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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Frontiers for Young Minds
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-6846
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • RNA Splicing—Cutting and Pasting Genes

    • Authors: Phillip A. Sharp
      Abstract: Science in general, and specifically the science of life, offers an intriguing path to walk along. As you deepen your understanding of a particular topic, you become aware of things you did not see at all when you started. Sometimes, this new seeing even drives you to reconsider and redefine very basic concepts that you learned along the way. This is exactly what happened after we discovered a process called RNA splicing. In RNA splicing, pieces of genetic instructions are cut and pasted together to form the final instructions for producing proteins. The discovery of RNA splicing has driven us to rethink what we previously believed about genes, which are the most fundamental units of information in biology. In this article, I will tell you what we discovered about RNA splicing, how it influenced our ideas about genes, and how we now use this knowledge to significantly improve people’s lives.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31T00:00:00Z
  • Place Cells: The Brain Cells That Help us Navigate the World

    • Authors: John O’Keefe
      Abstract: Navigation through the space around us is one of the most fundamental and crucial abilities that humans and other animals have. This ability is so natural that we usually do it easily, without even thinking about it. Though finding our way through our environments seems effortless, it actually requires a complex, fascinating mechanism—the navigation system in the brain. In this article, we will explore a major group of cells that are part of this navigation system, called place cells. As you read, you will discover how the trait of curiosity helps the brain’s navigation system, and you will learn some important lessons from taxi drivers in London!
      PubDate: 2023-05-31T00:00:00Z
  • Turning RNA Into DNA: The Discovery That Revolutionized Biology and

    • Authors: David Baltimore
      Abstract: Viruses are unique biological systems. They are parasites that use the cells of other organisms, called hosts, to multiply, often causing disease to the host. One of the most interesting features of viruses is that some of them contain RNA as their genetic material—all other known organisms use DNA. In the beginning of my career I worked on RNA viruses, trying to understand their basic behaviors and processes. When I focused on RNA viruses that are known to cause cancer, I discovered that they can make DNA from their RNA genomes, in a process called reverse transcription. That was a great discovery that changed the prevailing way of thinking and had profound implications in the fields of biology, medicine, and biotechnology. In this article, I will tell you about viruses, walk you through the discovery of reverse transcription, and describe some major implications of our findings in terms of improving or even saving many human lives.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31T00:00:00Z
  • How to Catch an Atom: Tales on Time-Telling and Future Applications

    • Authors: Noa Segev, David Wineland
      Abstract: This article is based on an interview between the two authors.Small particles, such as single photons, electrons, atoms or charged atoms (called ions), can experience a very different world from that which we usually perceive. While in our daily life, things seem to be reasonably predictable, continuous, and well-defined, in the “quantum” world of single or small numbers of particles, there are surprises and many unexpected “non-classical” behaviors. In addition to its complexity, the world of small particles opens up some very interesting possibilities for applications to practical problems. To take advantage of the amazing properties of small particles, scientists and other researchers have developed various techniques for holding and isolating photons, electrons, atoms, and ions and manipulating their behavior. In this article, we will try to give you a glance into the fascinating lives of small particles, tell you about techniques for working with them, and mention exciting new potential applications that take advantage of their unique behaviors.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31T00:00:00Z
  • The Economy: Much More Than Money

    • Authors: Angus Deaton
      Abstract: The economy is what keeps the world as we know it functioning. Our daily lives are heavily affected by the economy, both locally and globally. Some people think that the economy is mostly concerned with money, but in fact it is much broader than money. The economy relates to very fundamental issues concerning human life, such as human wellbeing and equality between people and groups. In this article, I will give you a taste of the ways in which economists view human wellbeing. I will then explain why, when we study the economy, it is not enough to look only at individuals or at groups of people—we need to do both. Finally, we will discuss the future of the economy, and I will share some tips that I have learned during my scientific career.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31T00:00:00Z
  • Functioning: The Key to Understanding Health

    • Authors: Jerome Bickenbach, Sara Rubinelli, Cristiana Baffone, Gerold Stucki
      Abstract: Staying healthy is an important priority—but why is being healthy so important to you' It is because, when your body is healthy, you can do the things you want to do. We call this dimension of health functioning, and it results from complex interactions between biological health and a person’s external environment. If we want to include functioning in our definition of “health” so that it can be used in all fields of healthcare and research, we need a common set of terms and a shared set of methods for measuring human functioning. This article explains the concept of functioning and how this concept allows us to fully understand health—both the health of individuals and of the overall population. We will discuss how functioning can be measured by health professionals and describe an exciting new field, called human functioning sciences, that can open the door to a revolutionary approach to health and wellbeing. We will also provide an example of how functioning could be integrated into the healthcare system to improve patients’ experiences.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31T00:00:00Z
  • To Eat or Not to Eat' That Is the Question!

    • Authors: Aviv Halfon, Danny Ben-Zvi, Ayal Ben-Zvi
      Abstract: What is hunger' How do we know how much to eat' And what happens if we do not eat enough' To survive, the human body must have energy reserves available in the form of body fat. Using a hormone called leptin, the fat tissue regularly sends messages to the brain about the body’s energy reserves. When the brain receives a lot of leptin, it tells the body, “you are full, stop eating.” In certain situations, like obesity and pregnancy, the brain is less sensitive to leptin—so people do not feel full and they keep eating. We hypothesize that obesity and pregnancy change the blood vessels that transport leptin to the brain. As a result, an “illusion” of low energy reserves is created in the body, causing the brain to send fewer “stop eating” commands. As a result, people keep eating and gain weight.
      PubDate: 2023-05-25T00:00:00Z
  • Seeing the Forest Through the Trees (and People)—Urban Forest

    • Authors: Brooke Anderson, Andrew K. Koeser, Allyson B. Salisbury, Deborah R. Hilbert, Hunter Thorn, Richard J. Hauer
      Abstract: Urban forest ecosystems are the collections of trees and other woody plants such as bushes and shrubs in urban areas, as well as the non-living (sidewalks, buildings, soil) and living (people, insects, wildlife) things that interact with them. Most humans throughout the world (56%) live in urban forest ecosystems, so it is important that these environments are safe, healthy, and sustainable. This article will point out the urban forests in your life. It will also explain the environmental, health, and societal benefits that urban forests create.
      PubDate: 2023-05-23T00:00:00Z
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: When Nerve Cells Run Out of Power

    • Authors: Marta Quatorze, Filomena Silva, Ana I. Duarte, João Cardoso, Carolina Caetano, João Ramalho-Santos, Paulo J. Oliveira, Sara Varela Amaral
      Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a serious disease of the nervous system, in which the brain and spinal cord cannot communicate properly with the muscles to coordinate the body’s movements. Consequently, the muscles gradually stop working and things like walking, eating, breathing, and speaking become more and more difficult. Many aspects of ALS remain a mystery, but we know that cells called neurons run out of energy in ALS patients, resulting in the loss of communication with muscles. This happens due to defects in mitochondria—the tiny structures within our cells that produce energy. Researchers have been working hard to discover how to keep mitochondria healthy, avoid the death of nerve cells, and ultimately restore the communication between neurons and muscles.
      PubDate: 2023-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • What Happens When We Hear'

    • Authors: Christian J. Sumner, Michael A. Akeroyd, Joseph Sollini, Caryl Hart
      Abstract: What happens when we hear' Where does the sound go when it enters our ears' Our ears sense the vibrations of the air and convert them into electrical signals the brain can process. But that is only the start. The brain uses tens of thousands of nerve cells to hear even the quietest or simplest sound. With those nerve cells, the brain is solving a never-ending puzzle: figuring out what is going on in the world. To do that, the brain must separate out sounds that are occurring at the same time, recognize them, and describe them in lots of ways, such as how loud a sound is and where it is coming from. This article gives an overview of how the ears and brain work together, so we can live in a world of sound.
      PubDate: 2023-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • You Can Help Fight Climate Change With Your Food Choices

    • Authors: Ujué Fresán, Ivana Cvijanovic, Guillaume Chevance
      Abstract: Human activities are affecting the Earth in ways never seen before, with multiple negative consequences for us. Our daily behaviors can still make a big difference in the fight against climate change. Among different behaviors and daily activities, we discuss here the necessity of adopting healthy diets with low environmental impact, and the characteristics of such a planet-friendly diet. We also emphasize the role of food waste and explain you why and how to become a food waste fighter.
      PubDate: 2023-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • A New Material for Better, Cheaper Solar Energy

    • Authors: Lioz Etgar
      Abstract: In the fight against global warming, it is vital to find ways of producing energy that do not pollute the environment. One of the best solutions for clean energy production is a solar cell, which uses several types of materials to generate electricity from sunlight. In this article, you will learn what a solar cell is, what it is used for, and how it works. I will also present a recent breakthrough discovery in this field: a new, game-changing material called perovskite. This material not only lowers the cost of solar cells, but lets us use solar cells in ways that were never before possible, such as for solar windows; mobile phone and car chargers, and more. Solar energy is clean and non-polluting source of energy. We also do not need to consider how to transport it from one place to another since the sun is everywhere. Additional important point is that the Sun is here and will stay as long as we are here, therefore we just need to use it for our needs and to generate clean energy. Solar cells are the major clean source of energy exists and today we have to find the way how to use it in for different applications.
      PubDate: 2023-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Can Plants “Move” Fast Enough to Escape Climate Change'

    • Authors: Laura Camila Pacheco-Riaño, Suzette G. A. Flantua, John-Arvid Grytnes
      Abstract: What would you do if temperatures were getting really warm where you live' You might put on some lighter clothes or maybe even move to a cooler place. Many plants do something similar—they “move” to cooler areas to survive current climate warming. Of course, plants cannot move like animals do, but they can slowly change locations as they release their seeds. How do we know that plants are moving' Scientists are studying areas that were first described hundreds of years ago. However, ecologists have found that even though plants respond to warming by changing locations, the temperature increase is so fast that plants cannot always move fast enough to escape the warming climate. This means that some plants might end up living under much warmer conditions than they prefer, which causes them a lot of stress. Stress makes plants vulnerable to other human influences, like land use change or invasive species, which can put entire plant species in danger.
      PubDate: 2023-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • How the Brain and Memory Grow Up Together

    • Authors: Angela Ji, Mary Lorenz, Sigalle Bahary, Tracy Riggins
      Abstract: We forget a lot about events that happen early in our lives. Why does this happen' To answer this question, we looked at how memory changes as children grow. We know the brain is important for memory, but we wanted to understand whether it was the changes in the brain that help kids to remember or if it was the ability to remember that changes the brain. We gave kids memory tests and looked at their brain activity across 3 years. Then we asked which changed first—kids’ memories or kids’ brains' We found that there was an interactive relationship: in younger kids, memory shaped the brain; but in older kids, memory and the brain shaped each other. These results help us understand why memory gets better as kids grow up and how using our brains helps us to remember.
      PubDate: 2023-05-16T00:00:00Z
  • The Lifesaving Power of Flowers: Experiments Anyone Can Do

    • Authors: Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu
      Abstract: Biomaterials are materials made to be put inside human bodies. To make sure that these materials are safe for our bodies, they are first tested on animals. Reducing the number of animals used in research is an important goal, however, and scientists have been searching for other ways to test biomaterials in living organisms. In this article, we describe an experiment for measuring the properties of biomaterials using flowers. Such flower models can provide a good measure of how compatible a potential biomaterial is with the human body. Most importantly, these models are child-friendly and a great way for children to learn more about the fascinating world of biomaterials.
      PubDate: 2023-05-15T00:00:00Z
  • Treating Cancer in Kids Using Focused Ultrasound

    • Authors: Ryan Holman
      Abstract: Focused ultrasound is a new technology that is being used to treat certain kinds of cancers in children, like cancer in the bones and brain. The approach is similar to the ultrasound that mothers receive to view their babies during pregnancy, only more powerful. The increased power of the ultrasound allows it to be used to treat the cancer, rather than just for imaging. How does focused ultrasound work' What type of childhood cancers can it treat' What are the advantages and disadvantages of focused ultrasound compared to more traditional treatments like surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy'
      PubDate: 2023-05-12T00:00:00Z
  • What Can Tapir Poop Teach Us About Healthy Forests'

    • Authors: Alfredo Yanez-Montalvo, Osiris Gaona, Arit de León-Lorenzana, Bernardo Águila, Luisa I. Falcón, Carla Ximena Neri-Barrios, Jonathan Pérez-Flores
      Abstract: The Baird’s tapir is the largest land mammal living in the Mexican Selva Maya, which is the largest tropical forest in America after the Amazon. Tapirs are herbivores that play a key role in maintaining the health of tropical forests by dispersing seeds in their feces (poop). Tapirs are mysterious, silent, and nocturnal characteristics that make them difficult to study. In our research, we analyzed the microbes in tapirs’ feces to understand the health of tapir populations in the Mexican Selva Maya. We found that a large amount of variety in tapirs’ fecal microbes is associated with a healthy tropical forest ecosystem. Maybe the analysis of the fecal microbes of wildlife can be used as a gentle technique to help us understand the health status of animals and the environments in which they live.
      PubDate: 2023-05-12T00:00:00Z
  • Interfaces: Invisible, Yet All Around Us

    • Authors: Jack Yang, Emma Hinderink
      Abstract: Interfaces are all around us. A fluid interface is the boundary between two immiscible fluids, and a great example is oil and water. They do not mix. The formation of these interfaces is crucial for daily life. You cannot always see them, but you can encounter interfaces everywhere. They can be in soap, in ice cream and in your body. In this article, you will learn what an interface is, why you need them in your daily life, and how interfaces can be created. Or to be more specific, how you can create your own interface using special molecules called emulsifiers.
      PubDate: 2023-05-12T00:00:00Z
  • Salt: The Rock That Flows

    • Authors: Oscar Fernandez, Mark G. Rowan
      Abstract: Salt is a substance with many uses, including as a condiment in our food. Salt is also a rock, and it can be found underground in many places around the world. What makes rock salt fascinating is that over hundreds to millions of years it is a rock that flows! Over long periods of time, salt behaves a bit like honey, like a thick viscous liquid. This means it can change shape faster than other rocks and develop features called salt diapirs and can also flow like ice does in glaciers. Understanding how salt deforms is important because it is often used underground to store useful or dangerous substances, such as petroleum or nuclear waste.
      PubDate: 2023-05-11T00:00:00Z
  • The Stressful Life of Sea Ice Algae

    • Authors: Zoé L. Forgereau, Benjamin A. Lange, Karley Campbell
      Abstract: The Arctic Ocean is located at the “top” of the world, and it is covered by sea ice most of the year. It experiences long periods of darkness in winter (polar night) and long periods of light in summer (polar day). During spring and summer, the melting of sea ice decreases the salinity (saltiness) in the upper part of the ocean. These differences in conditions across seasons are called seasonality, and the microscopic algae that live in Arctic sea ice must be able to cope with this strong seasonality. Are you interested in knowing how sea ice algae deal with such extreme changes in their environment' If you are, read this article to discover how sea ice algae adjust to dramatic seasonal variations in both light and salinity.
      PubDate: 2023-05-05T00:00:00Z
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