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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ABC Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AZimuth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Scientific Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
BIBECHANA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BibNum     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bistua : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Básicas     Open Access  
BJHS Themes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Central European Journal of Clinical Research     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencia, Docencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Dharmakarya     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ergo     Open Access  
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Extensionismo, Innovación y Transferencia Tecnológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 377)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Iberoamerican Journal of Science Measurement and Communication     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science & Emerging Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Review of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science     Open Access  
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Interaction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Research     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Frontiers for Young Minds
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-6846
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [89 journals]
  • The Millions of Microbial Reasons You Need to Brush Your Teeth

    • Authors: Abigail Shahar Gancz, Sterling Wright, Nicole E. Moore, Laura S. Weyrich
      Abstract: Millions of tiny critters called microorganisms live in your mouth. Each one is unique and has a specific job. For instance, some microorganisms help with digesting food and others protect you from dangerous infections. Some microorganisms come from your parents, some from the foods you eat, and some from not brushing your teeth. All these microorganisms need food. The good microorganisms that help your mouth stay healthy enjoy eating vegetables, fruits, and grains; the bad ones like sugar. When you eat too much sugar, the bad microorganisms can cause painful problems in your mouth. They may even cause you to lose your teeth or make your gums bleed. Fortunately, brushing your teeth helps remove these rogue bacteria. While we know some things about the microorganisms in the mouth, there is still much we do not know and are still working to discover.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • Can Plants Be Engineers'

    • Authors: J. Louise Conrad
      Abstract: When we think of engineers, we think of making a machine, like a car. Are there engineers for ecosystems' When an organism can make big changes to its environment, we call it an ecosystem engineer. In aquatic ecosystems like the San Francisco Estuary, underwater plants can be important ecosystem engineers because they can change water flow and water clarity. In the Estuary, a plant called Brazilian waterweed, which was introduced by humans, is one of the most important ecosystem engineers. With its leaves and stems, this plant traps tiny particles floating in the water, making the water clearer. Clearer water has made it easier for more plants to grow and these changes helped some non-native fish species to increase in number, while some native species declined. Introduction of Brazilian waterweed has led to an entirely different ecosystem, which has also affected how people use and take care of the Estuary.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • What Lives in the Ocean' An Introduction to the Biodiversity of the
           Red Sea

    • Authors: Marcelle M. Barreto, Marcela Herrera, Manuel Aranda
      Abstract: Have you ever wondered how many species are out there' Biodiversity refers to all the different plants and animals in the world, and it is incredibly important for our well-being. All organisms have a role in the environment, and healthy ecosystems depend on high biodiversity. For example, tiny plant-like organisms living in the ocean are responsible for most of the oxygen we breathe. Mangroves and coral reefs are homes for many wonderful fish, and they protect our coastlines from storms. The Red Sea is one of the world’s most biodiverse oceans. It is a unique home to many different species that cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Scientists have estimated that there are around 29 species of sharks, 17 of whales and dolphins, 5 of marine turtles, 1,078 of fish, 359 of hard corals, and many more invertebrates. Imagine all the tiny microorganisms that we cannot see!
      PubDate: 2021-10-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • What Can We Do to Address Climate Change'

    • Authors: Paloma Trascasa-Castro, Christopher J. Smith
      Abstract: Climate change is one of the most serious problems that humans face today, but until now progress in stopping it has been slow. Climate simulations show that Earth will only stop warming when we reach “net zero” emissions. This means that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are cancelled out by an equal amount of greenhouse gas removal from the atmosphere. Worldwide efforts to achieve net zero emissions by 2050 are necessary to avoid some of the worst effects of climate change. Achieving net zero will require huge changes to our society. While there are some things we can all do to fight climate change, the biggest changes need to come from the way our businesses and countries are run, where we get our energy from, how we travel, and how much “stuff” we consume and waste. By taking urgent action, we can ensure the future well-being of billions of people worldwide.
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Shapes Determine Elections

    • Authors: Erika L. Ward
      Abstract: When we elect representatives to the U.S. House of Representatives (or to state legislative bodies, or even the school board), we do so by dividing people into districts, and having each district elect one representative. The districts we draw as shapes on maps can affect the outcome of the elections. As a result, the process of creating or changing districts and the shapes we draw to create them are important. After every census, each state must construct a new district map. When they do that unfairly, it can give an unfair advantage to one of the political parties. This is called gerrymandering. By looking at the shapes of districts and examining their compactness, we can start to detect fair and unfair district maps.
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • How Do Birds Sing Over City Noise'

    • Authors: Nyssa Kantorek, Abigail Searfoss, Nicole Creanza
      Abstract: Have you ever raised your voice because someone could not hear you' Imagine talking to a friend in a peaceful park. Now imagine trying to talk on a busy street or near a highway. The traffic noise makes it difficult to communicate, and you may speak up so your friend can hear you. Other animals have this issue, too. Songbirds can live in various environments, such as forests and grasslands, and they use their songs to communicate with each other. As cities grow and invade their habitats, birds may find it harder to hear one another. To be heard, some birds might change their songs. For example, some birds in cities sing louder, longer, or at a higher pitch than rural birds. Researchers are studying this problem: how does human-made noise affect birdsong' Answering this question is important so we can protect the birds around us and their habitats.
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Searching for the Unknown: How Your Surroundings Help You Find Things

    • Authors: Arryn Robbins, Michael C. Hout
      Abstract: Imagine you are in your backyard, bird watching with your friends. Your eyes look upward, scanning the trees and sky. What birds would you expect to find' What do you think they might look like' Consider how the environment you are searching within (your backyard) gives you clues about where to look for birds. Your eyes are likely to scan the trees but are unlikely to scan the ground. The environment also gives you clues about what the birds look like. You would probably expect them to be small and brown (like a robin) if you live in North America, or perhaps more colorful and larger (like a parrot) if you live in a tropical place like Central America. The local environment provides clues that help you predict what your search “target” will look like, and these expectations can even help you find things more quickly!
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • How the Innate Immune System Fights for Your Health

    • Authors: Mieke C. Louwe, Pål Aukrust
      Abstract: When your body encounters intruders like viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites, this invasion triggers a complex and amazing process called the immune response. Activation of the body’s immune system is necessary to fight off these intruders, but it must also distinguish them from the body’s own healthy tissues. The goal of the immune response is to keep the body healthy. The earliest responses that occur to protect the body from invading organisms is called the innate immune response. In this article, we explain the components of the innate immune system and how this system helps to keep the body safe from dangerous invaders.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T00:00:00Z
       
  • Examining Blood Vessels Using Sound Waves

    • Authors: Christine M. Tallon, Kurt J. Smith, Nia Lewis, Ali M. McManus
      Abstract: Your heart works as a team with your body’s blood vessels. Your heart pumps the blood, while blood vessels help the blood travel all over your body, just as a garden hose helps move water all around your garden. Blood carries oxygen and other nutrients to your muscles and organs and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes. These are very important chores for the blood! Sometimes doctors need to check whether the heart and blood vessels are working properly, or scientists may want to study how blood vessels work as people get older. To do this, a technique called ultrasound is used to take pictures and videos of the blood vessels and the blood moving through them. But how does sound create pictures' This article will explain how ultrasound works and how it can be used to examine blood vessels and the speed of the blood flow.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T00:00:00Z
       
  • Studying the Activity of Leaf-Litter Fauna: A Small World to Discover

    • Authors: Dolores Ruiz-Lupión, María Pilar Gavín-Centol, Jordi Moya-Laraño
      Abstract: Hundreds of thousands of little creatures live in soils. Some eat live plants, live animals, or both. Others, called decomposers, consume dead plants, and the waste of other living beings (their feces and their dead bodies), and transform them into food for plants. The health of soils depends largely on the presence of decomposers, and thus it is necessary to study how these creatures may be affected by climate change. To this end, we built a new type of traps to catch live soil animals, which we called cul-de-sac and basket traps. Here, we show how these traps are better for studying animal activity (how much they move in the soil) compared to the most used devices to date, pitfall traps. Comparatively, our traps capture more active animals and prevent predators from killing prey inside, which will improve the accuracy of future studies all over the world.
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Living Fossils: Sturgeon of the San Francisco Estuary

    • Authors: Page E. Vick, John T. Kelly
      Abstract: Sturgeon are fish that are considered living fossils. Their ancestors date back over 200 million years, to the same time as dinosaurs. These fish can grow taller than humans (over 2 m), weigh over 160 kg, and live as long as humans. Sturgeon species have special adaptations, such as a vacuum-like mouth and body armor called scutes. There are 27 species of sturgeon worldwide. Two species, green and white sturgeon, are native to California, USA, and are some of the largest animals in San Francisco Bay. Sturgeon populations have declined due to habitat loss, water management, overfishing, poaching, pollution, and climate change. Sturgeon cannot jump over barriers like salmon can, so structures like dams that block water also block sturgeon from reaching their natural spawning habitat farther upstream in the river. Scientists are using new technologies to monitor sturgeon populations and discover the unique behaviors of these dinosaur-era fish in California’s rivers and estuaries.
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T00:00:00Z
       
  • Estuaries, A Happy Place For Fish

    • Authors: Pedro Morais, Ester Dias
      Abstract: Anchovies, salmon, sardines, gobies, mullets, flounder, bass, barbels, eels, shad, and even sharks—what do they have in common' Well, at certain points in their lives you may find them in estuaries, the final sections of rivers before they meet the ocean. Some fish live in estuaries their entire lives. However, some fish species prefer living in the freshwater parts of estuaries, others only live close to the ocean, and a few others spread throughout the estuary. Some species prefer living close to the bottom, some in marshes, and some constantly swim around in the estuary. Some prefer eating other fish, while other species like worms, or insects, or microscopic animals. Unfortunately, many estuarine species are in danger, and all because of humans. In this article, we will tell you why estuaries are such special places for fish and describe some of the species that call the San Francisco Estuary their home.
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T00:00:00Z
       
  • Plastics and Plankton in Our Seas

    • Authors: Penelope K. Lindeque, Zara L. R. Botterell, Rachel L. Coppock, Matthew Cole
      Abstract: Plastic litter is found everywhere. Walk onto any beach around the world and you will almost certainly find plastic. The harm that large plastic litter can cause to marine animals is well-known; for example, you may have seen sad pictures of turtles eating plastic bags or seals tangled in discarded fishing nets. However, scientists are also concerned about microscopic-sized plastic that we do not normally see, and the problems these tiny plastic particles can cause to small marine animals called zooplankton. We focus on a group of zooplankton called copepods. These small-but-mighty crustaceans are amongst the most abundant animals on our planet, and they play a vital role in regulating Earth’s climate. In this article, we will explain what happens when copepods encounter this microscopic plastic, why they eat plastic, and the impacts it has on their health and on the wider ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T00:00:00Z
       
  • A Mythic Labyrinth Inside Your Vehicle Prevents Gasoline Leakage

    • Authors: Joel Gutiérrez-Martínez, Nguyen Esmeralda López-Lozano
      Abstract: It is hard to believe that our vehicles can contaminate the environment even when they are not running. This is a consequence of evaporated gasoline leaking from a vehicle’s fuel tank into the atmosphere. To avoid this leakage, evaporated gasoline is vented to a canister packed with charcoal particles called activated carbon. There are deep, channel-like spaces inside activated carbon where gasoline molecules are adsorbed. Adsorption is a process in which molecules of gas or liquid stick to the surface of something solid. Through adsorption it is possible to remove various pollutants from air and water. To understand how adsorption by activated carbon works, picture activated carbon as a maze that traps the gasoline particles and does not let them escape. Finally, we describe current efforts to develop new adsorbing materials from the waste product of another industry, to improve upon the activated carbon currently used in vehicles.
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • How Can We Train The Brain To Help Stroke Patients'

    • Authors: Christoph Guger, Marc Sebastián-Romagosa, Woosang Cho, Tim Von Oertzen, Kyousuke Kamada, Brendan Z. Allison, Rupert Ortner
      Abstract: Many people who have had a stroke have trouble moving, even after therapy with the best experts and methods. New ways to make stroke therapy more effective could help people recover more effectively. Some research groups have developed brain-computer interface (BCI) systems that can measure when a stroke patient imagines hand movement by recording brain waves. We developed a BCI that used each patient’s brain activity to control a muscle stimulator and a monitor during therapy. The patients got rewarding feedback during therapy when they imagined a movement correctly. We tested 51 patients, some of whom had a stroke many years ago. Forty nine patients improved after the therapy, based on the results of standardized tests. Therefore, BCI-based therapy could help some stroke patients. We think there will be further advances in the next several years that will lead to more effective therapies using BCIs.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Global Ocean Climate Change: Observing From Ships

    • Authors: Lynne D. Talley
      Abstract: Have you stood on the beach or crossed the ocean on a plane, wondered at the enormous size of the ocean, and possibly thought about how it regulates our climate' Or how our climate is changing' Or what harm our extra carbon dioxide and heat are causing to life in the ocean' The oceans take up heat from the atmosphere and sun, they change their saltiness as they are either evaporated or rained on, and they exchange gases with the atmosphere, including some of the extra carbon dioxide that humans add to the atmosphere. Ocean currents and mixing carry heat and carbon for tens to hundreds of years, and as they move heat and carbon around, the currents alter the atmosphere above. We only have this knowledge because we have been observing the ocean from ships for a century, adding satellites, and drifting instruments in the last few decades.
      PubDate: 2021-09-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Learning by Accident: Some Memory Mistakes Are Not Totally Wrong

    • Authors: Juan D. Guevara Pinto, Megan H. Papesh, Michael C. Hout
      Abstract: When your parent picks you up from school, how do you know which car is theirs' You probably “just know,” even without effortfully trying to memorize the brand, type, or color of the car. Although we often think of memory in terms of intentionally studying for tests, many memories are formed accidentally, without you even trying to intentionally learn something. But how detailed are these accidental memories' Do pieces of information remain, even if we feel like we have forgotten them' To explore these questions, we conducted an experiment in which participants searched through pictures, looking for specific objects. Later, and without warning, we asked people to choose previously seen pictures from a group of similar objects. Even when participants’ choices were wrong, they often chose pictures that looked much like a picture they saw earlier. These “mistakes” do not reflect total forgetting, but instead show that people remember more than they think!
      PubDate: 2021-09-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Balanced Lethal Systems: An Evolutionary Mystery

    • Authors: Willem R. M. Meilink, James France, Manon C. de Visser, Ben Wielstra
      Abstract: When a female crested newt lays her clutch of about three-hundred eggs, half of these will never hatch. What an incredible waste! It turns out that these newts suffer from a deadly hereditary disease called a balanced lethal system. Here is how it works: in a balanced lethal system, there are two distinct versions of a particular chromosome. Newts need both to live. However, which version a fertilized newt egg gets from its father and mother is random. Therefore, there is a 50% chance that it receives the same version twice—and misses the other half of the critical pair. Hence, half of the eggs end up with the wrong chromosome combination and die. The newts are not the only example; balanced lethal systems are found in some plants and insects as well. Why something so disadvantageous as a balanced lethal system would ever evolve is still a big, evolutionary mystery!
      PubDate: 2021-09-24T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Clever Strategies That Fishes Use to Survive in San Francisco’s
           Dynamic Estuary

    • Authors: Rachel A. Fichman, Adi Khen, Malte Willmes, Jonathon Kuntz, Alexander R. Scott, James A. Hobbs, Levi S. Lewis
      Abstract: Estuaries are places where fresh water from rivers mixes with salty water from the ocean. Why does this matter' This mixing creates dynamic, ever-changing conditions that fishes must navigate in order to survive. Environmental conditions can change yearly, seasonally, daily, and even hourly. Fishes use many different strategies to adjust to this wild variation. Some are picky and only use certain habitats. Others use many different kinds of habitats and move between them at different times of the year. Adults and juveniles might even live away from each other in different parts of the estuary. In this article, we describe some of the clever strategies that fishes use to survive in estuaries. We also consider how scientists uncover these clever strategies and what each of us can do to help protect the fishes of the San Francisco Estuary and elsewhere.
      PubDate: 2021-09-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • How Oligodendrocytes Help The Brain Function

    • Authors: Tracey A. C. S. Suter, Zhigang He
      Abstract: Imagine you had a really important message that you had to deliver to your friend as quickly as possible. Would you send your friend a handwritten letter through the postal service that would arrive in a few days' Or would you send an email, which gets delivered almost instantly' A neuron’s job is to speedily send messages across the brain, spinal cord, and body. Neurons receive help with performing this important job from another kind of cell, called oligodendrocytes. In this article, we describe how oligodendrocytes help neurons rapidly send their messages, and how scientists are trying to protect and replace oligodendrocytes that are damaged in diseases like multiple sclerosis, or after a brain injury.
      PubDate: 2021-09-17T00:00:00Z
       
 
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