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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Frontiers for Young Minds
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-6846
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Ecosystem Restoration: What, Why, How, and Where'

    • Authors: Connor T. Panter, Oliver Baines, Eve L. Draper, Laura Hunt, Franziska Schrodt, Annegreet Veeken, Charlotte E. Viner, Richard Field
      Abstract: Our world contains many ecosystems, from tropical forests to coral reefs to urban parks. Ecosystems help us in important ways, including cleaning our air and water, storing carbon, and producing food. People have been shaping most ecosystems for at least 12,000 years. Human impact has become so intense that many ecosystems are now threatened. That is why the United Nations has decided that the next 10 years are the Decade on Ecosystem Restoration. But what is ecosystem restoration and how do we do it' In this article, we will tell you why ecosystem restoration is important and why it can be difficult. We will explain how it can be done well, and give examples from a range of projects. Successful restoration must include local people and requires lots of data. Restoration should not always return ecosystems back to what they were like once before.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T00:00:00Z
  • Feed Your Mitochondria and Shape Your Body!

    • Authors: Laura Bordoni, Rosita Gabbianelli
      Abstract: If your body were a train, what would give it the power to move' The food you eat, which is burned by the train’s engine. Do you know how many engines your body has' Thousands of millions! They are called mitochondria. Mitochondria are tiny structures contained within the cells of your body that burn food, providing energy. The power of each mitochondrion is due to its own gearwheel: the circular mitochondrial DNA. There are many gears in each mitochondrion. Together, they regulate the mitochondrion’s ability to produce energy. Obesity modifies both the abundance and the function of the mitochondrial DNA, altering the ability of the body to efficiently produce energy, with some differences between males and females. Eating healthy foods not only makes you slim, but also boosts your mitochondria and makes you powerful!
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T00:00:00Z
  • Millions of Monarch Butterflies and the Quest to Count Them

    • Authors: Sophie Phillips, Martha Merson, Louise C. Allen, Nickolay I. Hristov
      Abstract: Monarchs are capable of amazing feats! They transition from caterpillars to beautiful butterflies. During migration, they fly for thousands of miles—from the northern part of the United States and southern Canada to Mexico. But monarch butterflies are in trouble. In the past 25 years, citizens and scientists have reported fewer and fewer of them. There were less than half as many monarchs in 2020 as in 2019. Parks across the United States, like Rocky Mountain and Indiana Dunes National Parks, host the monarchs along their migration paths. The park rangers are helping scientists track monarchs through “capture, tag, and release.” With this method, anyone who sees a tagged butterfly can report when and where they saw it. By tracking monarchs along their migration paths, we expect to learn where they run into problems. Scientists are also using new technology to count monarchs in their winter habitats.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T00:00:00Z
  • The Sounds Around Us in Cities and Buildings

    • Authors: Francesco Aletta, Simone Torresin
      Abstract: Sound surrounds us every day, whether we are inside buildings or moving around our cities. But what is “sound” and what is “noise'” What effects can arise from exposure to one or the other' This article will introduce the complex and fascinating world of sound, highlighting the opportunities that acoustic scientists have to reduce noise pollution and to design cities and buildings that sound good to our ears, to improve people’s health and wellbeing.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T00:00:00Z
  • Dental Plaque: Bacterial Shenanigans Above and Below the Gumline

    • Authors: Jason T. F. Wing, J. Christopher Fenno, Betsy Foxman, Alexander H. Rickard
      Abstract: Every morning and every night you clean your teeth. Your dentist tells you to do it, your family does it, and even your pets might do it using a special food or toy. Cleaning is done to remove dental plaque that accumulates over time on teeth, above and below the gumline. What is dental plaque and why is it important to remove' In this article, we provide an overview of dental plaque: what it is and why it forms, how dental plaque can hurt your teeth and gums, and what you can do to protect your teeth and gums. We hope this article inspires you to keep up with your own oral health and perhaps encourages you to consider a career in dentistry or the oral health sciences.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T00:00:00Z
  • Why Should I Learn Music' It Can Be Good for Your Brain!

    • Authors: Bronte Ficek-Tani, Assal Habibi
      Abstract: Imagine a world without music—no summer concerts, no holiday sing-alongs, no dramatic orchestra music in movies leading to epic battle scenes. Would not that be terrible' Musicians train for a long time to create and play music. Playing music brings us pleasure and connects us to one another. Research shows that playing music also contributes to our overall health and wellbeing and helps our thinking and planning skills. In this article, we will first talk about how various parts of the brain are engaged to make music playing possible. We will also discuss benefits of music learning for the brain, including our thinking abilities and social skills. We hope that this article provides examples and evidence that making music is not only fun, but it can also benefit our overall wellbeing.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T00:00:00Z
  • What Is Fructose and How Does It Make Sweet Drinks Dangerous for Your

    • Authors: Elizabeth Nieto-Mazzocco, Elena Franco-Robles, Osmar A. Jaramillo-Morales, César Ozuna
      Abstract: Nowadays, overweight and obesity are increasing in young people, resulting in several health problems. New scientific evidence shows that consuming too much fructose, a basic type of sugar, can cause some of these problems. Sugary foods such as soft drinks are sweetened with syrups that have very high fructose content. Drinking too much of these beverages results in weight gain from the accumulation of body fat. Scientists have also found that, in children, consuming excessive amounts of fructose can harm the liver, lungs, and heart. This article will explain how fructose in sweetened beverages leads to overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, highlighting the alarming number of young people all over the world who suffer from these diseases and what can be done to prevent this situation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T00:00:00Z
  • Why Is There Iodine in Table Salt'

    • Authors: Ayla Secio-Silva, Tatienne N. Figueira-Costa, Felipe Emrich, Ana F. Abrantes, Rodrigo A. Peliciari-Garcia, Paula Bargi-Souza
      Abstract: The human body is composed of many systems and organs that work together to ensure our well-being and survival. Hormones are the messengers that allow the organs to communicate. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck that uses iodine from the diet (mainly present in seafood) to produce thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The thyroid hormones are very important for brain development, growth, and metabolism. A lack of iodine impairs the production of thyroid hormones, which can lead to mental disabilities. An excess of thyroid hormones is not good for us either, and may compromise many of the body’s functions. So, when it comes to hormones, “balance” is the keyword. In this article, you will learn the importance of thyroid hormones for human health.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T00:00:00Z
  • Can the Foods We Eat Help Treat Alzheimer’s Disease'

    • Authors: Claudia Gualtieri, Zachary M. Smith, Abby Cruz, Crystal Parry, Fernando J. Vonhoff
      Abstract: Can you imagine a world in which doctors prescribe food when we are sick' Traditionally, doctors have prescribed medications to treat sickness. Most of these medications, known as pharmaceuticals, were developed by researchers. Pharmaceuticals are made to interact with molecules associated with specific diseases, to reduce patients’ symptoms. Recent studies have shown that natural compounds found in foods can alleviate illnesses. In contrast to pharmaceuticals, we can take in these compounds, called nutraceuticals, through the foods we eat every day. Nutraceuticals have been studied in various organisms, and their effects on the bacteria that live in the digestive system have also been examined. Studies in fruit flies have shown that nutraceuticals can be beneficial for treating some brain diseases. This article will describe promising nutraceuticals that could be used to treat Alzheimer’s disease, which affects many older people worldwide.
      PubDate: 2022-11-22T00:00:00Z
  • How a Component of Marijuana Can Be Used to Treat Epilepsy

    • Authors: Aline de Castro Santos, Ana Clara Matoso Montuori de Andrade, Eliza Mathias Melo, Flávia Rayssa Braga Martins, Isabella Luisa da Silva Gurgel, Isabelle Cruz Zenobio, Jordana Peruchi Fontis, Luan Tavares de Souza, Maria Luiza Rocha Guimarães, Nathalia Luisa Sousa de Oliveira Malacco, Renata Luiza Quintino Paulino, Thaís Salviana Ribeiro, Fabrício de Araújo Moreira, Frederico Marianetti Soriani
      Abstract: In the past, plants were the only medical resources available to people. Although plants were used a lot, sometimes they had dangerous effects. The evolution of science has allowed us to separate the helpful and dangerous compounds from various plants. An example is Cannabis sativa, also known as marijuana or weed, one of the most commonly used recreational drugs worldwide. These plants produce hundreds of compounds, called cannabinoids. The two most famous cannabinoids are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which produces the “high” sensation and might cause some of the negative effects of cannabis, and cannabidiol (CBD), which might be useful for treating certain diseases. In this article, we will explain how CBD can be used to treat epilepsy, a disease that affects people’s brain function. But remember: we are talking about the use of cannabinoids for therapeutic purposes only, not recreational use of marijuana.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18T00:00:00Z
  • Brain Training Games: An Effective Tool in the Fight Against Dementia

    • Authors: Bruno Bonnechère
      Abstract: When we get older, we tend to have more trouble remembering things and we tend to forget certain things more often. It is normal to have a small decrease in memory with age, but when memory decreases too much it becomes a disease: what is called dementia. Unfortunately, there is currently no treatment for dementia. However, there are certain actions that can be taken to try to prevent dementia, or at least to delay the onset of dementia symptoms. One of these is to use video games to (re)train brain functions. Yes, you read that right—some video games can be used to train the memory!
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T00:00:00Z
  • Do Not Croak! A Story of Surviving Yellowstone’s Frigid Winters

    • Authors: Jana Cram, Ashelee Rasmussen, Debra Patla, Andrew Ray, Charles Peterson
      Abstract: Have you ever wondered how “cold-blooded” animals like amphibians (frogs, toads, and salamanders) survive the winter without fur or feathers to keep them warm' Yellowstone National Park’s amphibians have found ways to stay alive during the cold winter months. These animals have evolved various coping strategies, from burrowing underground, to living in ponds, to tolerating the freezing of much of the water in their bodies. This article will explore the strategies used by several amphibians to survive the winter, including strategies used by the boreal chorus frog, Columbia spotted frog, western toad, and western tiger salamander. Understanding the diverse ways that amphibians survive in their winter habitats helps scientists to recommend ways to protect those habitats, to ensure that amphibians have healthy places to live and reproduce.
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T00:00:00Z
  • The Weird and Wonderful World of Worms

    • Authors: Kara J. Gadeken, Erin Kiskaddon, Jenna M. Moore, Kelly M. Dorgan
      Abstract: Animals with long, skinny bodies are often called “worms,” but there are many kinds of worms—even in the ocean. Annelids (segmented worms) include garden earthworms, but their ocean relatives come in many colors, shapes, and sizes. Some are so small that they live between grains of sand, while others can be longer than a human and eat fish! Marine worms are essential to the ocean food web, as both predators and prey. They help create homes for plants and animals by burrowing and building tubes in ocean sediments. Scientists are still discovering new worm species, and there are still many mysteries about how worms eat, why they live in the places they do, and what roles they play in ocean ecosystems. Worms are a fascinating and important part of ocean communities.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14T00:00:00Z
  • What Would the Child of a Human and a Neanderthal Look Like'

    • Authors: Kerryn A. Warren, Terrence B. Ritzman, Rebecca R. Ackermann
      Abstract: Long ago there were many different species (or kinds) of humans. These included our ancestors, as well as another group, called the Neanderthals, who went extinct and no longer exist. Neanderthals looked very different from us: big muscles, big brains, and no chins. In 2010, scientists managed to study the DNA (genetic code) from these ancient Neanderthals and found, with surprise, that our ancestors had children with them. Neanderthal DNA exists in many people alive today. But we still did not know what the children of humans and Neanderthals (known as hybrids) would look like. By looking at the hybrid children of different kinds of mice, scientists realized that hybrids look very strange indeed. Based on this research, scientists think that human-Neanderthal children would have large heads (even bigger than the Neanderthals) and that their faces would look a little more like humans than Neanderthals.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11T00:00:00Z
  • Mangrove Madness: What Are Mangroves and Why Do We Care About Them'

    • Authors: Kevin R. T. Whelan, Michelle C. Prats
      Abstract: Mangrove communities are found in tropical regions of the world. They live along coastlines in the intertidal zone, where the land meets the sea. Mangroves provide many ecological services—a fancy term for benefits. They capture valuable sediments flowing into the ocean from streams, lower impacts from harmful substances, support many creatures, and prevent coastline erosion. At the heart of mangrove communities is the mighty mangrove tree. Mangrove trees have a unique system of roots and other structures to help them survive in a salty world. They tolerate regular flooding but can drown if they are under water too long. To adjust to rising sea levels, mangroves can bio-generate or capture materials to create soil. National Park Service scientists are studying this process. By building soil, mangroves capture and store carbon dioxide, which helps fight climate change. Mangroves are important to us all!
      PubDate: 2022-11-11T00:00:00Z
  • A Sea of Colors

    • Authors: Rafael Gonçalves-Araujo, Colin A. Stedmon, Astrid Bracher
      Abstract: Although we always associate the oceans to the blue color, other colors such as green, brown, and even yellowish can be observed. The diverse color palette presented in the oceans and other water bodies is due to the presence of colored components that interact with the light in the water. Those components are, for instance, (1) the water itself, which gives a blue color to the oceans; (2) very tiny plants that can give a greenish color to the water; (3) dissolved compounds that turns the water into a brown-yellowish color; and (4) sediments, which gives a milky color to the oceans. In this article, we explain how those components change the color of the water and how marine scientists use satellites to capture those changes from space and convert them into information for their research.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11T00:00:00Z
  • Diversity and Disturbance: How Mussels and Sea Stars Strengthen the Rocky
           Intertidal Community

    • Authors: Elliot Hendry, Karah N. Ammann, Eric C. Dinger
      Abstract: In the rocky intertidal zone, tides and rocks set the stage. Together they create habitat for a diverse community of species adapted to a world both underwater (high tide) and exposed to air (low tide). In some protected areas, like national parks, we study rocky intertidal ecosystems as vital signs of nature’s health. Studying them helps us understand the impact of disturbances, which play an important role in shaping these communities. Some disturbances, like the tides, happen daily. Others, like diseases, might happen once every decade. This article is about how tides and diseases affect two important members of rocky intertidal communities—mussels and sea stars. We explain the roles these organisms play and what happened when ochre sea stars, an important species in these habitats, suffered a major disease outbreak. Last, we emphasize the importance of protecting these vital ecosystems so we can continue to learn about the health of the natural environment.
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T00:00:00Z
  • It Takes A Pack To Raise A Pup

    • Authors: Mathew Sorum, Jordan Pruszenski, Bridget L. Borg
      Abstract: Wolves are important to keep ecosystems healthy. For wolf populations to thrive, pups need to survive into adulthood. Wolf pups can be harmed, even killed, by wolves from outside their pack. To protect the pups, some wolves in the pack must stay at the den and guard the pups. But some of the adults must leave the den sometimes, to hunt for food and to keep other wolves out of the pack’s territory. By monitoring and studying wolves for many years across North America and in Alaska’s national parks, we are learning how wolves divide these tasks. We know that the mother wolves care for their pups for the first several weeks while nursing, but once the pups no longer need milk, all pack members share in taking care of the pups. We have come to understand that all wolves are important to the success of the pack.
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T00:00:00Z
  • The Smell of the Kitchen

    • Authors: Fabrizio Masciulli, Donatella Ambroselli, Enrico Romano, Luisa Mannina
      Abstract: When you cook, do you know why it smells so good (or so bad) in the house' It is all about chemistry. All over the world, cooking is based on tradition and love, but it is the chemistry of the foods that allows recipes to succeed or not. Among the chemical reactions that occur in cooking food, the Maillard reaction, which occurs between amino acids and sugars, is the most familiar. This is actually a complex series of reactions that lead to the formation of aromas, tastes, and colors as food cooks. In this article, we will discuss the most important stages of the Maillard reaction that happens when we bake, barbecue, or otherwise cook foods. Once the Maillard reaction is complete, you just have to say, “enjoy the meal!”
      PubDate: 2022-11-08T00:00:00Z
  • Indicator Species Reveal Environmental Health

    • Authors: Sophie Phillips, Martha Merson, Nickolay I. Hristov, Louise Allen, Robert Brodman
      Abstract: When looking around outside, many people see reasons to worry about the environment. Often what they notice are the effects of pollution and climate change, which can be harmful to people, wildlife, and the ecosystems where they live. Understanding the condition of all living and non-living things in an ecosystem is important for maintaining a healthy environment. But collecting information on every element in an ecosystem takes time and effort and is not always possible. Luckily, the United States National Park Service scientists know that collecting data on the condition of one species, called an indicator species, can reveal a lot about the well-being of other species in an ecosystem. Based on what they learn from observing and studying indicator species, park managers can make decisions about restoring plants, using chemicals, and posting signs about fishing rules. In Indiana Dunes National Park (Indiana, United States), researchers rely on frogs as indicator species.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08T00:00:00Z
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