Terim Dergisi     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
BJHS Themes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access  
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access  
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Technology and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access  
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access  
International Science and Technology Journal of Namibia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access  
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Scientometric Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science     Open Access  
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 160)
Journal of the Indian Institute of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Unsolved Questions     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Terapan Universitas Jambi : JIITUJ     Open Access  
Jurnal Matematika, Sains, Dan Teknologi     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of the Indian Institute of Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.212
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0970-4140 - ISSN (Online) 0019-4964
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Starter Article

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2023-09-11
       
  • Editor’s Desk

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2023-09-02
       
  • Planetary Protection Policy and Technology Needs to Enable Future Robotic
           and Crewed Missions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2023-09-02
       
  • Special Issue on Astrochemistry and Astrobiology

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2023-08-19
       
  • Extraterrestrial Impacts Creating Architectures for Life

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Prebiotic chemical evolution that led to the emergence of life on primitive Earth is interlinked with the delivery of organic material through the impact of comets, asteroids and meteorites. The catastrophic nature of impact leads to significant damage to planetary bodies. The high pressure and temperature can cause molecules to break apart and they may not survive in such extreme conditions. Also, impact-induced shock can cause impacted molecules to undergo vibration, dissociation, deformation, depending on their chemical properties and thus can offer enormous potential for the synthesis of building blocks of life. Novel experimental and theoretical approaches are required to simulate the phenomena that occur during impacts. In this brief review, we discuss impacts and related processes through laboratory experiments and simulations that study the impact-shock chemistry and its role in the Origins of Life.
      PubDate: 2023-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s41745-023-00397-2
       
  • Suzanne Wellington Tubby Batra: A Life Dedicated to Pollen Bees

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Insect sociobiology is the research field that focusses on how and why some lineages of insects abandoned their solitary life styles to live in social groups. The simplest insect social groups are herds, groups of individuals that live together for a portion of their lives, sometimes cooperating with each other, and even helping to rear each other’s offspring. Figuring out the advantages and disadvantages of cooperation and group living is one of the primary research foci in insect sociobiology. Almost any student of animal behaviour or entomology has heard about eusocial insects, especially the best known eusocial insects, namely honeybees, ants, and termites that live in large colonies composed of one or a few queens and hundreds, thousands or even millions of workers. In eusocial societies, most eggs are laid by queens but the work of raising the brood that develop from those eggs, is done by workers. What many scientists and other enthusiasts of social insects do not realize, is that the original meaning of the term eusocial was different and that it was coined by a pioneering entomologist, Dr. Suzanne Batra, almost 60 years ago. Batra’s contributions to sociobiology were often overlooked, as happened to many women scientists of the time, but in recent years, her contributions to sociobiology have achieved increased and long overdue recognition.
      PubDate: 2023-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s41745-023-00375-8
       
  • Challenges and Opportunities for Bioactive Compound and Antibiotic
           Discovery in Deep Space

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Long-term space habitation for exploratory missions or colonization will involve significant health risks to astronauts living in enclosed habitats in altered gravity, for years at a time with no resupply from Earth [Taylor and Sommer (Int J Antimicrob Agents 26:183–187, 2005)]. Permanent bases on Mars, in deep space, and on the moons of Jupiter and Saturn may one day be established, putting space colonists far out of the reach of terrestrial material or medical aid. Microgravity, low oxygen levels and radiation exposure greatly increase cellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, bone and muscle loss, cancer risk, central nervous system dysfunction, and a whole host of other issues for which our Earth-based evolutionary lineage has not prepared humanity [Afshinnekoo et al. (Cell 183:1162–1184, 2020); Patel et al. (NPJ Microgravity 6:33, 2020)]. All of these issues, along with potential malnutrition and the psychological stress of confinement with a limited number of individuals [Oluwafemi et al. (Life Sci Space Res 28:26–31, 2021)], and without access to the natural world, inevitably will lead to decreased immune function, making astronauts more vulnerable to infection by secondary pathogens which normally operate as human commensals (not to mention primary pathogens that can infect healthy individuals). Although on Earth the shelf life of many medications including antibiotics is much longer than previously thought, these medications degrade much more rapidly in the high-radiation environment of space [Du et al. (AAPS J 13:299–308, 2011); Blue et al. (NPJ Microgravity 5:14, 2019)]. Astronauts on long-term missions, or colonists on other planets, will likely need to be able to manufacture life-saving drugs in situ. In particular, if unforeseen antimicrobial-resistant pathogens emerge in space habitats which are not treatable with current antibiotics, new antibiotics will need to be developed. This is one problem that cannot be solved entirely remotely, as the antibiotics must be tested against the pathogen in question. Most antibiotics used on Earth are natural products derived from microbes, or synthetic variants thereof; future space colonists will need to make use of the biodiversity of their space habitats and mine the ecological relationships between whatever microbial species they bring with them. Tools for antibiotic discovery must also be created or adapted for use in the space environment. Examples are methods for studying minimum inhibitory concentrations for different microbial interactions in space, and producing databases of the whole genome sequences of common isolates from space stations such as the International Space Station (ISS) for genome mining of biosynthetic gene clusters and potential mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance. Other technology needs are building space-hardy liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC–MS) platforms to link to molecular networking tools, and designing provisions for fermentation, extraction and purification of antibiotic compounds, which must be developed long before a mission to Mars or beyond is planned in order to benchmark the processes. Whole genome sequencing and a full genetic inventory of microbes isolated from the ISS is already underway [Be et al. (Microbiome 5:81, 2017); Singh et al. (Microbiome 6:204, 2018); Checinska Sielaff et al. (Microbiome 7:50, 2019); Simpson et al. (Microbiol Resource Announc 10:e00751–e1721, 2021); Simpson et al. (Microbiol Resource Announc 10:e00751–e1721, 2021); Urbaniak et al. (Microbiome 10:1–19, 2022)], and soon isolated bacteria and fungi aboard the ISS may be sequenced in situ [Stahl-Rommel et al. (Genes 12:106, 2021)]. The process of novel bioactive compound prospecting in space will be difficult without the biodiversity of Earth, or all the many tools of a fully equipped lab in full gravity. However, there are many potential advantages as well, including the ease of purification and crystallization of protein compounds in microgravity [Borgstahl et al. (Perfect crystals: microgravity capillary counterdiffusion crystallization of human manganese superoxide dismutase for neutron crystallography, 2022); Martirosyan et al. (npj Microgravity 8:1–12, 2022)], the focus and attention of many scientific minds such an endeavor would bring in response to a space health problem, and the lack of a need to provide a business case which currently bottlenecks antibiotic discovery and production (Miethke et al. [Nat Rev Chem 5:726–749, 2021)]. A first step in this process is creating a framework for addressing the general ecology of a future space habitat microbiome—do unplanned consortia of microbes in microgravity form complex ecosystems capable of outcompeting pathogenic microbes' (Fig. 1) And further, can these microbial consortia be used for new drug discovery on space missions where resupply from Earth is not possible' Or will the biodiversity of such a habitat, mission or colony be low enough that a pre-planned selection of preserved microbes or extremely diverse environmental samples such as soils should be brought along' Figure 1: Strategies for future antibiotic discovery in space.
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s41745-023-00385-6
       
  • Comparative Genomics Using the Integrated Microbial Genomes and
           Microbiomes (IMG/M) System: A Deinococcus Use Case

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The Integrated Microbial Genomes and Microbiomes (IMG/M) system is a web-based platform that provides access to the wealth of public sequence data arising from diverse environments and enables the user to answer biological questions. In this review, we explore IMG’s tools and features using genome data for genus Deinococcus isolates as well as metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). We use various comparative genomic and visualization tools to investigate this genus and address specific research questions.
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s41745-023-00368-7
       
  • Interstellar Carbonaceous Dust and Its Formation Pathways: From an
           Experimental Astrochemistry Perspective

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Carbon because of its electronic structure can formulate several types of bonds and allotropes. In the ranking of elements in the Universe, carbon is the fourth most abundant after H, He and O. To date, carbon signatures have been detected in different parts of the interstellar medium (ISM), circumstellar medium (CSM) and in our solar system. It is now evident that in the ISM, carbon is present in the form of gas, ice and dust phases. Almost a decade ago, astronomers were able to trace the signature of the largest carbonaceous molecule, fullerene in different parts of the ISM, including planetary nebula (PNe), reflection nebula, and in ionised hydrogen (HII) regions. This has led the growing international astrochemistry community to revisit the formation pathways of different carbon nanostructures under simulated interstellar conditions. The aim of this article is to review and summarise all the experiments relevant to the formation of interstellar carbonaceous dust performed by various groups across the globe.
      PubDate: 2023-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s41745-023-00393-6
       
  • Beekeeping for Sustainable Economic Development of India: Challenges and
           Opportunities

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Apiculture, in conjunction with agriculture, offers great scope for income generation through beekeeping. Pollinators provide pollination services that are crucial for enhancing crop productivity and sustaining ecosystem services. Honeybees are the important pollinators of various fruits, vegetables, oilseeds, pulses and fibre crops. In order to achieve sufficient pollination to improve productivity of crops, beekeeping industry needs encouragement. In addition to providing valuable products like honey, beeswax, nectar, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and other products, beekeeping helps to provide additional source of income and employment generation to rural masses. As per estimates only 10% of the existing potential for beekeeping has been utilized in the country and there is much untapped potential. India has a potential of over 200 million bee colonies as against 3.4 million colonies at present which can provide employment to over 6 million rural families. Organised honey collection using modern techniques can provide additional 120,000 tons of honey and 10,000 tons of beeswax from the forests. This can provide employment to 5 million tribal families. Increasing honeybee colonies shall not only increase production of bee products but aso will ensure sustainability of food production through enhanced agricultural and horticultural crop production. Beekeeping industry and its expansion faces several challenges which need to be addressed to make this industry more profitable.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41745-023-00374-9
       
  • Bioinformatics Analysis Tools for Studying Microbiomes at the DOE Joint
           Genome Institute

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The DOE Joint Genome Institute has developed and maintains a number of computational resources and databases to help biologists perform -omics-based scientific research. In this review, we describe two of its widely used microbiome data management and analysis resources: the Genome OnLine Database (GOLD) and the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG). GOLD is a sequencing project and associated metadata management system. It provides a catalog of genome and metagenome projects with well-curated associated metadata which are critical for sequence data interpretation. IMG is an omics data management system enabling the comparative analysis of microbial genomes, metagenomes, and metatranscriptomics and their associated genes and functions. IMG contains close to 200,000 datasets and provides advanced search and comparative analysis tools. GOLD’s metadata are integrated into IMG to provide a better understanding of the environments and properties of each dataset. In addition to all the public data integrated, both systems support private user data submission and integration to support annotation and comparative analysis with all other data integrated into the systems. There are currently over 25,000 registered users from more than 110 countries, and the systems are also used for educational purposes across various universities around the world.
      PubDate: 2023-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s41745-023-00365-w
       
  • Exploring the Potential of Bacteriophages on Earth and Beyond

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Bacteriophages are ubiquitous, from natural environments to human-made shelters. Their prevalence is governed mainly by their host bacteria, leading to their coevolution with bacterial populations. Phages can contribute to the exchange of genetic information in various microbial communities and have a significant impact on how such communities might impact the humans around them. Phages are specific to their host and therefore have been chosen as the ideal candidates for the design of therapeutics to combat pathogenic bacteria as an alternative to antibiotics. Certain properties of phages have found tremendous applications in the biotechnology and healthcare sector. Although phage research is at a nascent stage, especially with regard to the phage diversity in microbiomes and their impact on humans. Microbiome research is progressing rapidly with the advent of multi-omics technologies and pipelines, but more phage-oriented studies are needed to better understand their role in microbiomes. This review compiles previous phage-associated studies in diverse environments, techniques used, knowledge gaps that need to be addressed, and how this information translates to help develop and maintain built environments like the International Space Station.
      PubDate: 2023-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s41745-023-00361-0
       
  • Life on the Edge: Bioprospecting Extremophiles for Astrobiology

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Discovering exoplanets and satellites in habitable zones within and beyond our solar system has sparked intrigue in planetary setting varieties that could support life. Based on our understanding of life on Earth, we can shed light on the origin, evolution, and future of Earth-like organisms in the galaxy and predict extinct or extant extraterrestrial life. Hence, extremophiles thriving in mimic outer space environments are particularly interesting as they exhibit traits that preponderate our comprehension regarding the possibility of life elsewhere and in situ life detection. Additionally, many extremophiles have been used for astrobiological research model organisms to unveil native alien life or possible life-produced metabolites outside Earth. Laboratory-based simulation chambers mimic this outer space condition, helping researchers study life beyond Earth in near identical conditions and understand molecular mechanisms for survival. This review summarizes relevant studies with isolated microorganisms from extreme analog Earth environments, harnessing them as promising astrobiological model candidates for pursuing life potentialities in other planetary bodies. We also highlight the necessity of environmental simulation chamber approaches for mimicking extraterrestrial habitats.
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
       
  • A Review of Off-World in Bioregenerative Food Systems

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The history of agriculture on Earth has spanned thousands of years marked by great innovations needed to meet the challenges of the day. The space environment presents new challenges for growing plants from partial gravity to recycling plant and human waste in a closed environment. Regolith plays an important role in research for developing agricultural systems on planetary surfaces such as the moon and Mars. This work reviews the history of growing plants in space and regolith-based agriculture including the challenges faced and the solutions attempted. Though many solutions have been developed, significant knowledge gaps remain which provide great opportunities for the future of off-world agricultural research and great returns for creating more sustainable practices for terrestrial agriculture.
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
       
  • Building Castles on the Ground: Conversations Between Ecologists and
           Engineers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The architectural feats of termites and their farming capabilities have been admired by biologists, engineers and architects and have inspired writers including early natural historians. South India is endowed with termite mud castles; their seeming impregnability threw up intellectual challenges, initiating conversations between biologists and engineers. The biologists were interested in how termites kept their farmed basidiomycete fungus free from parasites and discovered experimentally that termites can sniff out parasitic ascomycete fungi, proceed to anoint them with broad-spectrum fungicides and bury them resulting in mortality-yielding anoxia. High levels of humidity and carbon dioxide inside soil nests are conducive to the growth of parasitic fungi whose density is likely actively supressed by eradication of incipient foci of parasite growth by the termite farmers. The engineers were interested in how the mound acquired its strength, stability and longevity while allowing gas exchange. They discovered that the safety factor of termite mounds is very high, that termite-manipulated soil achieves great strength and weathering resistance, that termites manipulate the water content of soil between its plastic and liquid limits and that mounds have a more porous exterior shell and a less porous core. Dialogues between biologists and engineers have enabled insights into the bio-engineering aspects of animal-built architecture. The natural biological constraints of the termite builders (e.g. size, load-carrying ability in relation to particle grain size, caste) and available material (red soil containing organic matter) in the presence of water have been realistically incorporated into modelling the greenhouses that harbour termites and their crops.
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
       
  • Mars Simulation Facilities: A Review of Recent Developments, Capabilities
           and Applications

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Understanding the habitability of both past and present Mars continues to evoke scientific interest, particularly now that there is growing evidence of previous, vastly available liquid water and a warmer Martian climate. While today the surface of the Red Planet is barren and dry, the presence of hydrated minerals like phyllosilicates and sulphate minerals may indicate that the planet was once much more conducive to the emergence of life. These observations are the driving force behind investigations into possible biomarkers and signs of extinct life in the context of Mars. While Mars orbiters, landers and rovers have significantly improved our understanding of the planet’s past, Earth-based experiments are necessary to support those missions technically and scientifically. Simulation facilities replicating the Mars climate are used to test instruments before flight and investigate interactions of biomarkers with the Martian environment. Here, we review some exemplary, modern ground-based facilities with a focus on sample species relevant to astrochemistry and astrobiology. The presented Mars simulation facilities utilize a variety of technical implementations and thus are capable of simulating all of the major environmental parameters on the Martian surface: atmosphere, temperature and electromagnetic solar radiation. Depending on the subject-specific requirements of each investigation, these setups integrate various simulation features and different measurement techniques. A few examples of particularly remarkable simulation facilities include: the Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces Chamber and the MARTE Simulation Chamber at INTA's Centro de Astrobiologia, Spain, which are unique in terms of integrated measurement techniques and Martian dust simulation; the Mars Simulation Facility, one of several planetary simulation chambers based at the German aerospace center DLR, Germany, is specialized in humidity measurements and sample analysis using PAM fluorometry; the Mars Simulation Chamber/Planetary Atmosphere Chamber at the Kennedy Space Center, USA, integrates an optical filter system to simulate ultraviolet-light attenuation by Martian dust; the Mars Environmental Simulation Chamber at Aarhus University, Denmark, provides atmospheric cooling and the possibility to extract samples mid-experiment. Many state-of-the-art technologies used in Mars simulation chambers are also integral to space-based experimental platforms, such as the planned OREOcube/Exocube experiment on the International Space Station. In-situ space experiments are highly complementary to Martian simulations, particularly in providing supplementary knowledge about the influence of broad-range radiation exposure and the true solar spectrum.
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
       
  • Effects of Spaceflight on the Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Space travel has been shown to affect various physiological and psychological processes in humans including the composition and function of the gut microbiome. In addition to the unique conditions of space, space travel is associated with changes in diet, circadian and diurnal rhythms, and physical activity, all of which can impact the gut microbiome. Additionally, the microgravity and radiation exposure encountered during space travel may have direct effects on gut microbiome composition and function. In this short review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on the effect of space travel on the human gut microbiome, including research designs that include animals (rodents), humans, and novel simulations. Experiments were conducted under conditions of spaceflight, ground-based, and analogous flight simulation.
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
       
  • Microbial Technologies in Waste Management, Energy Generation and Climate
           Change: Implications on Earth and Space

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Microbes are important decomposers of organic waste. By decomposing organic waste and using it for their growth, microbes play an important role in maintaining ecosystem's carbon and nitrogen cycles. An ecosystem's microbial shift may disturb it's carbon/nitrogen cycle as a result of any climate change or humanitarian factors, but heat produced by various instruments and greenhouse gases contribute significantly to global warming which in turn may be related to microbial shift of ecosystems. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, innovative clean energy production methods must be employed to develop fuels with minimal greenhouse effect. Biofuels, such as bioethanol, provide clean energy with less carbon dioxide emissions. For the production of bioethanol, it is always recommended to use microbes that are capable of decomposing complex organic matter (cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose). Some microbes can efficiently decompose complex organic matter due to the presence of genetic machinery that produces cellulases and β-glucosidase. The membrane transporters are also important for microbes in uptake of simple sugars for metabolism and ethanol production. Microbial technologies are addressing the future needs for not only organic waste management but also clean energy/bioethanol production. However, the role of these technologies on space missions and extraterrestrial settings needs to be explored to improve long term space missions.
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s41745-023-00388-3
       
  • Microbial Endeavours Towards Extra-terrestrial Settlements

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The topic of extra-terrestrial habitats for humans is becoming more and more relevant with progress in space technology. For developing human colonies on moon or other planets, processes should be focussed around the utilisation of in situ resources so as to minimise the need of intra-terrestrial transportation of desired resources. Here we discuss how microbes can lend themselves to in situ resource utilisation on the moon and Mars.
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s41745-023-00383-8
       
  • Yeasts in the Era of Astrobiological Research

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Due to their extraordinary genetic and phenotypic plasticity, yeast and yeast-like fungi have been able to adapt and colonize a wide range of ecological niches. Pigmented and nonpigmented extremophilic yeasts have been discovered in areas on Earth characterized by physical and chemical conditions similar to those found in extraterrestrial environments. Thus, these "simple" eukaryotic life forms have evolved unique genetic, metabolic, and phenotypic characteristics for coping with extreme conditions, existing in both natural (polar continents, deep sea, stratosphere, etc.) and manmade environments such as the cleanrooms where spacecraft are built. This makes them ideal test organisms for astrobiology research. All of the results from the numerous experiments in which they have been tested are helping us to understand what to look for and where in space missions searching for signs of present and/or past life. Meanwhile, we must continue to explore the most inhospitable places on Earth to discover new promising extremophiles that could be used as model organisms for astrobiology research.
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 34.204.172.188
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-