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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Frontiers for Young Minds
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-6846
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Using Mathematics to Become in Sync With the Brain

    • Authors: Micah Swartz, Leonid L. Rubchinsky
      Abstract: From a young age, we are told that being “in sync” is a good thing! From being in sync with the music as we dance to being in sync with teammates on the field, synchronization is celebrated. However, too little or too much synchronization can be bad. In the brain, synchronization allows important information to be sent back and forth between neurons, so that we can make decisions and function in our daily lives. Mathematics can help researchers and doctors understand patterns of abnormal synchronization in the brain and help them to diagnose and potentially treat the symptoms of brain disorders. In this article, we will dive into how mathematics is used to explore and understand the brain—one of our body’s most important organs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • How Do We Learn Skilled Movements'

    • Authors: Anisha Chandy, Jonathan Tsay, Rich Ivry
      Abstract: All athletes were novices at one point in their lives, even Olympic gold medalists and world champions. They committed years of practice to become competitive and even longer to become elite performers. This transformation from novice to expert requires motor learning, which is the process of acquiring and refining motor (movement) skills. Inspired by the observation that motor skills evolve from being effortful to effortless, psychologists have divided motor learning into three separate stages: the cognitive stage, in which we gather information about the actions needed to perform a skill; the associative stage, in which we refine our movements; and the autonomous stage, in which our movements become smooth and automatic. Here, we will explore how a fictional young athlete, Amy, progresses through these three stages and uses different parts of her brain to make the transition from novice to expert.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • The Human-Microbial Partnership: Even Our Brains Benefit!

    • Authors: Jeanette C. Perron, Joanne M. Carroll
      Abstract: Human cells assemble to form tissues, which organize into organs and then combine into complex organisms capable of extraordinary functions. However, we are not alone. It may surprise you to know that we humans are made of more than just human cells. In fact, there are many more microbes (microorganisms) in and on our bodies than there are human cells making up our tissues and organs. But before you get squirmy and itchy about this idea, these microorganisms are our allies—they are often helpful and sometimes even essential for our health. Though we often associate microbes like bacteria, viruses, and fungi with disease, most microbes are not dangerous. This article will explore how the human body develops and becomes colonized by these microbes in a mutually beneficial partnership.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Vitamin D: How the “Sunshine Vitamin” Affects Our Health

    • Authors: Harshini Rajendran, Sahana Vasudevan, Adline Princy Solomon
      Abstract: Human health is connected to nature in many ways. Two of these ways involve the sun and the healthy foods that we eat. Nature, particularly the sun, helps our bodies to make one of the vital nutrients, vitamin D, which keeps our bodies healthy. In this article, we explain how our bodies make vitamin D, which is also called the “sunshine vitamin.” We will also explain the important roles vitamin D plays in humans, such as helping the immune system, regulating our hormones, and keeping the bones, heart, and brain healthy.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Returning To Sports After A Head Injury

    • Authors: Sefia Khan, Addison Xu, Zuena Karim, Celeste Gonzalez Osorio, Nico Osier
      Abstract: When most people think of a sports injury, they picture a broken leg or arm. However, concussions and other head injuries are also common. Head injuries can cause physical issues like bruising and bleeding and can also cause issues like memory problems. Because every athlete recovers differently, it is best to use guidelines for their return to play. Head injuries can have long-term effects on an athlete’s mental health. This article will discuss the impact of and recovery from head injuries, and how athletes can safely return to sports.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Nutrients in Mountain Lakes: How Much Is too Much'

    • Authors: Andrea M. Heard, James O. Sickman, Linda S. Mutch
      Abstract: Yosemite, Kings Canyon, and Sequoia national parks protect over 1,200 mountain lakes. These lakes provide healthy homes for plants and animals and supply clean water to downstream communities. These clear blue lakes are high up in the mountains, where they receive very low amounts of nutrients from the watershed. Nutrients help living things grow and be healthy. However, human activities from communities upwind are adding nutrients into the air. These nutrients travel on air currents to remote watersheds via rain, snow, and dry particles. They increase lake algae growth, which disrupts the balance of plants and animals. We conducted experiments to determine the amount of nutrients it takes to increase algae growth. We compared these levels to current lake nutrient concentrations and found that over half of the lakes had concentrations that were below the determined early warning point and just under half were at levels of higher concern.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T00:00:00Z
  • How Much Carbon Dioxide Goes From the Air Into the Oceans'

    • Authors: Leonie Esters, Brian Ward
      Abstract: Climate change is occurring today because of a buildup of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. This buildup of CO2 is mostly from burning fossil fuels for our energy needs. The oceans take up and store a lot of CO2 from the atmosphere. To know how much CO2 the oceans take up, we must understand the processes involved. These processes include the mixing of ocean water. Turbulent mixing is a fast and effective way to mix up ocean water, and it happens when for example wind blows over the ocean and creates waves. However, it is difficult to measure turbulent mixing close to the ocean surface. In this article, we describe how we overcame this problem and how we used our measurements to learn about the exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the oceans.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T00:00:00Z
  • Acute Appendicitis: What Is It and How Do Doctors Treat It'

    • Authors: Nuno Gonçalves, Olga Oliveira, Joaquim Costa Pereira
      Abstract: Acute appendicitis is the medical term for inflammation of the appendix, which is a tubular structure located at the beginning of the large intestine. Acute appendicitis is usually caused by a blockage of the appendix, increasing the pressure inside it and decreasing its blood supply. Acute appendicitis is a very common disease, mostly affecting people 10–20 years old. The usual symptoms are abdominal pain, located at the center of the abdomen and moving to the lower right quadrant, accompanied by fever and loss of appetite. The best available treatment is surgery to remove the appendix. Surgery can be done in a way that leaves only a small scar. The patient is usually discharged from the hospital 2–3 days after surgery, and most people have a full and fast recovery.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T00:00:00Z
  • Neuroscience of Sense of Agency

    • Authors: Mantosh Patnaik, Nivethida Thirugnanasambandam
      Abstract: One important reason for living organisms to have a brain is to produce movement. Movements can be voluntary (those that are in our control, like walking) or involuntary (those that are not under our direct control, like breathing). Our brain is not only responsible for producing these movements, but also for generating the sense of being in control of our voluntary movements. Feeling like we are in control of our movements is called our sense of agency. How is the sense of agency generated' Are we really in “control” of our actions' This article attempts to answer these questions, discusses what happens when our sense of agency is disrupted and concludes with a summary of the current and future research in this field.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T00:00:00Z
  • What Is Eczema'

    • Authors: Margaret E. Scollan, Christine T. Lauren
      Abstract: Do you get red and itchy rashes that just do not seem to go away' You may have atopic dermatitis, sometimes called eczema, the most common skin disease in children and teenagers. In this article, we describe how to recognize eczema and what causes it. Then we discuss the various treatments for eczema and strategies to help prevent it. Finally, we discuss the impact eczema can have on a person’s life.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T00:00:00Z
  • Where Do Ocean Microbes With Nitrogen-Breathing Superpowers Live'

    • Authors: Emily J. Zakem, Jonathan M. Lauderdale, Michael J. Follows
      Abstract: All animals, including you, need oxygen to breathe. Many kinds of tiny microorganisms (microbes) also need oxygen. But some microbes have a superpower: they can breathe a different element called nitrogen! This means they can live in areas where there is no oxygen. But where are these areas' We wanted to figure out where these superpowered nitrogen-breathing microbes live in the ocean. In this article, we describe how we found a new way to estimate these areas. We made a map of the world that points out the areas in the deep ocean where nitrogen-breathing microbes are likely to live. Our work will help us to understand the role that nitrogen-breathing microbes play in the regulation of Earth’s climate.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T00:00:00Z
  • What Can Movements Teach Us About Brain Function'

    • Authors: Kaleb T. Kinder, Abigail DiMercurio, Aaron T. Buss
      Abstract: Humans typically make thousands of movements every day, which allow us to navigate and interact with the world around us. The brain controls the body’s movements and, amazingly, can instruct the body to move in just a split second. Even though the brain can rapidly move the body, most of our movements appear very smooth and efficient. While some movements are easy or automatic, such as blinking our eyes, other movements are more challenging, such as moving the arm to choose between two toys. Scientists know that the brain functions in separate ways for different types of movements. Hidden in our movements, however, lies valuable information that can provide clues about how the brain works. Scientists are using a recent technological advance, called movement tracking, to better understand brain functions such as decision making, attention, and memory.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T00:00:00Z
  • Fishing for Sociality: How What We See Helps us With Social Interactions

    • Authors: Ana Rita Nunes, Ana S. Félix, Rui F. Oliveira
      Abstract: Far in the distance, you see something moving...is it a woman' When you look closely, you recognize the motion pattern and body form: it is definitely your mother. As she approaches, you recognize her face and see that she is moving quickly; you can guess that she is worried because you are late for lunch! Humans can visually distinguish others, their emotions, and their intentions by looking at how they move and the shapes of their bodies. But individuals with social difficulties like autism struggle to get the same information from these visual cues. So, it is important for doctors and scientists to understand how the brain perceives this information. In our work, we studied small fish that rely on visual characteristics, the way we do, to recognize their fellows, and we explored how cues from movement and body shape help these fish to interact with others.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T00:00:00Z
  • Trouble in the Forest: Whitebark Pine Trees, Mountain Pine Beetles, and
           Climate Change

    • Authors: Alzada Roche, Erin Shanahan, Jonathan Nesmith
      Abstract: Have you ever hiked up a mountain and felt a frosty wind blowing across your face' You might need to button up your jacket to visit this place, but here, whitebark pine trees are right at home. Whitebark pines thrive in the highest forests of western North America. In these environments, whitebark pines help other, less-hardy species to establish, grow, and survive. For this pine, chilly mountaintops provide a refuge from insects, disease, and competition with other trees. Yet as our climate changes, whitebark pines no longer have the cold on their side. They are dying at alarming rates, and one of the biggest killers is a tiny bark beetle. How is climate change helping this little insect munch through huge swaths of forest' National Park Service scientists use long-term monitoring studies to unravel this complicated relationship. This information guides resource managers entrusted with protecting whitebark pines.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T00:00:00Z
  • The Solar Eclipse That Validated Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

    • Authors: Hanoch Gutfreund
      Abstract: This article describes one of the most important chapters in scientific history, which contributed to the modern understanding of the universe. Albert Einstein completed his theory of general relativity in 1915. This theory changed our understanding of the concepts of space, time and gravity, established by Isaac Newton. One prediction of the new theory was that light rays reaching us from distant stars, curve when they pass near the sun, because of the sun’s gravity and the nature of space and time. This prediction was confirmed through astronomical observations measuring the light reaching Earth from distant stars. When this result was published, it ignited a big excitement and interest in the scientific community and the general public, and Einstein became a superstar overnight.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T00:00:00Z
  • Left or Right' How Attention and Reading Develop Together

    • Authors: Patricia Maria Hoyos, Na Yeon Kim, Sabine Kastner
      Abstract: When you are playing catch or I Spy, your brain helps you focus on one location and ignore the rest. Did you know that most people are slightly better at focusing on one side of space, either left or right' This is called a focusing bias. The focusing bias is usually so small that you do not notice it in your daily life. This slight bias can be measured with a simple task: crossing a horizontal line at its center. If you have a slight bias, you will cross the horizontal line a little to the left or right of its actual center. In this article, we will tell you about our recent discovery that children in grades 1–3 have a bias toward the left that gets smaller as they get older. This leftward bias may be related to the development of reading skills.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T00:00:00Z
  • How Sports Can Prepare You for Life

    • Authors: Corliss Bean, Sara Kramers
      Abstract: Sports are fun activities that help kids learn skills, like how to shoot a free throw or skate backwards. But what if sports could teach us more than physical skills and prepare us for life' If the environment is safe and welcoming, sports can also teach us skills that we can use in our lives—life skills! Participating in sports can teach us about teamwork, being a leader, how to relax if we are upset, and much more! In this article, we discuss different ways that life skills can be developed through sports. We also talk about what you and your coaches can do to help you develop life skills. As you learn these skills in sports, you can use them anywhere, like at school or home. Life skills learned in sports can help you become a good person on whatever path you choose in life.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T00:00:00Z
  • Branchflows: Upside-Down Rivers Clinging to the Bark Above Our Heads

    • Authors: John T. Van Stan, Alexandra G. Ponette-González
      Abstract: If you look up during a storm or when it is foggy, you may see little rivers flowing down the tree branches above your head. These are called branchflows, and they play an important part in moving water along trees and through forests. For scientists who study water, branchflows are really weird! They do not flow on top of something, like rivers that flow over the ground. Instead, they flow underneath branches, clinging to the bark, the same way you might cling to monkey bars at the park. Branchflows can also disappear before making it to the ground, because the water gets stuck inside of tree holes. Branchflows transport important stuff through the forest and to the forest floor, from life-saving meals to life-ending predators! Please join us as we explore what branchflows are, where they flow, what they carry, and why we need to know more about them.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T00:00:00Z
  • Getting the “Good Stuff” Out of Berry Leaves

    • Authors: Kar Yeen Chong, Marianne Su-Ling Brooks
      Abstract: Have you ever wondered what happens to the leaves on berry plants after we pick and eat the berries' People usually think that berry leaves have little value, but studies have shown that berry leaves contain many things that are good for our health. If these substances can be extracted from the leaves, these natural extracts could be used by many industries to improve their products, for example health supplements and skincare products. In our work, we wanted to extract natural substances from berry leaves using a method that is simple and non-toxic, using just alcohol, salt, and water and it is known as the salting-out method.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T00:00:00Z
  • Hungry' How What You Eat Affects Your Skin

    • Authors: Alice A. Amudzi, Jillian M. Richmond
      Abstract: Foods can affect the physical, mental, and emotional aspects of our lives and determine our overall health and productivity. Whether we eat chicken nuggets, apples, or watermelon, food is a vital source of energy that keeps the body’s tissues and organs going during our day-to-day activities. In this article, we examine how various nutrients from foods affect the skin and its ability to protect the body from infections and the elements of the environment. In addition, we briefly discuss a patient who had a wound that was taking a long time to heal, which required surgery to fix. Recommending the right nutrition led to complete healing and cancellation of the surgery.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T00:00:00Z
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