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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Frontiers for Young Minds
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-6846
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • How Do Lumpfish Protect Themselves Against Viruses'

    • Authors: Shreesha S. Rao, Gyri T. Haugland
      Abstract: For many people, a delicious salmon dish satisfies their taste buds. Salmon farming is a big industry, providing food for millions of people every day. However, the journey of this delicious meal from the ocean to your plate depends on lumpfish, a cool-looking fish that protects farmed salmon by eating sea lice. Sea lice are small parasites known to attack salmon and can cause disease if not removed. Since lumpfish are vulnerable to diseases, it is crucial to understand more about this organism’s complex immune system, as this will help keep them healthy so they can then do their important “job” of eating sea lice. In this article, we will explain how we study the way the fascinating lumpfish defends itself against diseases.
      PubDate: 2024-03-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Forest Cows Secrets: Cracking the Code With Movement Sensors

    • Authors: Laura J. Niccolai, Saskia H. Wulff, Erik Versluijs, Mélanie Spedener, Barbara Zimmermann, Anna Hessle, Morten Tofastrud, Olivier Devineau, Alina L. Evans
      Abstract: Have you ever wondered how we can watch animals in the wild without actually being near them' In Norway, cows roam freely in the deep forest during summer. While the cows enjoy the freedom, it can be tricky to keep them safe from carnivores like wolves and bears, as no shepherds or dogs protect the herds. Keeping an eye on the cows is important! Farmers and researchers use GPS to track animals, just as we do for phones or cars. However, GPS does not tell us much about what the animals are doing. That is where movement sensors come in. These sensors store information about the tiniest body movements and reveal what the animal is doing at any time. Is the cow’s head up or down' Is it walking or running' Based on the data, we could distinguish 20 different behaviors! Now we can spy on cows, see what they are up to in the forest, and help farmers better care for them.
      PubDate: 2024-03-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Creating Tiny Human “Organs” to Test medicines… and
           More!

    • Authors: Lena Smirnova, Thomas Hartung
      Abstract: Scientists have developed tiny cell models called microphysiological systems (MPSs) that mimic human organs, allowing medicines to be tested without using animals. MPS contain human cells carefully arranged to simulate a real organ’s structure and function. One type of MPS, called an organ-on-chip, also pumps fluids containing nutrients and oxygen through the model, similar to the function of blood flow in our bodies. These MPSs can test how medicines affect human cells and help scientists develop safer, more effective treatments for diseases. MPSs can also be personalized using a patient’s own cells, to find the best treatment for each person. While challenges remain, like cost and reliability, MPSs are steadily improving. Beyond testing medicines, they can be used to study dangerous environmental chemicals and to model diseases. We can even connect multiple “organs” to simulate the whole body. As these revolutionary technologies improve and become widely accepted, they could speed up drug development and reduce animal testing.
      PubDate: 2024-03-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • How Can Helicopters Help Us Determine the Health of Antarctica’s
           Oceans'

    • Authors: Yoshihiro Nakayama, Pat Wongpan, Jamin S. Greenbaum, Kaihe Yamazaki, Shigeru Aoki
      Abstract: In East Antarctica, warm ocean water travels toward the Totten Ice Shelf. This water melts and thins the ice shelf, and speeds up the rate at which ice moves into the sea, leading to sea-level rise. Scientists often get on board ships called icebreakers to study the ice and water in these regions. However, sea ice and icebergs are major obstacles to navigation and scientific operations. For example, American, Australian, and Japanese icebreakers tried but could only observe a small area where sea ice was more broken up. So, we used a helicopter to measure the ocean during one of our research expeditions. Helicopters can travel faster than icebreakers. They can fly over sea ice and icebergs, and trained workers can drop sensors into small gaps in the ice. In 6 days, we observed ocean temperatures at 67 sites, covering a large area that could not be studied before. We identified wide pathways of warm water flowing toward the Totten Ice Shelf.
      PubDate: 2024-03-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • How Wasps Recognize Their Eggs

    • Authors: Rafael Carvalho da Silva, Fabio Santos do Nascimento, Cintia Akemi Oi
      Abstract: Wasps are insects that many people tend to dislike. But have you heard that wasps perform really important services in nature, such as pest control and pollination, and that they can also serve as living indicators of environmental health' We can learn a lot from wasps. Most people do not know that wasps have a sophisticated communication system—they use their eyes to see, their antennas to smell, and their legs to feel vibrations. The bodies of adult and young wasps are covered by a mix of odors, which carry information about which family they belong to. We decided to do experiments to see if wasps can recognize their eggs because, to us, all wasp eggs look very similar. In this article, we will show you that wasp eggs carry odors that wasps can recognize, and this helps the entire colony to function properly.
      PubDate: 2024-03-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • The True Meaning of Addiction (And How To Talk About It!)

    • Authors: Jennifer A. Ross, Sharon Levy
      Abstract: Many of us have heard the saying “words matter”. This is especially true when talking about substance use disorders and addiction. Substance use disorders affect millions of people, including adolescents and young adults. Addiction is a long-term medical condition. In many cases, people with addictions want to quit but find it difficult. For example, many of us know someone who would love to quit smoking but is having trouble because they are addicted to nicotine. People who use substances may feel judged by others, which can make them hesitant to talk openly about their substance use or its effects on their lives. It is important that we all know how to talk about addiction non-judgmentally, which starts by knowing the correct words to use.
      PubDate: 2024-03-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Modifying Brain Activity Using Magnets

    • Authors: Daniel Berger, Michael C. Hout
      Abstract: Whenever you read books, listen to music, or watch TV, your brain is using signals made from electricity and chemicals to help you understand the world around you. Your brain is full of cells called neurons that communicate with each other through these signals. Chemicals released from neurons transmit messages to their surrounding neighbors, telling the neighbors whether they should send a signal too. But it is electricity traveling down the length of the neuron that causes the release of those chemicals in the first place. Because electricity is involved in communication between neurons, scientists can use magnets to change the flow of electricity in the brain and explore how that affects behavior. A method called transcranial magnetic stimulation allows scientists who study the brain to stimulate the brain from outside a person’s head (through the skull). This gives scientists clues about brain functioning without requiring dangerous brain surgery!
      PubDate: 2024-03-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Mind Wandering Can Be a Good Thing

    • Authors: Michael Dubois, Amy S. Finn
      Abstract: Staying focused is important for nearly every human activity, yet we often struggle to do it. When we are unable to focus our thoughts, we say that we are mind wandering. Mind wandering is very common and occurs in every healthy mind. In fact, mind wandering may even reflect the regular way of thinking, unless people make special efforts to prevent it. But is all mind wandering the same' Why does the mind wander, and when' What effect does mind wandering have in our lives' In answering these questions, we will show how mind wandering can even be helpful for things like creativity and learning.
      PubDate: 2024-03-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Poop Is Cool! Animal “Bathrooms” Help Animals And Plants

    • Authors: Laís Lautenschlager, Kenneth Feeley
      Abstract: Many animals eat fruits and then get rid of any seeds that they swallow through defecation (pooping). This can be good for plants because it moves seeds around, and the seeds can grow into new plants using the dung (poop) as compost. In some cases, many animals will poop in the same spot, creating “bathroom” areas called latrines that help them to bond with other individuals of their species, communicate, and mark their home regions. These latrines can also attract many other animals that eat seeds, insects, and even poop. Unfortunately, humans are causing many animals to become less common or even extinct as we destroy their habitats or hunt them for food and fur. If we lose these animals, we also lose all the good things they do for nature. We must protect natural habitats so these important animals can keep living—and pooping!
      PubDate: 2024-03-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Sea-Ice Organisms Face Human Threats

    • Authors: Cristina Genovese, Eeva Eronen-Rasimus, Matthew Corkill, Mareike Bach, Ilka Peeken
      Abstract: Sea ice, frozen seawater, is more than a “white desert” in the Earth’s polar regions. The solid part of sea ice is mostly pure ice, similar to what you could make by putting tap water in a freezer. It also contains an intricate network of pores, pockets, and channels—known as a brine network—which develops each season. The brine network is filled with a very salty solution that contains nutrients that ice-associated organisms (bacteria, algae, and small animals) use as food. Algae are especially important because they remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and provide some of the oxygen we breathe every day. However, ice organisms are witnessing the consequences of human pollution and climate change. Although the polar regions are located far from human areas, the ocean circulation carries pollutants to the poles. This article examines what is happening in the seemingly inhospitable but crowded brine network, including the latest observations on the accumulation of human pollution.
      PubDate: 2024-03-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • What Cliffs Near America’s Earliest Settlements Tell Us About
           Climate Change

    • Authors: Harry Dowsett, Marci Robinson
      Abstract: Scientists learn about Earth’s future climate by looking at geological records from the past. About 3 million years ago, most of the east coast of the United States was under water. Sediments collected on the ocean floor show that the ocean environment was warmer and supported more species back then. Some of these sediments are now exposed above water as cliffs along the James River near colonial Jamestown in southeastern Virginia. Tiny fossils and other evidence in these sediments, which we call the Yorktown Formation, show us how the environment and ecosystems were affected by global warming in the past, and they hold many clues as to what Earth may look like in the future.
      PubDate: 2024-03-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Coral Reefs: A Story of Two Longtime Friends

    • Authors: Luis Parmenio Suescún-Bolívar, Patricia E. Thomé, Natalia Carabantes
      Abstract: Corals and tiny algae act as a team of engineers to form the building blocks needed to create the amazing coral reef ecosystem, which supports much of the marine life in the tropical oceans. These incredible ecosystems can extend for thousands of kilometers, like the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. Coral reefs would not exist without the help of the microscopic algae that associate with the coral and provide it with important nutrients for its survival. This article features the collaboration of amazing corals and their microalgae partners. You will learn about the processes that support the construction of coral reefs, their abilities to resist the threats that currently affect them (climate change, contamination), and the actions that can be taken to keep them safe and maintain the services that these ecosystems provide to other marine life.
      PubDate: 2024-03-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • What Can Robots Do For You'

    • Authors: Bengisu Cagiltay, Emmanuel Senft, Bilge Mutlu
      Abstract: You have probably seen movies in which robots do things like drive cars, deliver groceries, and fight space battles. But have you ever thought about what a robot could do for you' In the field of human-robot interaction, scientists study how robots can help people and what people think of robots. In this article, we meet three children in a classroom of the future and find out what robots do for them and how those robots know what to do. At school, Mia works with a robot friend who helps her learn a foreign language. Noah has special needs, and a robot in a hospital helps him learn about feelings and how to get along with other people. Last, Ari has a robot at home that helps her read, chats with her siblings, and helps her parents.
      PubDate: 2024-03-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Inspired by Nature: Fighting Pests With Friendly Bacteria

    • Authors: Stefani Díaz-Valerio, Heiko Liesegang
      Abstract: The starting point of this story is an imaginary garden. Within this garden we find plants, insects, and Bacillus thuringiensis, a friendly type of bacteria that helps humans in the fight against different pests. These bacteria are quite successful in nature, partly due to their ability to go into “sleep mode” when the conditions are not good for them, and their production of powerful weapons that help them survive. This article will tell you about these fascinating features, and we will explain how humans can use the weapons of these bacteria for environmentally friendly crop-protection strategies. Some of B. thuringiensis’s weapons may also help in the fight against certain dangerous parasites that infect humans and animals. Investigations of bacteria and their weapons can inspire us to find novel solutions for current challenges in agriculture and health.
      PubDate: 2024-03-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Cycle of Stress: From Individuals to the World and Back

    • Authors: Yoram Vodovotz, Julia Arciero, Paul F. M. J. Verschure, David L. Katz
      Abstract: Stress is a feeling of being worried, scared, or overwhelmed, caused by challenging situations or big life changes. Not all stress is bad, and some kinds of stress, like exercise, can even be good for us. However, when stress is severe or lasts a long time, it can harm our health. Severe stress causes inflammation, which is the body’s way of protecting itself. Inflammation helps the body heal, but long-lasting inflammation can lead to health problems. Stress can also affect the brain, making it hard to think clearly or make good decisions. In our work, we linked all these stress-related factors together (using math) to explain our hypothesis that stress can spread from person to person through our actions, words, and body language—and even over social media—until it affects whole societies and eventually the entire planet! This is a dangerous cycle that can lead to even more stress and inflammation, making problems worse. To break the cycle, we each need to focus on reducing stress in our own lives.
      PubDate: 2024-03-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Twins And Telomeres-In Space!

    • Authors: Susan M. Bailey
      Abstract: As part of the NASA Twins Study, our investigations related to telomeres and DNA damage responses (genome stability) during long-duration spaceflight have important implications for the health and performance of astronauts participating in exploration missions, as well as for long-term aging and disease risk outcomes. Together with the other Twins Study investigations, results will guide future studies and development of personalized medicine approaches for evaluating health effects for individual astronauts as we make our way back to the moon and beyond. Particularly as the number and diversity of space travelers and even space tourists increases over the coming years, identifying individual differences in response to the extreme environment, experiences and chronic exposures associated with space travel, exploration, and eventual habitation of other planets, represents a critical next step for ensuring future astronaut performance and health during, and improving disease and aging courses following, such missions. Ad astra!
      PubDate: 2024-03-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Bright Colors: Eat Me at Your Own Risk

    • Authors: Retna Arun, Hannah Gurholt, Udita Bansal, Swanne P. Gordon
      Abstract: Some poisonous animals use bright coloration to protect themselves from other animals that want to eat them. These bright colors are also called warning colors. Frogs, snakes, butterflies, skunks, and more all use warning coloration. But how do the animals get their bright colors and toxic poisons' Warning colors can be passed down to certain animals from their parents, and other animals get them from the foods they eat. Just because some animals have bright colors does not always mean they are toxic. Some animals, also known as mimics, copy the colors of toxic animals so they can protect themselves from being eaten. We will explore how poisonous animals show their true colors, and how non-poisonous animals that display the same signals can also be protected from predators. You may notice similar connections between color and warning signals all around you!
      PubDate: 2024-03-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • How Will Climate Change Affect Pikas’ Favorite Snacks'

    • Authors: Emily Monk, Karli Weatherill, Chris Ray, Ashley Whipple, Johanna Varner
      Abstract: Many animals are herbivores, which means they get all their nutrients from eating plants. American pikas are cute rabbit relatives that eat plants in the mountains. But alpine winters are harsh, so pikas spend their entire summer gathering and storing plants to eat under the winter snow. Just like people, pikas in Colorado have a favorite food: a plant called alpine avens. This plant species is a special pika snack because it contains natural preservatives called phenolics, which keep the food fresh all winter. We studied how climate change is affecting this important feature of the pika’s favorite meal. Alpine avens contains more phenolics now than it did 30 years ago, so they preserve better in storage. But there is a catch: these preservatives can be hard to digest. Studies like this help us start to understand the many complicated ways that climate change affects herbivores like pikas.
      PubDate: 2024-03-11T00:00:00Z
       
  • What Can Tree Swallows Teach Us About Biology'

    • Authors: Colleen R. Miller, Jennifer L. Houtz, Nicole Mejia, Natalie J. Morris, Monique A. Pipkin, Anusha Shankar, Jennifer J. Uehling, Jessie L. Williamson, Maren N. Vitousek
      Abstract: Tree swallows are North American birds that can help us understand more about biology. We already know a lot about tree swallows because they are easy to work with. These birds are popular for scientists to study. We know a lot about bird health, migration, and nesting because of tree swallows. However, tree swallows are declining because of climate change, insect loss, and habitat destruction. You can help by becoming a community scientist! Tree swallows are fascinating birds that everyone can help conserve. And along the way, we can learn more about our world.
      PubDate: 2024-03-11T00:00:00Z
       
  • What Kinds of Organisms Have Lived in a Lake' DNA Tells Us!

    • Authors: Cinthya Soledad Manjarrez-Rangel, María Cristina Del Rincón-Castro, Eduardo Luis Piovano, Gabriela Ana Zanor
      Abstract: There are many organisms living in lakes, for example, fish, aquatic plants, microalgae, and bacteria. But have you wondered what organisms have inhabited a lake throughout its history' Are there any species that are no longer found in the lake today' Has the ecosystem changed over time' When they die, most lake organisms leave their remains (pollen, shells, fossils, and DNA). Remains are preserved for many years in the sediments deposited at the lake bottom. Scientists are using an exciting technology that identifies organisms from DNA extracted from sediments that are over 100 years old. In this article, we will tell you how DNA is preserved in sediments at the bottom of lakes and how it is used to find out which organisms were present in the past and which are still living in a lake today.
      PubDate: 2024-03-11T00:00:00Z
       
 
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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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