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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access  
ABC Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access  
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access  
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avrasya Terim Dergisi     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Scientific Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
BibNum     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
BJHS Themes     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Central European Journal of Clinical Research     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Dharmakarya     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Results     Open Access  
Extensionismo, Innovación y Transferencia Tecnológica     Open Access  
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access  
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access  
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Technology and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access  
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Science & Emerging Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access  
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access  
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science     Open Access  
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Research     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Scientometric Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science     Open Access  

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ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2410-9355 - ISSN (Online) 2307-549X
Published by Koya University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Contact Geometrical Study for Top Emitting 980 nm InGaAs/GaAsP
           Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

    • Authors: Faten A. Chaqmaqchee
      Abstract: Geometrical contacts of a double mesa structure with 16 rows ×15 columns arrays of top emitting GaAs based 980 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are fabricated and characterized. In this paper, 5 strained In0.22Ga0.78As/Ga0.9AsP0.1 quantum wells (QWs) within λ/2 thick cavity have been employed. The top and the bottom epitaxially grown mirrors are based on the linear graded Al0.9Ga0.1As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with 20.5 and 37 periods, respectively. Static parameters including threshold currents, rollover currents, maximum optical output power and wall-plug efficiency are extracted from light out power-current-voltage (LIV) of VCSELs with fixed oxide aperture diameter of ∅~ 6 μm and various mesa2 diameters. In addition, spectral emission for 980 nm VCSELs of oxide aperture between ∅~ 6 and 19 μm and with fixed ∅~ 6 μm and different bias currents are analyzed. The highest optical output power of around 33 dBm is observed at bias current of 0.8 mA for short−reach optical interconnect applications.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Dec 2021 09:12:29 +000
  • Flood Modeling on Koya Catchment Area Using Hyfran, Web Map Service, and
           HEC-RAS Software

    • Authors: Anwer H. Dawood; Dana K. Mawlood, Nadhir Al-Ansari
      Abstract: In this research, The boundaries of the Koya catchment area have been delineated, and valley paths in the region were drawn by using the Water Modeling System (WMS) software, Analysis of the morphometric information indicated that the morphometric characteristics of watersheds contribute to the floods. The average surface runoff depth depends on the curve number values that are determined based on the types of soil cover and soil class according to Harmonized World Soil Database HWSD software that indicates the soil class in the study area are Group B silt loam,  The results obtained also show that the potential for surface runoff varies with land use and soil characteristics. Also, the value of the curve number (CN) was determined to be 71. The hydrological modeling was performed by the HEC-HMS program that simulates the process of rainfall to runoff using the SCS curve number model. A flood hydrograph was constructed at the catchment area outlet and the floodplain delineation was verified by the HEC-RAS software. The results indicated that the 100-year return period flood could Reach critical areas such as the urban area, agricultural area, residential areas. the results of this study indicate that there are suitable sites in the catchment areas for constructing small dams and ponds for water harvesting. 
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • A Review of the Development and Applicability of Double-Skin Facades in
           Hot Climates

    • Authors: Aare N. Abtar
      Abstract: A double-skin façade (DSF) is a multilayered skin that was initially designed for the cold climate of European countries with noticeable success. Since then, countries in different climates started looking into the possibility of adopting DSF through the use of computer simulations to avoid any unforeseen problems in real life. This study aims to look into the possibility and level of success in using DSF in the Middle East’s hot-arid climate, making it a challenge compared to European countries. The study utilized a quantitative investigative approach in analyzing the results of some studies done in different countries in the Middle East. After looking into the results from different papers, careful considerations have to be made for the building due to its location and microclimate to
      determine specific parameters (e.g., combination of transparent and opaque materials, proportion between floor level and screen height, orientation and cavity depth), these would lead to a significant impact on reducing a building’s cooling loads and energy efficiency. It is worth noting that mechanical ventilation (e.g., supplying all return cool air from internal spaces into the DSF cavity or integrating the building’s heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system with the façade) is necessary for DSF in hot climates to cool and maintain its cavity’s temperature to function properly. However, this increases cooling loads, energy consumption, and running costs of the building which architects have to consider to determine the most efficient and economical solution in material and equipment.  
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activity of Pistacia atlantica var.
           kurdica Fruits

    • Authors: Raad A. Kaskoos; Javed Ahamad, Subasini Uthirapathy
      Abstract: Pistacia atlantica var. kurdica (Anacardiaceae) is a major subspecies found in the Kurdistan region of Iraq and has several beneficial bioactivities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiviral. P. atlantica growing in the Kurdistan region is not yet studied phytochemically and pharmacologically. Hence, the goal of the present study is to characterize chemical compounds present in ethanolic extract of P. atlantica fruits by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) and to evaluate cytotoxic activity using A549 (human lung cancer) cell lines by (3-4,5 dimethylthiazol-2yl2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. The GC–MS analysis shows the presence of 33 chemical compounds which constitute about 99.95% of total compounds, and isospathulenol (14.63%), spathulenol (13.45%), α-terpineol (13.28%), limonene (10.92%), terpinolene (10.89%), β-myrcene (6.92%), ethyl pentadecanoate (6.15%), β-pinene (4.98%), and caryophyllene oxide (4.01%) were found as major chemical compounds. P. atlantica inhibits cell proliferation in A549 cell lines in a time (24 h) and dose-dependent manner (0.5–500 µg/mL). After 24 h of treatment with P. atlantica, the cell viability of A549 cell lines ranged from 93.01 ± 5.24 to 57.69 ± 4.15% for concentrations of 0.5–500 µg/mL, respectively. This study expands the knowledge of the chemical composition of P. atlantica fruits and provides scientific evidence for its possible use as an anticancer medicine. The substantial anticancer activity of P. atlantica fruits may be due to the presence of isospathulenol, spathulenol, α-terpineol, limonene, terpinolene, β-myrcene, ethyl pentadecanoate, β-pinene, and caryophyllene oxide.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 19:22:29 +000
  • Design and Analysis of a Wide Stopband Microstrip Dual-band Bandpass

    • Authors: Salah I. Yahya; Abbas Rezaei, Yazen A. Khaleel
      Abstract: A novel configuration of a dual-band bandpass filter (BPF) working as a harmonic attenuator is introduced and fabricated. The proposed filter operates at 3 GHz, for UHF and SHF applications, and 6.3 GHz, for wireless applications. The presented layout has a symmetric structure, which consists of coupled resonators. The designing of the proposed resonator is performed by introducing a new LC equivalent model of coupled lines. To verify the LC model of the coupled lines, the lumped elements are calculated. The introduced filter has a wide stopband up to 85 GHz with 28th harmonic suppression, for the first channel, and 13th harmonic suppression, for the second channel. The harmonics are attenuated using a novel structure. Also, the proposed BPF has a compact size of 0.056 λg2. Having several transmission zeros (TZs) that improve the performance of the presented BPF is another feature. The proposed dual-band BPF is fabricated and measured to verify the design method, where the measurement results confirm the simulations.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 18:58:41 +000
  • Reducing Environment Pollution by Reusing of Alum Sludge Waste in Stone
           Mastic Asphalt Mixtures

    • Authors: Omar T. Mahmood
      Abstract: Globally, a huge quantity of alum sludge waste is produced as a by-product material from drinking water treatment plants that utilize aluminum salts as an essential coagulate and is the most generally produced water treatment remaining sludge around the world, which causes a serious environmental problem. Direct discarding of this substance has ecological effects. Hence, it is important to reuse this alum sludge waste material in such a manner to diminish its detrimental impacts on the environment. This research investigates the possibility of reusing alum sludge waste as a partial replacement of cement filler in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) paving mixtures. For this investigation, the alum sludge was used as a filler material in SMA mixtures in two modes; dried alum sludge at 110°C and burned alum sludge at 700°C. Different percentages of alum sludge were used as a replacement by the total weight of mineral filler at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. The results showed that using alum sludge as a substitution of filler in SMA mixtures reduces the performance of the mixtures in terms of Marshall properties and tensile strength for both dried and burned alum sludge compared with a standard mix. However, the performance of the mixtures containing burned alum sludge gave a better performance than the mixtures containing dried alum sludge.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Dec 2021 09:14:06 +000
  • First Principle Calculations for Silver Halides AgBr, AgCl, and AgF

    • Authors: Akram H. Taha
      Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) coupled with ) method are carried out to calculate the electronic structures of AgX (X; Br, Cl, and F). The effect of hybridizing between 4d orbital of Ag element and the p orbitals of the X in the valence band plays a very important role in the total density of states configuration. The electronic structure has been studied and all results were compared with the experimental and theoretical values. The importance of this work is that there is insufficient studies of silver halides corresponding the great importance of these compounds. Almost all the results were consistent with the previous studies mentioned here. We found the band gap of AgX to be 2.343 eV, 2.553 eV, and 1.677 eV for AgBr, AgCl, and AgF respectively which are in good agreement with the experimental results.      
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Dec 2021 10:32:37 +000
  • Categorization of Bacterial Pathogens Present in Infected Wounds and their
           Antibiotic Resistance Profile Recovered from Patients Attending Rizgary

    • Authors: Ahmed A. Al-Naqshbandi; Hedy A. Hassan, Mahmoud A. Chawsheen, Haval H. Abdul Qader
      Abstract: Wound infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria can extend a patients’ debility and increase the expense of treatment in the long term; therefore, careful management of patients with wound infections is necessary to avoid complications. The usage of antimicrobial agent is a major factor in resistance development. This study aims to understand the causes of wound infections, as well as the criteria for diagnosing them for more sensible antibiotic prescribing. Samples from 269 wound patients were collected, and cultured for bacterial growth. Gram stain technique, bacterial identification via VITEK 2 compact system were investigated in this study. Gram negative bacteria accounted for 59.15% of the total isolates, while pathogenic gram positive bacteria accounted for 40.85% of total isolates. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the dominant pathogenic gram negative bacteria in wounds, while Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the dominant pathogenic gram positive bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed 100% resistance to the majority of antibiotic tested, including Ampicillin, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid, Aztreona, Ceftriaxone, and others. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are 100% resistant to Ampicillin, Ceftriaxone, and Cefotaxime. For more efficient antibiotic prescriptions, the causative microorganisms, and their current susceptibility patterns need to be mandated for testing before prescribing any antibiotics to patients. Prescriptions are frequently based solely on general information about the antibiotic's function, rather than on individual response variation to the pathogen and the antibiotic. Particularly when the common pathogens in this study show multidrug resistance in wounds.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Dec 2021 16:00:37 +000
  • Preparation and Characterization of Green Fe3 O4 Nanoparticle Using the
           Aqueous Plant Extract of Gundelia tournefortii L.

    • Authors: Aveen F. Jalal; Nabil A. Fakhre
      Abstract: In this work, the magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) synthesized using a simple, fast, and environmentally acceptable green approach. Gundelia Tournefortii Extract, an aqueous plant extract, was used for the first time in green synthesis to prepare nanoparticles as reducing, capping, and stabilizing agents. Such biomolecules as flavonoids, alkaloids, and antioxidants are found in the aqueous leaf extract, and their presence has been determined to have an important role in the synthesis of Fe3O4-NPs. The techniques used in this analysis include Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The Vibrating Sample Magnetometer demonstrated that the samples were superparamagnetic, with a magnetization value of 48.6 emu/g. The prepared nanoparticle was applied to  remove Chrystal Violet (CV), Malachite Green(MG), and Safranin (S) dyes from prepared aqueous solutions with the adsorption capacity of 13.9, 15.6, and 14.4 mg/g respectively.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Dec 2021 15:45:40 +000
  • Seroprevalence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2
           Immunoglobulin M and Immunoglobulin G Antibodies among the Population of
           Koya University

    • Authors: Safia S. I. Blbas; Hiwa A. Ahmad, Dawan J. Hawezy, Hemn Shawgery, Hersh N. Bahadin
      Abstract: Coronavirus is a pandemic disease. In most cases, the exact infection rate cannot be determined as not everybody can be tested for the virus, even though some of them carry the virus silently. Therefore, detection of antibodies of this virus is more practical to give us a better clue about the rate of infection because the asymptomatic people can be tested too. The serological detection of anti-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) antibodies among asymptomatic and moderate symptomatic individuals gives us the vital point to understanding the prevalence rate of COVID-19 among the population. Total of (436) volunteers were participated, (96) from teaching staff, (172) employee, and (168) students. Anti-SARS-COV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) were detected in the serum by ELISA technique, and complete blood count was performed for all participants. The number of seropositive of anti-SARS-COV-2/IgG was (159), whereas IgM was (66). The highest prevalence rate of IgG detected among participants with family member infected with coronavirus (42.7%). Total WBCs count significantly increased among IgM positive participants. Many asymptomatic people were infected with coronavirus, which lead to more spreading of the virus among the population. Therefore, mass screening of the population for specific antibody against coronavirus is important to reduce the infection rate.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Nov 2021 19:07:25 +000
  • The Study of Optical and Electrical Properties of Nanostructured Silicon
           Carbide Thin Films Grown by Pulsed-Laser Deposition

    • Authors: Muhanad A. Ahmed; Mohammed F. Mohammed Sabri, Wathiq R. Abed
      Abstract: In this paper, nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) thin films are deposited onto glass substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. Electrical and optical characterizations such as conductivity, resistivity, transmission, Seeback effect, absorption, absorption coefficient, energy band gap, and extinction coefficient as a function of photon energy, and the effect of thin films thickness on transmission are carried out to characterize the prepared samples. Results showed that the prepared SiC thin film is an n-type semiconductor with an indirect bandgap of ~3 eV, 448 nm cutoff wavelength, 3.4395 × 104 cm−1 absorption coefficient and 0.154 extinction coefficient. The surface morphology of the SiC thin films is studied using scanning electron microscope at a substrate temperature of 400 °C and it is found that the grain size of the prepared SiC thin film is about 30 nm. As such, the nano thin films optical and structural characteristics enable the films to be used as gases sensors in many optoelectronic devices such as the environment and ultraviolet photodiode.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Nov 2021 16:56:00 +000
  • Comparative Quality Analysis between Tap Water and Bottled Water

    • Authors: Hanaa A. Muhammad; Khalid N. Sediq, Kwestan H. Sdiq
      Abstract: Recently, bottled water consumption has been increasing significantly, even when the quality of tap water is considered excellent, which contributes to plastic pollution. Besides, reducing the use of plastic generally is recommended world widely, as its consumption is in an alarming rate. Therefore, this study aims to compare the tap and bottled water and manifest the reasons behind choosing the bottled water, which is less comfortable and often more expensive over the tap water. In this study, samples have been taken from both bottled and tap water in Koya city from November 2020 to May 2021 to test their quality using PH, DO, EC, and TDS meter, hardness was determined by complexometric titration method at 21°C, and XRF spectrometers. According to the quality standards, most of the variables were in a permissible range, except for dissolved oxygen and Aluminum content in both types of water and TDS for two types of bottled water. However, the quality of tap water was much safer to be used, as compared with the bottled water. 
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Nov 2021 06:56:58 +000
  • Spontaneous Emission Enhancement of CdSe Quantum Dots Embedded in a
           Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal L3 Nanocavity

    • Authors: Khalid N. Sediq
      Abstract: Two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities were designed to tailor cavity quantum electrodynamics. Enhancing the spontaneous emission of low-quality factor nanocavity with embedded CdSe quantum dots (QDs) emitters is the aim of this study. Low concentration layer of CdSe QDs was sandwiched between two layers of Si2 N3 membrane using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The modification rate in spontaneous emission of L3 nanocavity up to 2.3-fold has been observed at 629.5 nm in compare to bare cavities. High field confinement in the sub-wavelength regime became an interest field for quantum electrodynamics applications and good platform to study light matter interactions.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Nov 2021 13:43:11 +000
  • Examining Heterogeneity Structured on a Large Data Volume with Minimal

    • Authors: Nahla Aljojo
      Abstract: While Big Data analytics can provide a variety of benefits, processing heterogeneous data comes with its own set of limitations. A transaction pattern must be studied independently while working with Bitcoin data, this study examines twitter data related to Bitcoin and investigate communications pattern on bitcoin transactional tweet. Using the hashtags #Bitcoin or #BTC on Twitter, a vast amount of data was gathered, which was mined to uncover a pattern that everyone either (speculators, teaches, or the stakeholders) uses on Twitter to discuss Bitcoin transactions. This aim is to determine the direction of Bitcoin transaction tweets based on historical data. As a result, this research proposes using Big Data analytics to track Bitcoin transaction communications in tweets in order to discover a pattern. Hadoop platform MapReduce was used. The finding indicate that In the map step of the procedure, Hadoop's tokenize the dataset and parse them to the mapper where thirteen patterns were established and reduced to three patterns using the attributes previously stored data in the Hadoop context, one of which is the Emoji data that was left out in previous research discussions, but the text is only one piece of the puzzle on bitcoin transaction interaction, and the key part of it is “No certainty, only possibilities” in Bitcoin transactions
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Nov 2021 13:42:37 +000
  • A Comparison of Top Distributed Bragg Reflector for 1300 nm Vertical
           Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers Based on III–V Compound

    • Authors: Shawbo A. Abubaker
      Abstract: In this work, the design of GaAs/AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) has been implemented for 1300 nm vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs) for optical fiber communication applications. The top DBR period and Al concentration are varied, the peak reflectivity of the DBR is increasing from 50% to 97.5% for 13 periods with increasing Al concentration, whereas the reflectivity bandwidth is increased to almost 190 nm. The relation between wavelength and incidence angle variation on DBR reflectivity is increasing with the incident angle (0°, 20°, 30°, and 50°), the resonant wavelength and bandwidth of the measured reflectance spectra shifts to shorter wavelength and wider bandwidth, respectively. In addition, a comparison between the linear, the graded, and the parabolic DBRs has been achieved with transfer matrix method using MATLAB software to show the influence of layer in DBRs and its effect on lasing wavelength. It is shown that using grading DBR mirror is much more beneficial compared to abrupt DBR, whereas it has lower reflectivity of almost 10% due to VCSOAs device which needs less number of top layers until prevent reaching lasing threshold.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Oct 2021 16:28:50 +000
  • Identification and Characterization of Different Types of Plastics Wastes
           Using X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence Techniques

    • Authors: Shawbo A. Abubaker; Faten A. chaqmaqchee, Akram H. Taha
      Abstract: In this study, different types of polymers in postconsumer plastics with pure plastics have been studied. Highdensity polyethylene (HDPE1 and HDPE2), polyvinyl chloride (PVC3 and PVC4), polyethylene terephthalate (PET5 and PET6), and polypropylenes (PP7 and PP8) were compared using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques. XRF has shown the spectral in K-lines of polymer materials present in plastics waste. The peak intensity and degree of crystallinity of commercial polymers are varied using XRD analysis. The intensity not attributable to the crystalline peaks may be regarded as the amorphous scattering and used as a template in analyzing the diffraction pattern of the samples. The XRD analysis helps to provide characteristic spectral lines whose intensities vary with the type of each constituent polymer. The combined usage of XRD and XRF techniques yielded very useful and effective results for a commercial plastic management.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Oct 2021 16:27:14 +000
  • Withania Somnifera: Correlation of Phytoconstituents with Hypolipidemic
           and Cardioprotective Activities

    • Authors: Subasini Uthirapathy; Tara F. Tahir
      Abstract: Withania somnifera (WS) (Dunal) or Ashwagandha is a well-known hypolipidemic herb and antioxidant. In this study, 75% ethanolic extract of WS is attempted to evaluate the cardioprotective activity of isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity and hypolipidemic activity in Triton WR 1339-induced hyperlipidemia. In addition,
      phytochemical evaluation of the same extracts analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). This study found that 7 days of therapy with WS extracts at 1000 mg/kg b.wt. reduced cholesterol by 76%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by 71%, and TAG by 12% (P < 0.05). Furthermore, it can significantly reduce cholesterol and LDL levels (P < 0.05). Similarly, the use of 50 mg/kg b.wt. of WS extract showed a cardioprotective effect against isoproterenol-induced cardiac toxic rats. The antioxidants glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are increased in WS extract (P < 0.05), whereas the release of cardiac indicators in heart tissue is reduced (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a 30-day treatment with WS also reduced triacylglycerol in isoprenaline-induced cardiotoxic rats. GC–MS analysis of the methanol fraction of the Ashwagandha 70% ethanolic extract showed the presence of higher concentrations of fatty acids. In conclusion, WS showed hypolipidemic and cardioprotective activities in diseased animals induced by isoproterenol and Triton WR 1339.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Oct 2021 10:45:25 +000
  • Kurdish Dialect Recognition using 1D CNN

    • Authors: Karzan J. Ghafoor; Karwan M. Hama Rawf, Ayub O. Abdulrahman, Sarkhel H. Taher
      Abstract: Dialect recognition is one of the most attentive topics in the speech analysis area. Machine learning algorithms have been widely used to identify dialects. In this paper, a model that based on three different 1D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) structures is developed for Kurdish dialect recognition. This model is evaluated, and CNN structures are compared to each other. The result shows that the proposed model has outperformed the state of the art. The model is evaluated on the experimental data that have been collected by the staff of department of computer science at the University of Halabja. Three dialects are involved in the dataset as the Kurdish language consists of three major dialects, namely Northern Kurdish (Badini variant), Central Kurdish (Sorani variant), and Hawrami. The advantage of the CNN model is not required to concern handcraft as the CNN model is featureless. According to the results, the 1 D CNN method can make predictions with an average accuracy of 95.53% on the Kurdish dialect classification. In this study, a new method is proposed to interpret the closeness of the Kurdish dialects by using a confusion matrix and a non-metric multi-dimensional visualization technique. The outcome demonstrates that it is straightforward to cluster given Kurdish dialects and linearly isolated from the neighboring dialects.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Oct 2021 10:44:53 +000
  • Efficient Kinect Sensor-based Kurdish Sign Language Recognition Using Echo
           System Network

    • Authors: Sami F. Mirza; Abdulbasit K. Al-Talabani
      Abstract: Sign language assists in building communication and bridging gaps in understanding. Automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) is a field that has recently been studied for various sign languages. However, Kurdish sign language (KuSL) is relatively new and therefore researches and designed datasets on it are limited. This paper has proposed a model to translate KuSL into text and has designed a dataset using Kinect V2 sensor. The computation complexity of feature extraction and classification steps, which are serious problems for ASLR, has been investigated in this paper. The paper proposed a feature engineering approach on the skeleton position alone to provide a better representation of the features and avoid the use of all of the image information. In addition, the paper proposed model makes use of recurrent neural networks (RNNs)-based models. Training RNNs is inherently difficult, and consequently, motivates to investigate alternatives. Besides the trainable long short-term memory (LSTM), this study has proposed the untrained low complexity echo system network (ESN) classifier. The accuracy of both LSTM and ESN indicates they can outperform those in state-of-the-art studies. In addition, ESN which has not been proposed thus far for ASLT exhibits comparable accuracy to the LSTM with a significantly lower training time.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Oct 2021 08:29:35 +000
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