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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Frontiers for Young Minds
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-6846
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • What’s the Buzz About Native Bees'

    • Authors: Jessica Rykken
      Abstract: Most plants depend on insects for pollination. Honey bees pollinate many of the foods people eat, but did you know that wild plants, and animals like birds and bears, also depend on pollinators' Native bees are the most diverse and efficient pollinators. Thousands of bee species transport pollen between plants in deserts, forests, mountains, meadows, and many other habitats. This service helps plants reproduce successfully, and the plants provide food and shelter for other animals. Bees are important for keeping our wild landscapes healthy. Scientists are discovering that climate change and other human-caused threats are changing bee populations. Therefore, it is important that we learn more about pollinators in wild places like national parks and that we support bees in our own backyards.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T00:00:00Z
  • The ‘Super-Power’ of Sport-Confidence

    • Authors: Owen Thomas, Sam Nicholas Thrower
      Abstract: Have you noticed that in some sporting situations you can feel very confident, but in others, usually at the worst possible moment, that confidence can suddenly disappear' When athletes feel confident, they are focused on the task, relaxed, and commit fully to decisions which helps them perform well. However, when they don’t feel confident, they sometimes focus on the wrong things, doubt themselves, feel nervous, and often make poor decisions which often results in poorer performances. In this ‘new discovery’ article, we talk about a study which investigated what young elite athletes are confident about, where they get their confidence from, and what reduces their confidence. The results helped explain why young athlete’s confidence often fluctuates (i.e., goes up and down) and importantly gives an insight into how to develop and maintain sport-confidence.
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T04:11:05Z
  • What Are Medusozoans, and Why Do They Sting'

    • Authors: José Agüero, Mariae C. Estrada-González, Leonela Rosales-Catalán, Ariadne Molina-Alonso, María A. Mendoza-Becerril
      Abstract: Medusozoans are marine animals without backbones that live near the coasts, or in the depths of the oceans. Some of them are large, but others are even tinier than a seed. Medusozoans have been living on Earth for more than 600 million years. Their bodies are 95% water. Some medusozoans live attached to a surface, but others can swim freely. All medusozoans have tentacles, armed with stinging cells called nematocysts. When the nematocysts are triggered, the tiny stingers inside them can travel at speeds up to 67 km per hour. Around 3% of medusozoans are harmful to humans. Therefore, when visiting beaches where these harmful medusozoans live, it is necessary to take some precautions. Wearing protective clothing and not touching a medusozoan stranded on the beach will help you stay safe and healthy, so you can enjoy your beach day!
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T00:00:00Z
  • Bouncing Back: Coping After Being Cut From A Team

    • Authors: Kacey C. Neely
      Abstract: Each new season, youth athletes show up to team tryouts in hopes of making the team. However, there are only so many spots on the roster, and sometimes athletes get cut. Deselection, or getting cut, is the elimination of an athlete from a competitive sport team based on a coach’s decision. Deselection is an aspect of competitive sport that many youth athletes experience, and it can result in negative psychological, social and emotional consequences such as a lost sense of self, loss of friendships, and feelings of anxiety, embarrassment, and sadness. This article presents a study looking at how athletes (and their parents) coped with deselection from sport teams. The results explain some of the coping strategies youth athletes and their parents used together and how athletes can bounce back after getting cut.
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T00:00:00Z
  • Why Do Some Children Become Very Anxious'

    • Authors: Rachel Bernstein, Jordan Galbraith, Devi Lakhlani, Isaac Morales, George A. Buzzell, Ranjan Debnath, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S. Pine, Nathan A. Fox, Anita Harrewijn
      Abstract: While it is normal to be scared of things, some children are so scared that it disrupts their lives. This is called an anxiety disorder. To help children with anxiety disorders, we need to know how anxiety disorders start. From other research we knew that toddlers who avoid new situations are more likely to become anxious later in life. They are more likely, which does not mean they all become more anxious, just some of them. We wanted to know if brain activity could predict which children would become anxious. We studied avoidance in toddlers and invited them back as preteens. We studied their brains while they were resting and while they were making mistakes in front of somebody else. We found that brain responses to mistakes predicted which avoidant toddlers became very anxious as preteens. This helps us understand who might develop anxiety, so that we can help!
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T00:00:00Z
  • Can We Heal A Broken Heart With Cells'

    • Authors: Ana Spasojevic, Marc Ruel, Erik J. Suuronen, Emilio I. Alarcon
      Abstract: Cardiomyocytes are the muscle cells that make the heart beat, pump oxygen, and deliver nutrient-rich blood throughout the human body. During a heart attack, the blood supply to the heart is interrupted. Cardiomyocytes then die and are replaced by scar tissue that can no longer contract. As a result, the heart is weakened and may beat abnormally. For many years, researchers have been searching for a way to replace damaged cardiomyocytes with new ones. Stem cells are master cells that grow and divide rapidly. They may be ideal for repairing organs and tissues because they can turn into many different cell types, including cardiomyocytes. Among other medical therapies, stem cells have been used to develop the cardiac patch, a heart “band-aid” that can regenerate damaged heart muscle. In this article, we will discuss the advantages and limitations of using stem cells for repairing a “broken heart.”
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T00:00:00Z
  • How Warm Gulf Stream Water Sustains a Cold Underwater Waterfall

    • Authors: Stefanie Semper, Mirjam S. Glessmer, Kjetil Våge, Robert S. Pickart
      Abstract: The most famous ocean current, the Gulf Stream, is part of a large system of currents that brings warm water from Florida to Europe. It is a main reason for northwestern Europe’s mild climate. What happens to the warm water that flows northward, since it cannot just pile up' It turns out that the characteristics of the water change: in winter, the ocean warms the cold air above it, and the water becomes colder. Cold seawater, which is heavier than warm seawater, sinks down to greater depths. But what happens to the cold water that disappears from the surface' While on a research ship, we discovered a new ocean current that solves this riddle. The current brings the cold water to an underwater mountain ridge. The water spills over the ridge as an underwater waterfall before it continues its journey, deep in the ocean, back toward the equator.
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T00:00:00Z
  • Designing Accessible Walking Routes for People With a Visual Impairment

    • Authors: Sagi Dalyot, Achituv Cohen
      Abstract: Most of us take our navigation abilities for granted and instinctively use our sense of sight to help us find our way. However, for millions of people worldwide with visual impairments, wayfinding and navigation are a daily challenge. Pedestrians with visual impairments lack basic information about the spaces in which they are walking. This restricts and limits them, makes them dependent on others, harms their welfare, and negatively impacts them socially. Recently, a study was performed at the Technion in Israel, aimed at developing software and an application to design walking routes especially suited for the visually impaired population, focusing on their unique needs and preferences. This study offers an effective and practical solution for pedestrians who are visually impaired, which enhances their mobility, independence, and welfare, and thus enables them to engage more easily with society.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T00:00:00Z
  • Coastal Lagoons: Important Ecosystems

    • Authors: Badr El Mahrad, Alice Newton, Nicholas Murray
      Abstract: Coastal lagoons are parts of the Earth’s coastline, where the ocean meets the land. They are important zones both for living things and for our economy. Coastal lagoons contain various kinds of habitats that provide homes for many animals and plants. Thus, they provide many valuable natural resources to people living and working in those areas. In this article, we describe what makes coastal lagoons attractive and important to plants, animals, and people. We also give examples of human activities and pressures that disrupt the lagoons close to where people live. Despite the damage human activities can cause to coastal lagoons, if countries respond with the right management measures, we have hope that the condition of coastal lagoons can improve, so that they will exist long into the future.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T00:00:00Z
  • Eat Fruits In-Season to Give Rhythm to Your Life

    • Authors: Álvaro Cruz-Carrión, Ma Josefina Ruiz de Azua, Francisca Isabel Bravo, Begoña Muguerza, Manuel Suárez, Anna Arola-Arnal
      Abstract: Do you think that eating fruit in summer has the same effect on your body as does eating it in winter' Scientific evidence says no. Fruits contain polyphenols, which are substances produced by plants in response to the growing conditions. When animals eat these fruits, polyphenols signal animals’ bodies to adapt to the seasons. For example, bears eat berries in late summer because these fruits provide essential substances needed during hibernation. It has been observed that the effect of these fruit substances is affected by biological rhythms, which are chemical cycles that animals’ bodies follow that vary throughout the year. Thus, eating fruit in- or out-of-season generates different effects in your body. Eating fruit in-season is associated with optimal health effects. Hence, we must eat fruits in-season so that the rhythms of our lives are synchronized with the seasons.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Diabetes Changes Your Lifestyle, But it Does not Change You

    • Authors: Artur Rydosz, Agnieszka Pregowska, Magdalena Osial
      Abstract: Recently, there has been a lot of talk about diabetes in children. Have you ever wondered what diabetes is and where it comes from' Diabetes is a disease with a long history. It causes a high sugar level in the blood, which is dangerous for many organs including the heart and kidneys. Diabetes also damages blood vessels and the nervous system. Unfortunately, diabetes is often detected by accident during tests for other diseases or by standard blood tests performed during a check-up. The earliest symptoms of diabetes that a person might notice include increased hunger and thirst, tiredness, or frequent urination. If you experience these symptoms, do not take them lightly—have a doctor check your blood sugar level.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Using DNA to Predict How Fast Bacteria can Grow

    • Authors: Jake L. Weissman, Shengwei Hou, Jed A. Fuhrman
      Abstract: Bacteria are single-celled organisms that live out their lives at a microscopic scale. We can find bacteria everywhere we look for them, including inside of our own bodies. Bacteria are incredibly diverse and come in many shapes and sizes. They also vary widely in how they live and grow. Some bacteria grow very quickly and others grow slowly. We wanted to measure the growth of many different types of bacteria in the environment. Unfortunately, some species of bacteria are very difficult to grow in the laboratory. To get around this, we designed a method to predict how fast a type of bacteria can grow, just from its DNA. This way, if we have the DNA of a bacterial species, we can measure its growth even if we cannot get it to grow in our laboratory.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • The Impacts of Climate Change

    • Authors: Andrew J. Hartley, Ayesha Tandon
      Abstract: Global warming has already caused our planet to heat up by around 1°C. This warming is causing a huge range of impacts. For example, heat waves are becoming more severe and affecting humans and animals; in some places, rivers are flooding more frequently due to heavy rainfall; droughts in other parts of the world are affecting crops. These changes can have a huge effect on people, making it difficult to grow food, find shelter, and avoid dangerous weather such as storms and heat waves. Many people have needed to leave their homes to search for safer places to live because the climate has changed so much. While all countries are affected by climate change, different countries face different impacts. By understanding these impacts and how vulnerable people are to climate changes, it is much easier to prepare for future changes and protect against them.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
  • Using Computers to Improve Biofuel Production

    • Authors: Diego Mariano, Lucianna Helene Santos, Luana Parras Meleiro, Leonardo Henrique França de Lima, Luis Fernando Marins, Raquel Cardoso de Melo-Minardi
      Abstract: Petroleum is the most-used energy source in the world. However, as you probably know, petroleum is a fossil fuel that is very harmful to the environment, in addition to not being renewable. Biofuels are a type of fuel produced from plant material. Biofuels are considered an excellent alternative energy source because they are less polluting than fossil fuels. However, biofuel production is expensive. Therefore, scientists are working on many strategies to reduce biofuel costs, particularly using computers to discover new biotechnological products, or improve existing ones, to produce more biofuel with fewer costs. In this article, we will tell you how computers can be used to improve biofuel production.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
  • Scientists Spy on Treefrogs Using Plastic Pipes in Trees

    • Authors: Carolyn A. Carlson, Jane E. Carlson
      Abstract: Have you ever spied on a treefrog' These nocturnal creatures can be hard to observe, cloaking their lives in mystery. They hatch as legless swimmers but quickly transform into adults with camouflaged skin for daytime hiding and sticky toepads for hunting in tree branches by night. Yet even the most secretive, high-climbing treefrog cannot escape from pollution, new enemies, and habitat loss. Scientists want to know how treefrogs are coping with these threats, so we spy on them in a clever way: we hang small plastic pipes from trees, which mimic the dark cavities where treefrogs love to rest. Since 2011, we have counted treefrogs inside thousands of pipes, yet with so many mysteries, our work will continue for years. One pipe at a time, treefrogs are sharing their secrets about which threats harm them most, helping us better protect and manage the beautiful trees and waters they call home.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
  • How Does the Brain Help us Understand Others'

    • Authors: Joyce Lysanne Van Zwet, Jule Schretzmeir, Sabine Hunnius, Tobias Grossmann, Marlene Meyer
      Abstract: What do you think your friends are thinking when they get a compliment' How do they feel when they get a good grade at school' Thinking about other people and what they know, believe, or want is called social cognition. Certain parts of the brain are important for social cognition, and those parts work together in a network to allow us to think about others. How do we develop these social skills, starting as babies' In this article, we will introduce the parts of the brain that are important for social cognition, and we will explain how the network of brain regions that perform social cognition develops over the years, from a new-born baby to an adult.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
  • Brain Imaging Can Help Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Authors: ZiYan Britt, Zaenab Sanadiki, Vani Senthil, Jay Hegdé
      Abstract: Did you know Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a worldwide leading cause of disability and death in later life' Patients with AD usually can not recognize their own families or take care of themselves. Often called “the long goodbye,” AD is a heartbreaking struggle for both patients and their caretakers. For a long time, doctors were helpless in treating AD patients. Even now, there is no cure for AD. But fortunately, brain scanning techniques have recently advanced enough to help AD patients a great deal. These techniques are ways for doctors to see the inner workings of the living patient’s brain, without surgery. Thus, brain imaging techniques are valuable tools that can help doctors catch AD early, provide customized care for each patient over the course of the disease, and guide future research toward finding a cure. Thanks to these developments, the prospects for AD patients are slowly but steadily improving.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
  • Mr. and Mrs. Crab: How Can We Tell Them Apart'

    • Authors: Meng Hong Cheah, Hanafiah Fazhan, Rusydi Rozaimi, Khor Waiho
      Abstract: Male and female mud crabs may look alike at first glance, but clear differences in physical characteristics exist. These variations between sexes are known as sexual dimorphism. Sexual dimorphism may help species to survive in their environments. We found that three mud crab species (orange, green, and purple mud crabs) showed similar patterns of sexual dimorphism. Males generally have larger body and claw sizes, whereas females have larger abdomens. Orange mud crabs also have a unique body shape variation compared to green and purple mud crabs. All mud crabs have spines along the top edge of their shells, and scientists have numbered these spines to identify them. Unlike the green and purple species, orange mud crabs are wider at spine 8 than spine 9. Sexual dimorphism in crabs might be linked to how they reproduce and where they live.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
  • Permafrost and Draining Lakes in Arctic Alaska

    • Authors: David K. Swanson
      Abstract: In the Arctic, the ground is frozen most of the year. Only the top layer of soil thaws each summer. This frozen ground, called permafrost, contains a lot of frozen water (ice). There are many small lakes in the Arctic, in low spots formed from melted ice. But melting ice does not just create lakes, it can destroy them too. Melting permafrost can create gullies that let the water drain out of a lake. Most lakes in the Arctic are far from where people live, so we watch them using pictures taken from satellites. Recently, we have seen the water drain out of many lakes, which can affect plants and animals. We measure the number and size of drained lakes caused by thawing permafrost to understand how the Arctic is changing.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
  • Can Eating Bacteria In Dairy Products Support Your Health'

    • Authors: Thomas Roder, Grégory Pimentel, Cornelia Bär, Ueli von Ah, Rémy Bruggmann, Guy Vergères
      Abstract: Huge numbers of bacteria live in the human gut. We know those bacteria are important to our health, so we need to treat them well. We wanted to know whether it was possible to design new yogurts that can introduce special bacteria into the gut, to improve our well-being. We studied hundreds of types of bacteria isolated from cheese and yogurt and found that 24 of these bacterial species can perform most of the important bacterial functions that happen in the human gut. Therefore, there is exciting potential for designing new, gut-healthy yogurts.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T00:00:00Z
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