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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ABC Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Academic Voices : A Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
AZimuth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Scientific Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
BIBECHANA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BibNum     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bistua : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Básicas     Open Access  
BJHS Themes     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Central European Journal of Clinical Research     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencia, Docencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal  
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Dharmakarya     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Episteme Transversalis     Open Access  
Ergo     Open Access  
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Results     Open Access  
Extensionismo, Innovación y Transferencia Tecnológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 372)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Iberoamerican Journal of Science Measurement and Communication     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Advancement in Education and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Innovative Research in Social and Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science & Emerging Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sciences : Basic and Applied Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Review of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Scienze     Open Access  
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science     Open Access  
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Interaction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Law, Information and Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)

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Heliyon
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.355
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2405-8440
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3304 journals]
  • The role of DOCK10 in the regulation of the transcriptome and aging

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Natalia Ruiz-Lafuente, Alfredo Minguela, Manuel Muro, Antonio Parrado DOCK10, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac1 and Cdc42 Rho GTPases whose expression is induced by interleukin-4 (IL-4) in B cells, is involved in B cell development and function according to recent studies performed in Dock10-knockout (KO) mice. To investigate whether DOCK10 is involved in regulation of the transcriptome, changes in the gene expression profiles (GEPs) were studied by microarray in three cellular models: DOCK10 expression induced by doxycycline (dox) withdrawal in a stable inducible HeLa clone, DOCK10 expression induced by transient transfection of 293T cells, and wild type (WT) versus KO mouse spleen B cells (SBC). In all three systems, DOCK10 expression determined moderate differences in the GEPs, which were functionally interpreted by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Common signatures significantly associated to expression of DOCK10 were found in all three systems, including the upregulated targets of HOXA5 and the SWI/SNF complex, and EGF signaling. In SBC, Dock10 expression was associated to enrichment of gene sets of Cmyb, integrin, IL-4, Wnt, Rac1, and Cdc42 pathways, and of cellular components such as the immunological synapse and the cell leading edge. Transcription of genes involved in these pathways likely acts as a feedforward mechanism downstream of activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 mediated by DOCK10. Interestingly, a senescence gene set was found significantly associated to WT SBC. To test whether DOCK10 is related to aging, we set out to analyse the survival of the mouse colony, which led to the finding that Dock10-KO mice lived longer than WT mice. Moreover, Dock10-KO mice showed slower loss of their coat during aging. These results indicate a role for Dock10 in senescence. These novel roles of DOCK10 in the regulation of the transcriptome and aging deserve further exploration.
       
  • Cyberbullying and its influence on academic, social, and emotional
           development of undergraduate students

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Yehuda Peled This study investigated the influence of cyberbullying on the academic, social, and emotional development of undergraduate students. It's objective is to provides additional data and understanding of the influence of cyberbullying on various variables affecting undergraduate students. The survey sample consisted of 638 Israeli undergraduate students. The data were collected using the Revised Cyber Bullying Survey, which evaluates the frequency and media used to perpetrate cyberbullying, and the College Adjustment Scales, which evaluate three aspects of development in college students. It was found that 57% of the students had experienced cyberbullying at least once or twice through different types of media. Three variables were found to have significant influences on the research variables: gender, religion and sexual preferences. Correlation analyses were conducted and confirmed significant relationships between cyberbullying, mainly through instant messaging, and the academic, social and emotional development of undergraduate students. Instant messaging (IM) was found to be the most common means of cyberbullying among the students.The main conclusions are that although cyberbullying existence has been proven, studies of cyberbullying among undergraduate students have not been fully developed. This particular population needs special attention in future research. The results of this study indicate that cyberbullying has an influence on the academic, social, and emotional development of undergraduate students. Additional Implications of the findings are discussed.
       
  • Highly porous multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper using electrospun
           polyacrylonitrile nanofiber as a sacrificial material

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): J.A. Rojas, L.A. Ardila-Rodríguez, M.F. Diniz, M. Gonçalves, B. Ribeiro, M.C. Rezende Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was solubilized in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) and the electrospinning process has been employed to obtain PAN nanofibers (PF). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were dispersed with the aid of Triton X-100 surfactant and subsequently centrifugated. Buckypapers (BP/PF) were prepared by vacuum filtration procedure of MWCNT suspension supernatant stacking four PF layers over a nylon membrane. The PF removal was carried out by immersing the BP/PF system in DMF and removal periods of 10 and 30 min were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has not shown any PAN residue in the MWCNT network resulting in highly porous BP. However, by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) a PAN band was found around of 2243 cm−1 corresponding to nitrile group (C≡N). Besides, PAN leftover was evidenced by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), electrical characterization through four-point probe, nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, and X-ray diffraction (XRD).
       
  • A novel poly-oxygenated flavone glucoside from aerial parts of the
           Brazilian plant Neoglaziovia variegata (Bromeliaceae)

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Ayaan Hamdi Haji Ibrahim, Lars Herfindal, Bendik Rathe, Heidi Lie Andersen, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Torgils Fossen Neoglaziovia variegata is endemic to northeastern Brazil. The drought resistant plant produces edible fruits and is used as a fibre plant by rural communities in the Caatinga region where a variety of products are made from the white, soft and flexible fibres. Extracts of N. variegata have been reported to be of low toxicity and to exhibit antinociceptive effect, photoprotective potential, antioxidant effect, gastroprotective effects and antibacterial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, however, the chemical constituents of this species are mainly unknown. The novel poly-oxygenated flavone glucoside 5,6,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-flavone 7-O-β-glucopyranoside in addition to the rare poly-oxygenated flavone 5,4'-dihydroxy-6,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone 4'-O-β-glucopyranoside and the flavonol quercetin 3-O-(6''-rhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranoside) have been characterised from the leaves of N. variegata. 5,6,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-flavone, which comprises the core structure of the novel compound, is a new flavonoid aglycone in nature. The structure determinations were based on extensive use of 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Both substances exhibited toxicity towards MOLM-13 acute myeloid leukaemia cells.
       
  • Creative utterances about person-centered care among future health care
           professionals are related to reward dependence rather than to a creative
           personality profile

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Danilo Garcia, Izabella Jedel, Max Rapp-Ricciardi, Erik Lindskär, Kristian Molander-Söderholm, Cecilia Fagerström, Sverker Sikström BackgroundCreativity can be defined as the creation of something that is novel, useful, and valuable for society (i.e., high-level creativity) and/or everyday life. In this context, people have implicit theories of creativity as being either non-malleable (i.e., a fixed creative mindset) or malleable (i.e., a growth creative mindset). Our aim was twofold: (1) to test an improved creative mindset priming paradigm (i.e., adding high-level/everyday creativity perspectives and using an organizational important task) by assessing if participants used different ways to answer to the prime and (2) to analyse the relationship between personality and creative utterances regarding an important topic in participants' future professions.MethodStudents (N = 73) from different health care professions were randomly assigned to the non-malleable or malleable creative mindset priming paradigm (i.e., fixed vs. growth) and then asked to write about (a) their own creativity, (b) person-centered care in their professions (i.e., unusual use test), and to (c) self-rate their personality (Temperament and Character Inventory). We used natural language processing methods (i.e., Latent Semantic Algorithm) to analyse participants' responses in the different conditions and also responses in relation to self-reported personality.ResultsThe fixed versus growth condition was predicted (r = .55, p < 0.0001), following Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons by participants' descriptions about creativity. Although the condition was not predicted (r = .07, p < 0.2755) by participants' utterances about person-centered care, a t-test suggested that participants used words that were semantically different depending on the condition they were randomly assigned to (t(2371) = 5.82, p = .0000). For instance, participants in the growth condition used verbs more frequently, while those in the fixed condition used the personal pronoun I more often. Finally, only the temperament trait of reward dependence (r = .32, p < 0.01) predicted the person-centered care utterances.ConclusionWe argue that the paradigm successfully primed participants to write about creativity and person-centered care using narratives with different semantic content. However, individuals' ambition to be socially accepted, rather than creative personality traits, elicited the utterances about person-centered care. The creative mindset priming paradigm presented here along language processing methods might be useful for measuring creative potential at work. We suggest that if health care personnel's notions of the activities related to care are generated from their drive to be socially accepted and not from a truly creative profile, the activities might be self-serving and not person-centered.
       
  • Modified montmorillonite nanolayers for nano-encapsulation of biomolecules

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Mozhgan Akbari Alavijeh, Mehdi Nasiri Sarvi, Zahra Ramazani Afarani Vitamin B6 was nano-encapsulated in between modified montmorillonite nanolayers. Results indicated that electrostatic interaction forces dominate the adsorption onto different sites of the nanolayers. The successful nano-encapsulation was achieved when the interlayers spaces of the nanolayer were saturated with cations of Na+ or Ca2+ resulted in adsorption of vitamin B6 in between nanosheets. At these conditions, controlled pH-responsive desorption properties were detected and vitamin B6 was released mostly from the interlayer spaces. The presented modified montmorillonite could be used for nanoencapsulation of drugs and biomolecules with high protection of carrying materials during storage and even through the digestion process.
       
  • Self esteem levels vs global scores on the Rosenberg self-esteem scale

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Jorge Acosta García, Francisco Checa y Olmos, Manuel Lucas Matheu, Tesifón Parrón Carreño BackgroundThe Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSS) is the most widely used instrument to measure this trait. Although the test offers results by levels (low, medium & high), the mean of global scores it is the indicator mostly used in scientific studies. The purpose of this study is to compare self-esteem levels with the global scores as criteria for contrasting self-esteem in subjects with and without a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse (HCSA).MethodRSS was administered to 74 subjects between 17 and 60 years, half of them with a HCSA, 20 men and 54 women; subjects without a HCSA were used as a comparison group.ResultsUsing the mean of the global scores as a criterion to compare the two groups, no significant differences were observed. However, when using self-esteem levels as a criterion, the findings indicate significant differences between subjects with and without HCSA.ConclusionsThe study shows that self-esteem levels are more accurate than global scores to describe this trait and to make comparisons between groups of subjects.
       
  • Clostridial conversion of corn syrup to Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) via
           batch and fed-batch fermentation

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Saverio Niglio, Antonio Marzocchella, Lars Rehmann Corn syrup - a commercial product derived from saccharification of corn starch - was used to produce acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium spp. Screening of commercial Clostridium spp., substrate inhibition tests and fed-batch experiments were carried out to improve ABE production using corn syrup as only carbon source. The screening tests carried out in batch mode using a production media containing 50 g/L corn syrup revealed that C. saccharobutylicum was the best performer in terms of total solvent concentration (12.46 g/L), yield (0.30 g/g) and productivity (0.19 g/L/h) and it was selected for successive experiments. Concentration of corn syrup higher than 50 g/L resulted in no solvents production. Fed-batch fermentation improved ABE production with respect to batch fermentation: the butanol and solvent concentration increased up to 8.70 and 16.68 g/L, respectively. The study demonstrated the feasibility of producing solvents via ABE fermentation using corn syrup as a model substrate of concentrated sugar mixtures.
       
  • sMOOC: A pedagogical model for social inclusion

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Carmen Marta-Lazo, Sara Osuna-Acedo, Javier Gil-Quintana In this article, the results of analysing the sMOOC launched by European project E-learning, Communication, Open Data (ECO) are displayed, from the perspective of social inclusion. Firstly, it considers people excluded from the system and, on a second stage, attention is brought towards those agents acting as social mediators. A quantitative methodology of analysis was applied to the interactions occurred in a sample of 1,361 participants at ECO Portal's course “Education Innovation and Professional Development. Possibilities and Limits of the ICTs”. Results show that ECO has massively promoted sMOOC-based training and has become present, not only in Europe, but also in a wider geographical spread, particularly in developing countries. Such training offering has been highly valued by participants in aspects related to the knowledge acquired and them feeling active role-players in the education process, which increases their commitment towards sharing that training in diverse social environments and, as a result, makes a significant impact on social inclusion processes.
       
  • Evaluation of colloidal platinum on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and
           barrier permeability across the gut epithelium

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Sinem Tunçer, Melis Çolakoğlu, Sinem Ulusan, Gülay Ertaş, Çimen Karasu, Sreeparna Banerjee Colloidal platinum (Pt) is widely consumed due to its health promoting benefits. However, the exact biological effects of these nanoparticles have not been studied in detail, particularly in the gut. In the present study we observed that colloidal Pt was not cytotoxic towards three different epithelial colon cancer cell lines. Co-treatment of the colon cancer cell line Caco-2 with the oxidative stress inducing agent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and colloidal Pt resulted in a significant decrease in H2O2 induced oxidative stress. Colloidal Pt by itself did not induce any oxidative stress. Additionally, both overnight pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with colloidal Pt followed by 1 h treatment with H2O2, or co-treatment of cells for 1 h with colloidal Pt and H2O2 resulted in a significant recovery of cell death. Of note, the same protective effects of colloidal Pt were not observed when the oxidative stress was induced in the presence of 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, indicating that the source of free radicals may define the outcome of anti-oxidant activity of colloidal Pt. Colloidal Pt was also able to cross a model intestinal barrier formed in vitro with differentiated Caco-2 cells easily. Overall, our data indicate that colloidal Pt was not toxic towards intestinal epithelial cells, reduced H2O2 induced oxidative stress, protected from oxidative stress related death of intestinal epithelial cells and could pass a model gut barrier easily. Colloidal Pt can therefore be consumed orally for its anti-oxidant and other health promoting benefits.
       
  • Analysis, modeling, control and operation of an interleaved three-port
           boost converter for DMPPT systems including PV and storage at module level
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Ander González, Ramón López-Erauskin, Johan Gyselinck This paper presents the analysis, control and implementation of the interleaved three-port boost converter. The scope of this paper is the interfacing of photovoltaic systems that include storage. A new symmetrical PWM modulation strategy that prevents unwanted switching states without requiring external circuitry is presented. This modulation allows for proper sampling of the measurements, increasing thus their accuracy. Large- and small-signal models of the interleaved and non-interleaved three port boost converters are presented and transfer functions are derived for control design purposes. The different currents in the converter are controlled using control loops that govern the behavior of the converter. These loops are intuitively designed by treating them independently. With the proper loop bandwidth selection, the converter achieves fast response and good reference tracking and is suitable to interface photovoltaic and storage systems with different kinds of loads. The presented models, modulation and control loops are validated through simulation and with experimental results.
       
  • Development of a low-fat, high-fibre snack: effect of bran particle sizes
           and processing conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Oluwatoyin Oladayo Onipe, Daniso Beswa, Victoria Adaora Jideani, Afam Israel Obiefuna Jideani The influence of fine and medium wheat bran (WB) particle sizes on process and quality parameters of a cereal fried dough (magwinya) was investigated. Magwinya is a snack that resembles, but different from doughnut and it is commonly consumed in most Sub-Saharan African countries. The effect of WB, fermentation and frying time was investigated on weight, diameter, volume, colour, hardness, fat, ash, and moisture, contents of magwinya. Further investigation on mineral and fibre contents as well as the consumer acceptance of optimised samples was also carried out. Predictive models were generated from responses with all lack of fit values>0.1, R2 values ≤0.99 and desirability function of 0.82 and 0.78 for fine and medium WB, respectively. Close agreement between experimental and predicted values for fat and ash was found. The linear, quadratic and interaction effects of process variables significantly (p < 0.05) increased ash, hardness, lightness and moisture and reduced volume and fat content of magwinya. incorporation of 15 g WB, dough fermentation time of 71.66 min (fine WB) and 76.43 min (medium WB) and 3 min frying time significantly (p < 0.05) reduced fat content of magwinya by 44.96% and 22.92%, respectively, and increased ash by 50.41% and 54.20%, respectively. Fine WB resulted in the least fat content while medium WB increased the ash and minerals.
       
  • Influence of the preparation process on the chemical composition and
           nutritional value of canned purée of kabuli and Apulian black chickpeas

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Carmine Summo, Davide De Angelis, Isabelle Rochette, Claire Mouquet-Rivier, Antonella Pasqualone Chickpeas are classified into two main commercial seed types: desi, and kabuli. Furthermore, the Apulian black is another chickpea type, less common, which has peculiar phenotypic and genetic features and is the object of an increasing attention by geneticists to avoid the risk of genetic erosion. A strategy to increase the consumption of pulses consists in proposing ready-to-eat gastronomic preparations which, however, must keep their natural features and nutritional value as intact as possible. In this paper the influence of the preparation process on the chemical composition and nutritional value of ready-to-eat canned purée of Apulian black chickpeas has been evaluated, in comparison with purée of kabuli chickpeas. Total dietary fiber content was high enough to consider the kabuli chickpea purée as "source of fiber", and the black chickpea purée as "high fiber", in accordance with the current European Regulation on nutrition claims. Along the preparation process, an increase in lipid content was observed. Protein content, instead, showed a different behaviour, i.e. increased in Apulian black chickpea purée and remained constant in kabuli chickpea purée.The preparation process strongly influenced fatty acid composition. In particular, unsaturated fatty acids decreased in both Apulian black and kabuli chickpea purées, whereas saturated fatty acids significantly increased during processing.Apulian black chickpeas are particularly rich of bioactive compounds, but the preparation process of purée caused a strong decrease of total carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. However, even after processing, this purée could still be a good source of bioactive compounds.All these features make canned purée of chickpeas a healthy ready-to-eat food, which is at the same time rich in fiber and bioactive compounds, able to fulfill the time-saving needs of modern lifestyle. These findings could promote a greater use of Apulian black chickpeas and contribute to reduce the risk of genetic erosion.
       
  • The structural relationship between tourist satisfaction and sustainable
           heritage tourism development in Tigrai, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Atsbha Gebreegziabher Asmelash, Satinder Kumar Sustainable heritage tourism cannot be materialized without guaranteeing tourist satisfaction. To this end, this study aimed at examining the structural relationship between tourist satisfaction and dimensions of sustainable heritage tourism in Tigrai, the inception of ancient Ethiopian civilization. For this study, 392 domestic and international tourists were chosen using a convenience sampling method. After the data were cautiously screened for its suitability for Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), this paper tested four hypotheses. Unlike some criticisms that consider tourists as those who do not care about sustainability, the findings of this study underpinned that the respondents were aware of tourism sustainability. In particular, the socio-cultural sustainability was the strongest predictor of tourist satisfaction followed by institutional and economic sustainability. It is essential to guarantee significant cultural exchanges between tourists and the local community while their interaction is needed to be fully positive and peaceful. Tourists look for a direct connection with the local history and living culture. The findings of this study additionally call for better management of tourism activities for institutional sustainability is affecting tourist satisfaction. Tourists' perceptions of the economic dimensions appeared to affect their satisfaction with the industry. Environmental sustainability was found an insignificant predictor. This might be partly because the majority of the respondents were cultural tourists. Finally, a relevant conclusion, theoretical and managerial implications, and future research direction are included in this study.
       
  • Stakeholders' perspectives on green building rating: A case study in
           Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Mohammed Ali Berawi, Perdana Miraj, Retno Windrayani, Abdur Rohim Boy Berawi Green building rating system has been used by many countries around the globe to certify the green buildings. However, little evidence has confirmed that stakeholders understand the theory and practical implementation of green building rating system, particularly in Indonesia. Thus, the paper aims to evaluate stakeholders knowledge of green buildings, and to propose recommendation for green building direction for the government. The result shows most of the professionals in this sector prefer considering environmental issues as the primary concern in developing the new building over social and economic aspects of sustainability. Despite their awareness of this concept, limited experience from building owner and rewards are the two main barriers to the steady progress of professionals taking certification of green building. This study also shows that the government and green building council of the country needs to evaluate the method to promote the use of green building concept and to encourage professionals taking the certification.
       
  • A kinetic study on the degradation and biodegradability of silver
           nanoparticles catalyzed Methyl Orange and textile effluents

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Niharika Nagar, Vijay Devra The present study includes the Azadirachta indica (neem) induced Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by green synthesis as reducing and capping agent. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by different instrumental techniques such as XRD (X-ray Diffraction), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), Zetasizer, UV-Visible and FT-IR (Fourier Transformation Infra-Red) spectroscopy. The result of XRD reveals that nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and pure, stability was determined by Zeta potential and SEM, TEM analysis indicates that AgNPs was monodisperse in a spherical shape with average size 9 nm. These synthesized AgNPs were applied as the catalyst in the degradation process of Methyl Orange (MO) and wastewater samples in presence of peroxodisulphate (PDS). Effect of different experimental conditions such as initial pH, concentration of PDS, Dye, and AgNPs was studied on the degradation process. The obtained kinetic result shows that AgNPs/PDS system induces 1.1 × 10−4 to 15.9 × 10−4 s-1 folds in presence of the small concentration of AgNPs (1 × 10−8 mol dm−3). The degradation of MO and real wastewater samples in AgNPs/PDS system is followed pseudo-first order kinetics and maximum degradation of MO reached 88% in 40 min and real wastewater samples in 80 min. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis and UV-Visible spectral changes were used to analyze the structure of intermediate and end products (CO2, H2O, NO3−, and O3S−) during the degradation process. Furthermore, the result of biodegradability index (greater than 0.3) implies that advanced oxidation process enhances the biodegradability of wastewater.
       
  • Performance of survivin mRNA as a biomarker for breast cancer
           among Vietnamese women

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Hien Minh Nguyen, Minh Quang Dao, Huyen Thi La ObjectiveThis study aimed to perform the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to express the survivin mRNA among patients with breast cancer in Vietnam and identify some potential associated clinical and pathological factors.MethodsPeripheral blood (PB) samples and tissues on 43 patients with breast cancer and 21 patients with fibroids were obtained. The Real-time RT-PCR and gene sequencing techniques were employed to detect survivin gene in breast cancer cell lines and cancer tissues.ResultsSurvivin mRNA transcription was detected in 32/43 (74,4%) of breast cancer tissues and 19/43 (44,2%) of PB samples of breast cancer patients, while it was detected in only 14,3 % fibrosis tissues and 0% in the blood of fibrosis patients. Survivin mRNA on the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients increased with tumor size, and stage of cancer (p < 0.05). In terms of breast cancer tissue, no difference was found in the rate of survivin mRNA expression in according to age, distant metastasis, lymph node, stages of cancer, and histopathology (p> 0.05).ConclusionsResults provide the initial evidence of the expression of survivin mRNA in breast cancer patients in Vietnam, suggesting the role of survivin mRNA in breast cancer molecular pathology.
       
  • Dendrimer entrapped microsponge gel of dithranol for effective topical
           treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Pushpendra Kumar Tripathi, Bapi Gorain, Hira Choudhury, Ayushi Srivastava, Prashant Kesharwani Dithranol is one of the important topical agents for the treatment of psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease with aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes. However, its application is troublesome and inconvenient because of its associated side effects, including staining, burning sensation, irritation, and necrotizing effect on the diseased cells as well as on the normal cells. The purpose of the current investigation was to explore the potential of poly(amido) amine (PAMAM) dendrimers in the topical delivery of dithranol through a novel microsponge based gel. Generation-4 (G4) dendrimers were incorporated into the microsponge based gel formulation by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method with varying concentration of polymers, and evaluated for the morphology of the formulation, encapsulation efficiency and skin irritation potential. Percentage yield of the formulation was found to be 66.28%, whereas encapsulation efficiency was ranged between 71.33% to 49.21%, and an average particle size was ranged between 28 ± 1.12 μm to 130 ± 1.01 μm. Surface morphology of developed microsponge was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, revealed micro-porous nature. The optimized microsponge formulation was found to be stable and recorded non-irritant during cutaneous application of the experimental animals. Further, the pharmacokinetic outcomes of study were showed prolong penetration of the drug through the skin, equivalent to the marketed formulation of dithranol. Therefore, it could be conferred that the microsponge formulation of the PAMAM entrapped dithranol can produce prolonged efficacy without producing toxicities to the skin, and thus can effectively be projected in the treatment of diseases like psoriasis.
       
  • Saccharification of macroalgal polysaccharides through prioritized
           cellulase producing bacteria

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Deepthi Hebbale, R. Bhargavi, T.V. Ramachandra Marine macroalgal cell wall is predominantly comprised of cellulose (polysaccharide) with the complex chain of glycosidic linkages. Bioethanol production from macroalgae entails breaking this complex chain into simple glucose molecule, which has been the major challenge faced by the industries. Cellulases have been preferred for hydrolysis of cellulose due to the absence of inhibitors affecting the subsequent fermentation process. Cellulose degrading bacteria were isolated from wide-ranging sources from marine habitats to herbivore residues and gastrointestinal region. The investigation reveals that Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteria has higher hydrolytic capacity with salt tolerance up to 14% and 3.5% salinity is optimum for growth. Higher hydrolytic activity of 2.45 was recorded on carboxymethyl cellulose medium at 48 h and hydrolytic activity of 2.46 on Ulva intestinalis hydrolysate, 3.06 on Ulva lactuca hydrolysate at 72 h of incubation. Total activity of enzyme of 2.11 U/ml and specific activity of 6.05 U/mg were recorded at 24 h. Enzyme hydrolysis of macroalgal biomass; U. intestinalis and U. lactuca produced 135.9 mg/g and 107.6 mg/g of reducing sugar respectively. The study reveals that the enzyme extracted from salt tolerant Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteria is suitable for optimal saccharification of seaweed polysaccharides towards biofuel production.
       
  • Chemical composition and protective role of Pulicaria undulata (L.) C.A.
           Mey. subsp. undulata against gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Abdelgawad A. Fahmi, Mariam Abdur-Rahman, Asmaa F. Aboul Naser, Manal A. Hamed, Howaida I. Abd-Alla, Nagwa M.M. Shalaby, Mohamed I. Nasr Pulicaria undulata subsp. undulata (Family; Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant used to treat inflammation. The objective of this study is to explore the protective effect of the ethanol extract of P. undulata subsp. undulata aerial parts against ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats. The chemical composition of plant extract, the unsaponifiable matter and the fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed. The biological evaluation was carried out through measuring ulcer indices, oxidative stress markers, certain marker enzymes, inflammatory index and the histopathological assessment of the stomach in rats. The total unsaponifiable matter (94.29%) and the fatty acid methyl ester (82.96%) content were identified. Gastric ulcer recorded significant increase in gastric volume and lesion counts (p < 0.0001). Drastic changes in all biochemical parameters under investigation were observed. Protection with plant extract reversed the action of ethanol by variable degrees of improvement in comparison with the reference drug. The presence of carbohydrates and proteins that acted as a mucilage lining the stomach inner wall give its protective action. In conclusion, P. undulata subsp. undulata succeeded to have anti-ulcerative protective effect. The measured biomarkers served as a good mirror to predict gastric ulcer and the presence of carbohydrates, protein and fibers present in the plant extract acted as a mucilage lining the inner intestinal wall and protect against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Future study will be carried out to identify the biologically active compounds responsible for plant protection against the gastric ulcer.
       
  • Pyrimidyl formamidine palladium(II) complex as a nanocatalyst for aqueous
           Suzuki-Miyaura coupling

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Afaf Y. Khormi, Thoraya. A. Farghaly, Mohamed R. Shaaban Synthesis of a new phosphene-free nano-size formamidine-based palladium complex have been achieved. The molecular structure of novel palladium complex have been confirmed using spectroscopic methods of analysis as well as physical characterizations. The synthesized complex has been used as a catalyst for microwave assisted aqueous Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-coupling (SMC) of aryl bromides with phenylboronic acid. The formamidine-based Pd(II)-complex exhibited excellent catalytic activity to obtain biaryls using mild reaction conditions.
       
  • Effect of vacuum thermoxidation on sunflower oil

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Nadia Segura, Jimena Lázaro, Bruno Irigaray In recent years vacuum frying was developed as an alternative methodology to traditional frying.In this study, sunflower oil thermoxidation was evaluated using conventional process conditions (180 °C and atmospheric pressure) and vacuum technology conditions (130 °C and 0,1 bar). Traditional thermoxidation lasted 20 h while vaccum thermoxidation was completed after 56 h.Total polar compounds reached 23 and 7,1 % at the end of atmospheric and vacuum thermoxidation respectively, while polymers content was 9,3 and 2,2 % for each oil.Tocopherols contents decreased 45 % for atmospheric thermoxidized oil and were reduced to 17 % for vacuum thermoxidized oil.These results clearly proved vacuum thermoxidation achieved a significantly lower deterioration rate than atmospheric thermoxidation of sunflower oil, conferring it much longer useful life and better nutritional qualities. Accordingly, a singnificantly slower vanishing rate of tocopherols was observed in vacuum thermoxidation.
       
  • The demographics of dog bites in the United States

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Randall T. Loder Dog bites are a significant public health issue. There is no comprehensive study of dog bite demographics. It was the purpose of this study to perform such an analysis across the US. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program data for the years 2005 through 2013 was accessed; dog bite injuries were extracted and analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed with SUDAAN 11.0.01™ software to account for the weighted, stratified nature of the data. Incidence values were calculated using population data from the US Census Bureau. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. There was an average 337,103 ED visits each year for dog bites. The average age was 28.9 years; 52.6% were male and 47.4% female. The bites were located on the upper extremity in 47.3%, head/neck in 26.8%, lower extremity in 21.5%, and trunk in 4.4%. Younger patients had more bites involving the head/neck, while older patients the upper extremity. More occurred in the summer and on weekends and 80.2% occurred at home. Hospital admission occurred in 1.7%. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds of admission was solely dependent upon the age group. The OR for admission was 11.03 [4.68, 26.01] for those>85 years of age, 4.88 [2.89, 8.24] 75–84 years, and 2.79 [1.77, 4.39] those ≤4 years of age, with the 10–14 year age group the reference group. The average annual incidence was 1.1 per 1,000, and was slightly higher in males (1.18 vs 1.02 per 1,000). The estimated cost was at least 400 million US$ per year. Potential prevention strategies are educational programs directed at both children and parents/caretakers outlining the responsibilities of owning a dog. This information can be disseminated in health care facilities, radio/TV/Internet venues, and dog kennels/shelters.
       
  • Three-dimensional response of double anchored sheet pile walls subjected
           to excavation and construction sequence

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Massamba Fall, Zhengguo Gao, Becaye Cissokho Ndiaye In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) response of anchored sheet pile walls was investigated on double-anchored sheet pile system during soils excavation and tunnel construction sequence. This construction procedure is executed in areas front and adjacent the sheet pile walls. This paper focused on both areas of construction effects on the sheet piles. This numerical study aimed at the evaluation of the variation of bottom wall bending moment, top wall lateral and vertical displacements and anchor reactions forces exerted in the sheet piles. This paper also described the variation of the total anchor's reactions forces from the upper and lower anchors rows. A parametric effect such as upper and lower anchors rows distance was also performed to evaluate the variation of the wall bending moment, displacement and anchors total forces. The analysis results indicated that the reactions forces developed in the lower anchor rods are always higher than those developed in the upper anchor rods. The higher the distance between the upper and the bottom anchors the lower the displacement of the top wall in any stage of the construction. The minimum bottom walls bending moment is developed in the case where the distance between the anchor's rows divided by the wall height is 0.51. Positioning the upper anchors at 0.15 and the lower at 0.39 the wall height from the top wall will induce minimum top wall vertical displacement during soil excavation. This paper presents the results and findings of the parametric study performed.
       
  • Distribution of natural radionuclides in the soils and assessment of
           radiation hazards in the Khrami Late Variscan crystal massif (Georgia)

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Kakhaber Kapanadze, Archil Magalashvili, Platon Imnadze This study was performed to determine the distributions of radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K naturally occurring in Khrami Late Variscan crystal massif and soils overlapping its adjacent territory built by Neogene and Quaternary lava using a gamma-ray spectrometry with an HPGe detector. By identification of artificial radionuclide 137Cs concentration revealed the character of radioactive contamination of the area under investigation. Based on the obtained results, the radiological parameters (outdoor absorbed gamma dose rate, annual effective dose; radium equivalent activity) were estimated to assess radiation hazards caused by use of industrial materials. The difference was established between concentrations of radionuclides having emerged at the expense of Late Variscan crystal substrate and recently erupted lavas. The results were compared with similar studies conducted in different countries and with data and recommendations published by international organizations (UNSCEAR, ICRP).
       
  • Characterization of a strain of quaranfil virus isolated from soft ticks
           in India. Is quaranfil virus an unrecognized cause of disease in human and
           animals'”

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Devendra T. Mourya, Pragya D. Yadav, Dimpal A. Nyayanit, Triparna D. Majumdar, Shilpi Jain, Prasad Sarkale, Anita Shete The soft ticks collected during a field survey in Karnataka state, India, in 1983, yielded a novel virus isolate, which caused mortality in an infant mouse upon inoculation. Attempts at characterizing the virus using the conventional methods were unsuccessful, which prompted us to study it by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). This virus isolate was obtained from the viral repository of National Institute of Virology, and an initial virus stock was prepared as a mouse brain homogenate. The virus stock showed cytopathic effects in different cell-lines and was used in NGS. Based on the complete genome sequence, obtained using de novo and reference mapping approach, the virus isolate was identified as a Quaranfil virus (QRFV) belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, genus Quaranjavirus. The genome size of the virus is 11,427 nucleotides which consist of 6 segments encoding six proteins. Homology analysis suggested this isolate as similar to QRFV of Afghanistan. In silico analysis showed the HA protein secondary structure to be a class III penetrance similar to Thogotovirus. QRFV was first isolated in 1953 from ticks [Cairo, Egypt] and subsequently reported from other geographical areas. This is the first report describing the presence of QRFV from India. This discovery emphasizes the need for investigating mild febrile illness cases with influenza-like symptoms, particularly in the area of high risk for tick bites.
       
  • CoPtx/γ-Al2O3 bimetallic nanoalloys as promising catalysts for hydrazine
           electrooxidation

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Naveeda Firdous, Naveed Kausar Janjua Stable bimetallic catalysts composed of CoPtx/γ-Al2O3 (x = Pt/Co molar ratio) were synthesized by wet impregnation method followed by calcination and the H2 reduction. The powders were characterized using XRD, AAS, BET, SEM, EDX, TPR, and TPO techniques. The prepared catalysts were drop casted on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and catalytic performance was examined for hydrazine electrooxidation in alkaline medium via cyclic voltammetry (CV). All the compositions in CoPtx/γ-Al2O3 series showed high responses towards hydrazine electrooxidation, however; high activity of CoPt0.034/γ-Al2O3 catalyst inferred it as a best material with an anodic peak current (iP) response of 200 μA at 0.86 V. The prominent electrochemical (EC) responses for this composition are attributed to better accessible surface area resulting in a fast electron transfer. The CoPtx/γ-Al2O3 catalysts are reported as the robust and superior prospective materials for extensive electroanalytical and catalytic studies.
       
  • Corrigendum to “Citation analysis of scientific categories” [Heliyon 3
           (5) (May 2017) e00300]

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Gregory S. Patience, Christian A. Patience, Bruno Blais, Francois Bertrand
       
  • KRAS and NRAS pyrosequencing screening in Tunisian colorectal cancer
           patients in 2015

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Raja Jouini, Marwa Ferchichi, Ehsen BenBrahim, Imen Ayari, Fatma Khanchel, Wafa Koubaa, Olfa Saidi, Riadh Allani, Aschraf Chadli-Debbiche BackgroundMutations in KRAS and NRAS often result in constitutive activation of RAS in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Mutations in KRAS exon 2 (codon 12–13) predict resistance to anti-EGFR targeted therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC). However, it's currently known that a significant proportion of mCRC have RAS mutations outside KRAS exon 2, particularly in exons 3 and 4 of KRAS and exons 2, 3 and 4 of NRAS. No data about RAS mutations outside KRAS exon 2 are available for Tunisian mCRC. The aim of this study was to analyze RAS, using pyrosequencing, in nine hotspots mutations in Tunisian patients with mCRC.MethodsA series of 131 mCRC was enrolled. Nine hotspots sites mutations of KRAS and NRAS were analyzed (KRAS: codons 12–13, codons 59–61, codon 117 and codon 146, NRAS: codons 12–13, codon 59, codon 61, codon 117 and codon 146) using Therascreen KRAS and RAS extension pyrosequencing kits.ResultsAnalysis was successful in 129 cases (98.5%). Mutations were observed in 97 cases (75.2%) dominated by those in KRAS exon 2 (86.6%). KRAS G12V was the most dominated mutation, observed in 25 cases (25.8%), and followed by KRAS G12S and KRAS G12D, each in 17 cases (17.5%). Mutations outside of KRAS exon 2 presented 13.4% of mutated cases and almost a third (28.8%) of KRAS exon 2 wild type mCRC. Among those, 9 cases (69.3%) carried mutations in NRAS exons 2, 3 and 4 and 4 cases (30.7%) in KRAS exons 3 and 4.ConclusionsRAS mutations outside exon 2 of KRAS should be included in routine practice, since they predict also response to anti-EGFR. That would make certain these patients benefit from appropriate testing and treatment. In addition unjustified expenses of anti-EGFR targeted therapy could be avoided.
       
  • Chalcone derivatives: synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of
           their anti-anxiety, anti-depression and analgesic effects

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Josefina Higgs, Cristina Wasowski, Alejandra Marcos, Marko Jukič, Carlos Humberto Paván, Stanislav Gobec, Felicitas de Tezanos Pinto, Natalia Colettis, Mariel Marder Anxiety disorders, depression and pain are highly prevalent pathologies. Their pharmacotherapy is associated with unwanted side effects; hence there is a clinical need to develop more effective drugs with fewer adverse reactions.Chalcones are one of the major classes of naturally occurring compounds. Chalcones and their derivatives have a huge importance in medicinal chemistry, displaying a wide range of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antitumor actions.The aim of this work was to evaluate chalcone effects on different targets involved in these pathologies. We have synthesized a series of simple chalcone derivatives taking common structural requirements described in literature related to their anxiolytic-like, antidepressant-like and/or antinociceptive properties into account.Furthermore, their potential in vitro effects towards different targets involved in these pathologies were evaluated. We have obtained twenty chalcones with moderate to high yields and assessed their ability to bind distinctive receptors, from rat brain homogenates, by displacement of labelled specific ligands: [3H] FNZ (binding site of benzodiazepines/GABAA), [3H] 8-OH-DPAT (serotonin 5-HT1A) and [3H] DAMGO (μ-opioid). Those compounds that showed the better in vitro activities were evaluated in mice using different behavioural tasks. In vivo results showed that 5′-methyl-2′-hydroxychalcone (9) exerted anxiolytic-like effects in mice in the plus maze test. While chalcone nuclei (1) revealed antidepressant-like activities in the tail suspension test. In addition, the novel 5′-methyl-2′-hydroxy-3′-nitrochalcone (12) exhibited antinociceptive activity in acute chemical and thermal nociception tests (writhing and hot plate tests). In conclusion, chalcones are thus promising compounds for the development of novel drugs with central nervous system (CNS) actions.
       
  • A comparative investigation on structure evolution of ZrN and CrN coatings
           against ion irradiation

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Zhengtao Wu, Yiming Wu, Qimin Wang Binary ZrN and CrN nanostructured coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were irradiated with 600 keV Kr3+ at room temperature. The ion irradiation fluences varied from 0 to 1×1017 Kr3+/cm−2. The results indicate the microstructure of the CrN illustrates higher stability during the Kr3+ ion irradiation compared to that of the ZrN. The ion irradiation produces surface etching of the CrN coating. However, the etching transfers to recrystallization and grain coarsening on the ZrN coating surface as the Kr3+ fluence increases.
       
  • Manufacture of high density carbon blocks by self-sintering coke produced
           via a two-stage heat treatment of coal tar

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Ui-Su Im, Jiyoung Kim, Byung-Rok Lee, Dong-Hyun Peck, Doo-Hwan Jung High-strength and high-density carbonized carbon blocks from self-sintering coke were manufactured using coal tar and two-stage heat treatments (1st and 2nd stage treatments). First, the molecular weight distribution of the refined coal tar was controlled through a pressured heat treatment (1st stage treatment). Second, the 1st stage heat-treated coal tar (1S-CT) was treated using a delayed coking system (2nd stage treatment) to become the self-sintering coke. Finally, carbon blocks were molded from 2nd stage heat-treated coke (2S-C) and carbonized at 1200 °C for 1 h. Through rapid decomposition of the high molecular weight components in the coal tar at 360 °C in the 1st stage treatment, the molecular weight distribution of coal tar was confirmed to be controllable by the 1st stage treatment. Swelling during carbonization was observed in carbon blocks manufactured from 2S-C containing more than 15 wt% of volatile matter from 150–450 °C. The optimum conditions of the two-stage heat treatments were confirmed to be 300 °C for 3 h and 500 °C for 1 h. The highest density and flexural strength of the carbonized carbon blocks manufactured from 2S-C were 1.46 g/cm3 and 69.2 MPa, respectively.
       
  • Plagiarism in nursing education and the ethical implications in practice

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Holly Carter, Jenna Hussey, Jeffery W. Forehand An important ethical issue in nursing education continues to be the evolving concerns of plagiarism. Plagiarism presents itself in a variety of different circumstances, which can influence both the classroom and the clinical environment. Nursing educators often struggle with how to handle the impact of plagiarism. This article aims to provide nursing educators with some practical learning strategies and recommendations to address present day plagiarism issues.
       
  • The protective potential of selected lactic acid bacteria against the most
           common contaminants in various types of cheese in Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Mamdouh S. Al-Gamal, Gamal A. Ibrahim, Osama M. Sharaf, Ahmed A. Radwan, Nadia M. Dabiza, Ahmed M. Youssef, Mohamed F. El-ssayad Dairy products, especially cheeses have a great nutritional value and a high consumption level around the world. Considering a widespread consumption of cheeses, there is a growing concern regarding safety and microbiological quality. The current study was designed to conduct a recent evaluation of cheeses microbiological quality. Sixty cheese samples from retailing Egyptian markets were analyzed on different selective microbiological media and 64 bacteria, 35 yeasts and 8 molds were isolated. Out of 60 samples; 26.6% were contaminated with Escherichia coli, 73.3% with Staphylococcus scuiri, 3.33% with Bacillus cereus, 1.66% with Salmonella enterica, and 1.66% with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The presence of such microorganisms in cheeses referred to the wrong management in cheese manufacturing. These organisms are significant from public health view as they have been associated with the base of human food poisoning. Promising antagonistic behavior was observed using the tested lactic acid bacteria (LAB) either single or in combinations toward the undesired isolates. Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32 (Lb. helveticus) was the most potent culture; recording ≥95% reduction in undesired microbial counts.
       
  • The impact of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on rat cardiac function

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Natasha Driescher, Danzil E. Joseph, Veronique R. Human, Edward Ojuka, Martin Cour, Nkanyiso Hadebe, Dirk Bester, Jeanine L. Marnewick, Sandrine Lecour, Amanda Lochner, M. Faadiel Essop AimsAlthough there is evidence linking sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake with the development of cardio-metabolic diseases, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The current study therefore evaluated the effects of SSB consumption by establishing a unique in-house in vivo experimental model.Main methodsMale Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a) one consuming a popular local SSB (SSB- Jive), and b) a control group (Control-water) for a period of three and six months (n = 6 per group), respectively. Rats were gavaged on a daily basis with an experimental dosage amounting to half a glass per day (in human terms) (SSB vs. water). Cardiac function was assessed at baseline (echocardiography) and following ex vivo ischemia-reperfusion of the isolated perfused working rat heart. Oral glucose tolerance tests and mitochondrial respiratory analyses were also performed. In addition, the role of non-oxidative glucose pathways (NOGPs), i.e. the polyol pathway, hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) and PKC were assessed.Key findingsThese data show that SSB intake: a) resulted in increased weight gain, but did not elicit major effects in terms of insulin resistance and cardiac function after three and six months, respectively; b) triggered myocardial NOGP activation after three months with a reversion after six months; and c) resulted in some impairment in mitochondrial respiratory capacity in response to fatty acid substrate supply after six months.SignificanceSSB intake did not result in cardiac dysfunction or insulin resistance. However, early changes at the molecular level may increase risk in the longer term.
       
  • Autobiographical memories, identity disturbance and brain functioning in
           patients with borderline personality disorder: An fMRI study

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Paola Bozzatello, Rosalba Morese, Maria Consuelo Valentini, Paola Rocca, Francesca Bosco, Silvio Bellino Identity disturbance is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Autobiographical memory is a process of reflective thinking through which we form links between elements of life and self. It can be considered as an indirect index of identity integration. The present study was aimed to investigate the differences in brain activity patterns between BPD patients with identity diffusion and healthy controls using fMRI. We enrolled 24 BPD patients and 24 healthy controls. Identity integration in patients and controls was assessed with the Identity Disturbance Questionnaire (IDQ) score and was significantly different (p = 0.001). We analysed hemodynamic response in the regions of interest during presentation of resolved and unresolved life events. With reference to the condition “resolved”, increased cerebral activity in right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and bilateral insula was registered in BPD patients compared with controls. In the condition “unresolved”, increased brain activity was observed in patients in bilateral ACC, bilateral DLPFC, and right temporo-parietal junction. Hyperactivity in ACC and DLPFC in BPD patients with both conditions (resolved and unresolved contexts) may be due to an inefficient attempt to reconstruct a coherent narrative of life events (resolved or not).
       
  • A multi-criteria GIS model for suitability analysis of locations of
           decentralized wastewater treatment units: case study in Sulaimania, Iraq

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Ako Rashed Hama, Rafea Hashim Al-Suhili, Zeren Jamal Ghafour Sulaimania is a City located in Kurdistan region in the north of Iraq. The city is facing a lack of water, and it will reach a very critical condition shortly. One of the potential solutions is to reuse the treated wastewater for non-direct human uses such as irrigation, washing, firefighting, groundwater recharging, and others. There is no sewage treatment plant in the city. The wastewater flows into a stream through some sewer outlets, and that causes big environmental issues. Decentralized wastewater treatment units (DTUs) are suggested to solve the issue. The treated wastewater will be used for the irrigation of the green areas of the city. The selected plant type is Extended Aeration treatment system, which is recommended for residential areas. Specifying the locations of the treatment units is very important from environmental, social and technical aspects. The main objective of this study is to select the best suitable places for the DTUs. Preliminary selections of 134 nominated areas for DTU locations were made in different places in the city. The locations are distributed into 10 groups near the main sewer pipes of the city. A model is created to evaluate those selected locations and eliminate the non-suitable locations by using GIS software integrated with the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Five criteria were used in the model, which are, (1) The size of the available lands, (2) The distance from the decentralized units to the green areas (3) Population density around the decentralized treatment unit locations, (4) The slope of the land and (5) Depth of the main sewer pipe at the nominated area. In addition, the model adopted two restriction factors, which are: (1) The distance from the decentralized treatment unit to the buildings should not be less than 10 m and (2) The distance between the main sewer pipes and the treatment units are taken to be
       
  • Elucidating the surface geometric design of hydrophobic Australian
           Eucalyptus leaves: experimental and modeling studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Hua Guo, Zonghan Xie, Jeremy Shaw, Kingsley Dixon, Zhong-Tao Jiang, Chun-Yang Yin, Xuemei Liu Three Australian native Eucalyptus species, i.e., Eucalyptus woodwardii, Eucalyptus pachyphylla and Eucalyptus dolorosa, were investigated, for the first time, with respect to the hydrophobicity of their leaves. It is well established that these leaves exhibit exceptionally high water repellency, in addition to an extraordinary ability to retain water, albeit their specific wetting mechanisms are still poorly understood. To identify the critical factors underlying this phenomenon, the surface topography of these leaves was subjected to micro-examination (SEM). Micro- and nanometer scale surface roughness was revealed, resembling that of the quintessential “lotus effect”. Surface free energy analysis was performed on two models based on the surface topographies of the study Eucalyptus species and lotus, in order to study wetting transitions on these specific microscopic surface features. The influence of surface geometrical parameters, such as edge-to-edge distance, base radius and cylindrical height, on surface free energy with different liquid penetration depths was studied with these two models. Larger energy barriers and smaller liquid-solid contact areas were more influential in the calculations for the lotus than for Eucalyptus. The information obtained from these two models may be useful for guiding the design of novel artificial surfaces in the collection and transport of micro-volume liquids.
       
  • The effect of age & gender on children's mobility in Riyadh's
           neighborhoods

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Musaad Al-Mosaind Children's mobility in terms of frequencies, challenges, and solutions have a direct impact on their lifestyle. The study aims to assess the notion of children's mobility within urban neighborhoods in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It further examines the effects of school proximity and age/gender of children on their mobility patterns within Riyadh's neighborhoods. A sample questionnaire for school going students are used to assess their mobility patterns. The study showed that age and gender have significant effects on mobility, which seemed to increase among males and older boys in particular. Although automobiles are still the dominant mode for traveling, there are significant differences in walking trips in favor of male students to neighborhood facilities including schools. The study concluded that there is a need for Saudi cities to adopt aggressive policies that promote walking for children and adults within and between nearby neighborhoods.
       
  • The moderating effect of heart rate variability on the relationship
           between alpha asymmetry and depressive symptoms

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Seung Yeon Baik, Cholong Kim, Sungkean Kim, Dong-Wook Yook, Hyang Sook Kim, Hyein Chang, Seung-Hwan Lee Electroencephalographic (EEG) research has suggested relatively reduced brain activity in the left frontal and right posterior region trait-markers of depression. However, inconsistent results have been reported. Based on previous studies reporting the heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of emotional regulation, this study makes a novel investigation of the role of heart rate variability (HRV) as a moderator in the relationship between frontal and parietal alpha asymmetry and depression. Resting EEG (eyes open) was recorded in 38 patients with MDD and 34 healthy subjects. Frontal and parietal alpha asymmetries were calculated at total (8–12 Hz), high (10–12 Hz), and low (8–10 Hz) alpha frequency bands. Three vagally mediated HRV (vmHRV) components (LF, HF, and the LF/HF ratio) were calculated in the frequency domain. Relatively greater right parietal alpha activity significantly predicted the severity of depression only when HF was low (or the LF/HF ratio was high) at low alpha frequency band. The interaction effect of parietal alpha asymmetry and vmHRV remained significant after including anxiety score as a covariate. No moderation effect of vmHRV was found for frontal sites and other frequency bands, as well as healthy subjects. These findings suggest that vmHRV moderates the association between parietal alpha asymmetry at low frequency band and depression for MDD patients. We suggest that the interaction between parietal alpha asymmetry and vmHRV may be a biomarker of MDD.
       
  • Chaetomium globosporum: A novel laccase producing fungus for improving the
           hydrolyzability of lignocellulosic biomass

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Monika Yadav, Vivekanand Vivekanand Rapid economic growth and urbanization is imposing an unseen pressure on energy sector to fulfill the increasing energy demand. Non edible horticultural residues viz. wheat and pearl millet straw have the potential to become an economical resource for waste to energy conversion. However, maximum hydrolyzability of the crop residues is a prerequisite for efficient conversion of complex organic materials into biofuels. In the present study, mycological treatment of wheat and pearl millet straw was accomplished by employing Chaetomium globosporum. The straw samples were exposed to mycological treatment for 14, 28 and 42 days. The improvement in hydrolyzability of straw was assessed by estimating the increase in reducing sugar release. The competence of Chaetomium globosporum for treating the straw samples was evaluated by measuring the % lignin removal after treatment. Furthermore, the structural and morphological changes in the straw samples after mycological treatment were examined by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results revealed 124 and 91% increase in reducing sugar release along with 43 and 41% removal of lignin for wheat and pearl millet straw respectively. Significant differences were also observed in in the structure, crystallanity and surface morphology.
       
  • Analysis of dual solution for MHD flow of Williamson fluid with slippage

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Liaquat Ali Lund, Zurni Omar, Ilyas Khan This study investigates the numerical solutions of MHD boundary layer and heat transfer of the Williamson fluid flow on the exponentially vertical shrinking sheet, having variable thickness and thermal conductivity under effects of the velocity and thermal slip parameters. It is also assumed that shrinking/stretching velocity, as well as the wall temperature, has the exponential function form. In this study, the continuity, momentum and energy equations with buoyancy parameter and Hartmann number are incorporated especially in the Williamson fluid flow case. Similarity transformation variables have been employed to formulate the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) from partial differential equations (PDEs). The resultant ODEs are solved by shooting method with Runge Kutta of fourth order method in Maple software. The effects of the different applied non-dimensional physical parameters on the boundary layer and heat transfer flow problems are presented in graphs. The effects of Williamson parameter, Prandtl number, and slip parameters on velocity and temperature profiles have been thoroughly demonstrated and discussed. The numerical results show that the buoyancy force and the slip parameters contribute to the occurrence of the dual solutions on the boundary layer and heat transfer flow problems. Furthermore, the stability analysis suggests that the first solution is stable and physically possible.
       
  • Corrigendum to “Targeting B7-H1 (PD-L1) sensitizes cancer cells to
           chemotherapy” [Heliyon 4 (12) (December 2018) e01039]

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Xiaosheng Wu, Yanli Li, Xin Liu, Chunhua Chen, Susan M. Harrington, Siyu Cao, Tiancheng Xie, Tu Pham, Aaron S. Mansfield, Yiyi Yan, Eugene D. Kwon, Liewei Wang, Kun Ling, Haidong Dong
       
  • The effect of mixing and consistency on cellulose cationization

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Pia Willberg-Keyriläinen, Pauliina Pitkänen, Janne Hulkko, Martta Asikainen, Harri Setälä Traditional chemical modifications of cellulose are usually done at low or medium consistencies. Processing at high solids content is expected to provide a leap forward in reduction of manufacturing costs such as minimization of chemical use, energy consumption and decreasing processing equipment size, while at the same time increasing reaction efficiency. In this research, high consistency modifications of cellulose were studied through cationization reaction. Four different laboratory scale high consistency reactors were tested and the effect of mixing on fiber properties was analyzed. All reactors decreased cellulose fiber length and no significant difference between cellulose starting consistencies and mixing time on fiber properties were found. The cationization reaction efficiency increased as the cellulose starting consistency increased in all of the tested reactors. In addition, mercerization of pulp as pretreatment, significantly increased reaction efficiency.
       
  • Psychopathy by U.S. state: A translation of regional measures of the Big
           Five personality traits to regional measures of psychopathy

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Ryan H. Murphy Rentfrow et al. (2013) constructs a cross-section of the “Big Five” personality traits and demonstrates their relationship with outcomes variables for the continental United States and the District of Columbia. Hyatt et al. (Forthcoming) creates a means of describing psychopathy in terms of the Big Five personality traits. When these two findings are combined, a state-level estimate of psychopathy is produced. The estimate is conjectural, and if correct, it only describes the levels of psychopathy of states in relation of one state to one another, and is contingent on one particular conceptualization of psychopathy. Among the typical predictions made regarding psychopathy, the variable with the closest bivariate relationship with this new statistical aggregate is the percentage of the population in the state living in an urban area. There is no clear bivariate relationship of regional psychopathy with homicide, violent crime, or property crime rates.
       
  • Commercial mindfulness aid does not aid short-term stress reduction
           compared to unassisted relaxation

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Artem S. Svetlov, Melanie M. Nelson, Pavlo D. Antonenko, Joseph P.H. McNamara, Regina Bussing Increased public interest in mindfulness has generated a burgeoning market in new consumer technologies. Two exploratory studies examined effects of InteraXon's “Muse” electroencephalography (EEG)-based neurofeedback device and mobile application on mindfulness-based relaxation activities. Psychophysiological outcomes (heart rate variability (HRV), electro-dermal activity (EDA), saliva amylase activity (sAA) and Muse application EEG “calm percent”) were collected for two 7-minute conditions: Muse-assisted relaxation exercise (MARE), and unassisted relaxation exercise (URE). In the first study, participants (n = 99) performed both conditions in a randomized sequential design. A follow-up study used a randomized parallel condition (n = 44) to test for differences in HRV effects between the two conditions and extended follow-up observation. Generalized estimating equation models demonstrated a moderate increase in HRV following relaxation exercises, with no observable difference between MARE and URE conditions. Both MARE and URE conditions produced equally effective short-term increases in heart rate variability, without additional benefit from neurofeedback.
       
  • Herbal medicine against genotoxicity of dimethoate, an insecticide, in
           mammalian somatic cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Halit Kızılet, Bilal Yilmaz, Handan Uysal In this study, the genotoxic effects of dimethoate (DIM) were investigated with the in vitro micronucleus test in human peripheral lymphocytes. The ethanol extracts of Rosa canina and Salvia lavandulifolia were used to remove possible genotoxic effects of these substances. For this purpose, different concentrations (0.5-1-2 μg/mL) of dimethoate, DIM + RCeta and DIM + SLeta (1:1 v/v) application groups were prepared and applied to the blood culture. The obtained data were compared with the negative control group that was prepared with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent and a well-known genotoxic effects of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as positive control group. It was observed in lymphocyte cells that the frequency of MN considerably increased depending on the increasing dose of DIM whereas the nuclear division index (NBI)decreased according to the control group, especially in the last concentration (2 μg/mL). But, as the MN frequency decreased, NBI values approached to control group with 2μg/mL DIM + RCeta and 2μg/mL DIM + SLeta according to DIM application group (P < 0.05). Additionally, RCeta and SLeta were analyzed by gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
       
  • Assessment of genetic diversity, population structure and sex
           identification in dioecious crop, Trichosanthes dioica employing ISSR,
           SCoT and SRAP markers

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Jatin Kumar, Veena Agrawal Twenty inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and twenty two start codon targeted (SCoT) primers were employed to analyze genetic diversity and population structure among 52 Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. accessions collected from nine different eco-geographical regions of India. ISSR markers proved to be more informative in genetic diversity assessment and produced higher mean number of polymorphic bands (15.25 with 95.96% polymorphism) and polymorphic information content (PIC) value (0.47) compared to SCoT markers (12.55 polymorphic bands with 92.20% polymorphism and PIC: 0.45). Total genetic diversity (Ht) and genetic diversity within populations (Hs) in T. dioica accessions was found to be very high (0.45 and 0.43, respectively). AMOVA analysis also revealed higher genetic variation within populations (81%) than among them (19%). Among different T. dioica populations, very low genetic differentiation (Gst: 0.05) and high gene flow (Nm: 9.32) were observed. T. dioica populations of Bihar state were found to be highly diverse and Kolkata and Cuttack populations were least diverse. T. dioica male plants were more variable than females. UPGMA, Neighbor-Joining and population structure analyses divided T. dioica populations into three main clusters. First cluster comprised of Meerut population, second cluster included of Cuttack and Kolkata populations and populations of Bihar, Delhi and Kanpur occurred in third cluster. Genetic diversity was found to be strongly positively correlated with the latitude and strongly negatively correlated with annual mean rainfall of different T. dioica cultivated regions. For sex identification, one SRAP primer combination, 'Em-6/Me-4' amplified two molecular markers of around 230 and 290 bp specific to male T. dioica plants of Bihar, Kanpur, North Delhi and Meerut populations and were completely absent from female plants.
       
  • Anticorrosive properties of Hexa (3-methoxy propan-1,2-diol)
           cyclotri-phosphazene compound for carbon steel in 3% NaCl medium:
           gravimetric, electrochemical, DFT and Monte Carlo simulation studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Omar Dagdag, Ahmed El Harfi, Mustapha El Gouri, Zaki Safi, Ramzi T.T. Jalgham, Nuha Wazzan, Chandrabhan Verma, E.E. Ebenso, U. Pramod Kumar The corrosion inhibition performance of Hexa (3-methoxy propan-1,2 diol) cyclotriphosphazene (HMC) on carbon steel in 3% NaCl solution was investigated by weight loss (WL), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements, Density functional theory (DFT) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The corrosion inhibition efficiency at optimum concentration (10−3M) is 99% of HMC at 298 K. The corrosion inhibition efficiency at 10−3 M decreases with increase in temperature. The adsorption of HMC on the surface of carbon steel obeyed Langmuir isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization study confirmed that inhibitor anodic-type. DFT and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations based computational approaches were under taken to support the experimental findings. DFT studies revealed that HMC interact with metallic surface through donor-acceptor interactions in which the anionic parts act as electron donor (HOMO) and cationic parts behaved as electron acceptor (LUMO). The MC simulations study showed that studied HMC adsorb spontaneously on Fe (110) surface.
       
  • Detection of the steroid receptor interacting protein, PAK6, in a neuronal
           cell line

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Sharon Ramos Goyette, Eric Schott, Astopheline Uwimana, David W. Nelson, Jacob Boganski PAK6 is a Group II p21 activated kinase that unlike traditional signal transduction proteins interacts with multiple binding partners including sex-steroid receptors. PAK6 acts as a nodal checkpoint integrating multiple cellular inputs to promote distinct cellular outcomes, some of which are associated with cytoskeletal remodeling. Despite the possibility that PAK6 may couple sex-specific neuronal function and therefore serve as a valuable research, diagnostic and therapeutic target, there is currently no standardized protocol for assessing PAK6 activity in a neuronal cell line. Here, we present a protocol for assessing PAK6 levels in a commonly used neuronal cell line, PC-12. In comparison with other methodology, this approach (1) does not require ex-planted tissue to identify PAK6 in neurons and (2) unlike other protocols which require steroid depleted media for detection of PAK6 in non-neuronal cell lines, such as prostate cancer cell lines, we were easily able to detect PAK6 in PC-12 cells grown in complete, steroid-containing media. Thus the present protocol allows for the efficient detection of native PAK6 in PC-12 cells to expedite targeted basic research of the emerging importance of PAK6 function in the brain as well as to accelerate the identification and isolation of potential therapeutic targets not only in cancerous but brain disease states as well.
       
  • Green, economic, and partially biodegradable wood plastic composites via
           enzymatic surface modification of lignocellulosic fibers

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): A.M. Youssef, M.S. Hasanin, M.E. Abd El-Aziz, O.M. Darwesh Lignocellulosic fibers, which obtained from Citrus trees trimmings, were modified with Aspergillus flavus (EGYPTA5) enzymes. The non-modified and the modified lignocellulosic fibers were used with low density polyethylene (LDPE) by melt blending brabender method at 170 °C with different ratio (5, 10 and 20 wt%) to obtain wood plastic composites (WPC). The prepared samples were characterized using Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR), Scan Electron Microscope (SEM), and Water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) as well as, the mechanical, thermal, biodegradability and swelling properties were examined. The fabricated WPC displayed good mechanical and thermal properties compare with pure LDPE. Also, the WVTR was enhanced by the addition of modified lignocellulosic fibers over the unmodified one. Moreover, the enzymes assay such as cellulase and lignin peroxidase enzymes were estimated and confirming the growing of fungi on the lignocellulosic fiber in solid state fermentation condition to improve lignin peroxidase production and eliminate cellulose enzymes. The fabricated WPC can be used in different environmental application such as packaging system, that it will be green, economic, and partially biodegradable.
       
  • The 10-year functional outcome of schizophrenia in Butajira, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Derege Kebede, Abebaw Fekadu, Teshome Shibre Kelkile, Girmay Medhin, Charlotte Hanlon, Rosie Mayston, Atalay Alem BackgroundLong-term functional schizophrenia outcomes are not well characterized in low-income environments because of the rarity of prospective studies.ObjectivesTo assess and describe long-term schizophrenia's functional outcomes and potential outcome predictors.MethodsFollowing a baseline assessment, 316 people with schizophrenia were studied for 10 years, on average. Of the total, 79 were incident cases: cases with onset of the illness occurring two years or less from entry into the study. SF-36 scores of physical and social functioning were used to assess functional outcomes. Linear mixed models were employed to evaluate the association of functioning with potential predictors.ResultsSocial and physical functioning scores regarding the cohort were lower than the population's norm for most of the follow-up period. Incident cases had better function than prevalent cases. Fifteen percent of incident and 30% of prevalent cases had reduced social functioning for at least six years. Declining symptom severity during the follow-up period was significantly associated with improvement in social functioning. When baseline functioning was controlled for, the long-term trend in functionality was not associated with demographic or illness characteristics (age and speed of onset, duration of illness and neuroleptic use at entry, substance use, and medication adherence).ConclusionLong-term physical and social functioning of the population with schizophrenia were significantly lower than the population norm. A significant proportion of the cohort had lower functioning for the long-term. Functioning was not associated with demographic or illness characteristics of the study population.
       
  • Early virtual reality adopters in Spain: sociodemographic profile and
           interest in the use of virtual reality as a learning tool

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Roberto Sánchez-Cabrero, Óscar Costa-Román, Francisco Javier Pericacho-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Novillo-López, Amaya Arigita-García, Amelia Barrientos-Fernández This study describes the social and demographic profile of the first generation of users of marketed virtual reality (VR) viewers in Spain and, subsequently, it assesses the interest in its use as a learning tool. For that purpose, an online questionnaire created ad hoc was administered to a sample of 117 participants. The relationship between twelve variables was analysed comparing means through the Snedecor's F distribution and the contingency tables through the Chi-squared test and Somers' D. Among other issues, it was concluded that the virtual reality user profile at present corresponds to a person older than 36, mainly men, with higher education and having acquired their viewer no longer than one year ago. Concerning the interests of virtual reality users as a learning tool, only a few of them currently use virtual reality for this aim, but they mainly show an interest in using the virtual reality as a learning method and they feel optimism regarding the future use of this technology as a learning tool. However, this is not the case among users of video game consoles (PSVR), who are mainly men not interested in their use as a learning tool at present. Finally, it can be stated that current use as a learning tool among teachers and students is occasional and preferably via smartphones.
       
  • Influence of Ag, Au and Pd noble metals doping on structural, optical and
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Trilok K. Pathak, R.E. Kroon, Valentin Craciun, Marcela Popa, M.C. Chifiriuc, H.C. Swart Oxide materials (ZnO, TiO2) doped with noble metals were synthesized using the combustion technique. The results of the addition of Ag, Au, and Pd up to a concentration of 2 mol% on the structural, optical, morphological and antimicrobial properties was considered. X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that the crystal structure of the host materials remained unaltered despite doping with noble metals. From the scanning electron microscopy results, it was evident that the doped nanoparticles aggregated in clusters of different sizes in the host matrix. The plasmonic effect was also observed in the absorbance spectra of the different doped materials. The obtained materials have shown promising antimicrobial features. All ZnO materials exhibited a high antimicrobial activity, with very low minimum inhibitory concentration values, against the planktonic growth of all tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. All doped materials exhibited very good anti-biofilm activity, the lowest minimal biofilm eradication concentration values being registered for ZnO doped with Au and Pd toward Escherichia coli and for ZnO doped with Ag against Candida albicans. These results indicate the potential that these materials have for antimicrobial applications in the fields of biomedicine and environmental protection.
       
  • Studies of different types of insulating oils and their mixtures as an
           alternative to mineral oil for cooling power transformers

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Jilani Rouabeh, Lotfi M'barki, Amor Hammami, Ibrahim Jallouli, Ameni Driss Because of their availability and low cost, mineral oils have been widely used for a long time in power transformers to allow their insulation and cooling. However, their low fire safety and low biodegradability potential have made it necessary to look for other insulating liquids as an alternative to this mineral oil used in high voltage electrical equipment. This work presents an experimental study to compare between the physicochemical characteristics of mineral oil, olive oil, sunflower oil and different oil mixtures. In order to determine mainly the breakdown voltage and the electrical field intensity of electro-convection, oils insulating should be mixed in precise amounts. All tests have been realized in accordance with the standard test procedures: IEC 60156, IEC 60245 and IEC 61125. The obtained results of testing new as well as aged oil samples concerning the resistivity, the dissipation factor tgδ, the conductivity, the viscosity, the breakdown voltage, the increase of the water content and the flexibility of the oil to the movement in an electrical field, show that a half mixture of naphthenic oil and olive oil could be a potential liquid for the insulation of electrical devices and especially power transformers mounted in areas which have a non-cold climate.
       
  • Hepatic and neuronal phenotype of NPC1−/− mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Estibaliz Santiago-Mujica, Stefanie Flunkert, Roland Rabl, Joerg Neddens, Tina Loeffler, Birgit Hutter-Paier Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a fatal autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a defect in the intracellular transport of lipoproteins leading to the accumulation of lipids in diverse tissues. A visceral and neuronal phenotype mimicking human NPC1 disease has been described in NPC1 mutant mice. These mice are by now the most widely used NPC1 rodent model to study NPC and developmental compounds against this devastating disease. Here we characterized NPC1−/− mice for their hepatic and neuronal phenotype to confirm the stability of the phenotype, provide a characterization of disease progression and pinpoint the age of robust phenotype onset. Animals of 4–10 weeks of age were analyzed for general health, motor deficits as well as hepatic and neuronal alterations with a special focus on cerebellar pathology.Our results show that NPC1−/− mice have a reduced general health at the age of 9–10 weeks. Robust motor deficits can be observed even earlier at 8 weeks of age. Hepatic changes included increased organ weight and cholesterol levels at 6 weeks of age accompanied by severely increased liver enzyme levels. Analysis of NPC1−/− brain pathology showed decreased cholesterol and increased Aβ levels in the hippocampus at the age of 6 weeks. Further analysis revealed a decrease of the cytokine IL-12p70 in the cerebellum along with a very early increase of astrocytosis. Hippocampal IL-12p70 levels were increased at the age of 6 weeks followed by increased activated microglia levels. By the age of 10 weeks, also cerebellar Aβ levels were increased along with strongly reduced Calbindin D-28k levels.Our results validate and summarize the progressive development of the hepatic and neuronal phenotype of NPC1−/− mice that starts with cerebellar astrocytosis, making this mouse model a valuable tool for the development of new compounds against NPC.
       
  • Fast and direct determination of fragility in metallic glasses using chip
           calorimetry

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Florian Spieckermann, Innozenz Steffny, Xilei Bian, Sergey Ketov, Mihai Stoica, Jürgen Eckert We directly determine the thermodynamic fragility index of two metallic glasses (Mg65Cu25Gd10 and Au49Cu26.9Si16.3Ag5.5Pd2.3) from fictive temperature shifts induced by a variation of the quenching rate using fast differential scanning calorimetry (FDSC). Recent chip calorimeters are able to achieve the cooling rates necessary to perform such an evaluation. For the Mg65Cu25Gd10 and Au49Cu26.9Si16.3Ag5.5Pd2.3 metallic glasses studied, we find very good agreement of the kinetic fragility index with literature data obtained by conventional calorimetry and rheology. The thermodynamic fragility indices are m=25.5 ± 1.5 for Mg65Cu25Gd10 and m=50.3 ± 2.3 for Au49Cu26.9Si16.3Ag5.5Pd2.3, respectively. The FDSC method discussed here allows for fast and reliable determination of the kinetic fragility of metallic glasses, and is thus competitive with high-frequency methods.
       
  • Mice lacking fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 show improved
           profiles upon pressure overload-induced heart failure

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Natsumi Nishihama, Takahiro Nagayama, Shinji Makino, Ryuta Koishi Fat storage-inducing transmembrane proteins 1 and 2 (FITM1 and FITM2, respectively) are transmembrane endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins involved in lipid droplet formation. The physiological functions of FITM1 have only been reported in skeletal muscle, while those of FITM2 were analyzed using genetically engineered mice. However, their roles in the heart have not been characterized. To examine their cardiac functions, we analyzed Fitm1- or Fitm2-knockout mice. Neither constitutive Fitm1 (−/−) aged nor heart failure model mice showed significant differences in heart size or function. Fitm2 (−/−) mice exhibited embryonic death, and aged Fitm2 (+/−) mice had shortened left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, and shortened left ventricular end-systolic dimension. However, body weight and ejection fraction of Fitm2 (+/−) mice were similar to those of wild-type littermates. In the chronic heart failure models, Fitm2 (+/−) mice showed significant suppression of increased left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and reduced ejection fraction. These results suggest the involvement of Fitm2 in chronic heart failure, whereas Fitm1 have a minor effect in this context in mice.
       
  • Sleeping pattern before thoracic surgery: A comparison of baseline and
           night before surgery

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Hamid Mohammad, Akhtar Irfan Mohammad, Ahmed Saba BackgroundSleep deprivation is considered a stress factor in the perioperative period. There are several studies on sleep disturbance after surgery but very limited literature available on preoperative sleep patterns, predictors of sleep disturbance and its effect on surgical outcome.MethodologyPatients scheduled for thoracic surgery were asked to fill out a written Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. The primary investigator explained this form to all the patients. This was filled out before premedication for subjective assessment of sleeping pattern at two different time point. Only those patients included who spent the previous night at home. Participants were asked to respond to the questions regarding their baseline sleeping pattern and compare it with last night.ResultsTotal eighty-three patients with a mean age of 47.83 ± 17.88 were included in the study. Overall mean PSQI scores were significantly higher (p-value < 0.01) during the night before surgery (6.94 ± 2.115) when compared with baseline (3.88 ± 1.877). Sleep latency was also significantly affected when last night-1 (the night before admission) was compared with usual sleep latency. Twenty patients were unable to sleep more than 5 hrs at night before admission which was significant when compared with their last month status (20 vs 3). Logistic regression model demonstrated the age and Timing of surgery as a strong predictors of poor sleep (defined as PSQI ≥ 5).ConclusionQuality of sleep was profoundly affected at night before thoracic surgery, mainly due to a significant change in sleep latency and sleep duration. Although age and Timing of surgery were strong predictors of poor sleep we were unable to find any association between quality of sleep and type of surgery.
       
  • The effects of dairy products on seizure tendency in mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Soroor Inaloo, Fatema Pirsalami, Mona Dastgheib, Leila Moezi Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder which occurs as a result of a spontaneous electrical discharge in the brain. According to recent studies there might be a relationship between specific diet and seizure occurrence. Casein is an important protein of milk which often causes hypersensitivity. It seems the release of inflammatory cytokines during the process of immune system response alter the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) integrity and lead to neuronal inflammation which could constitute on epileptogenic focus. On the other hand, several studies represent full-fat milk or higher fat dairy products as an effective anti-inflammatory factor which elevate seizure threshold. The aim of present study was investigation of acute and chronic effects of dairy products including dough (a yogurt-based beverage), cheese, low and high fat yogurt and milk on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures or electroshock in mice. The results of study indicated that lower fat dairy products reduced seizure threshold in intravenous PTZ-induced seizure as well as reduction in myoclonic and clonic jerk latencies in intraperitoneal PTZ-induced seizure. High fat products or cheese reduced seizure activity in both PTZ-induced models. Meanwhile both acute and chronic administration of dairy products had no effect on an electroshock-induced seizure. Therefore, diet-related seizures may depend upon the method which seizures are provoked.
       
  • LRSPPP: lightweight R-LWE-based secure and privacy-preserving scheme for
           prosumer side network in smart grid

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Aarti Amod Agarkar, Himanshu Agrawal In recent years, researchers have made tremendous progress to address an important question of how to provide security and privacy in Internet of Things systems. Privacy protection refers to safeguarding leakage of private information of the customers. In the context of Smart Grid, majority of the studies are based on addressing consumer side privacy. A recent research work has revealed that consumer side network has evolved into prosumer side network. Prosumer refers to consumer and producer, which means a dual role of a customer in the smart grid network. In this paper, we attempt to address the security and privacy issues at the prosumer side of smart grid network. Our work is different from the previous works in two ways. The paper proposes a lightweight encryption based privacy preservation scheme; Lightweight R-LWE-based Secure and Privacy-Preserving Scheme for Prosumer side network (LRSPPP). In LRSPPP, a new messaging scheme is defined which effectively minimizes the number of messages thus making it lightweight. Furthermore, the proposed privacy preservation scheme is using Learning With Errors over Rings (R-LWE) lattice cryptography. There is no previous evidence of use of R-LWE based encryption for prosumer's privacy protection in smart grid. The security and performance analysis shows that the LRSPPP is superior compared to three other existing schemes.
       
  • Diverse perspectives to address for the future treatment of heterogeneous
           hepatocellular carcinoma

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Atsunori Tsuchiya, Masahiro Ogawa, Takayuki Watanabe, Suguru Takeuchi, Yuichi Kojima, Yusuke Watanabe, Naruhiro Kimura, Kazunao Hayashi, Junji Yokoyama, Shuji Terai Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), which often arise from chronic liver damage, have poor conditional 5-year survival and are recognized as heterogeneous tumors. Considering the heterogeneity of HCCs, diverse perspectives need to be addressed for treating such tumors, besides the findings of conventional imaging modalities and tumor markers. Data from the latest technologies, such as liquid biopsy, and the detection of the presence of cancer cells with stem/progenitor cell markers, gene mutations and diverse pathways, crosstalk with immune cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, and mechanisms of epithelial–mesenchymal transition provide diverse lines of information. Integration of these data with clinical data might be necessary to develop effective therapies for precision medicine. Here, we review several aspects of dealing with the complexity of heterogeneous HCCs.
       
  • Cracking and segregation in high-alloy steel 0.4C1.5Mn2Cr0.35Mo1.5Ni
           produced by thick continuous casting

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Rensheng Chu, Zhanjun Li, Yong Fan, Jingang Liu, Changwen Ma, Xinhua Wang Based on our innovative application of using thick continuous casting slab 0.4C1.5Mn2Cr0.35Mo1.5Ni (high alloy) for the production of high-quality mould steel, the present study investigated the high cracking susceptibility of high-alloy steel and segregation in continuous casting slab. The thermal expansion and the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve measurement, together with a high temperature in situ observation, confirmed the martensite phase transition happening at approximately 583 K that would result in an increase in the hardenability and cracking susceptibility. The cracking susceptibility zone was determined by high-temperature mechanical properties measurement. The high-alloy mould steel has no II brittle zone, and III brittle zone is 973–1148 K. As a conclusion, the straightening temperature should be above 1148 K to avoid the cracking during the continuous casting. Moreover, the elemental segregation of carbon, sulfur, chromium, and molybdenum along the cracking was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) quantitative analysis that might be another reason for the steel crack formation. It shows that Martensite phase transition happened at approximately 583 K that would result in an increase in the hardenability and cracking susceptibility.
       
  • Experimental spinal cord injury and behavioral tests in laboratory rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Rakib Uddin Ahmed, Monzurul Alam, Yong-Ping Zheng Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in some serious neurophysiological consequences that alter healthy body functions and devastate the quality of living of individuals. To find a cure for SCI, researchers around the world are working on different neurorepair and neurorehabilitation modalities. To test a new treatment for SCI as well as to understand the mechanism of recovery, animal models are being widely used. Among them, SCI rat models are arguably the most prominent. Furthermore, it is important to select a suitable behavioral test to evaluate both the motor and sensory recovery following any therapeutic intervention. In this paper, we review the rat models of spinal injury and commonly used behavioral tests to serve as a useful guideline for neuroscientists in the field of SCI research.
       
  • A novel algorithm for parameter estimation of Hidden Markov Model inspired
           by Ant Colony Optimization

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Akram Emdadi, Fatemeh Ahmadi Moughari, Fatemeh Yassaee Meybodi, Changiz Eslahchi HMM is a powerful method to model data in various fields. Estimation of Hidden Markov Model parameters is an NP-Hard problem. We propose a heuristic algorithm called “AntMarkov” to improve the efficiency of estimating HMM parameters. We compared our method with four algorithms. The comparison was conducted on 5 different simulated datasets with different features. For further evaluation, we analyzed the performance of algorithms on the prediction of protein secondary structures problem. The results demonstrate that our algorithm obtains better results with respect to the results of the other algorithms in terms of time efficiency and the amount of similarity of estimated parameters to the original parameters and log-likelihood.The source code of our algorithm is available in https://github.com/emdadi/HMMPE.
       
  • Symmetry analysis of the floor ornaments of the San Marco cathedral in
           Venice

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Mehmet Erbudak The marble floor ornaments of San Marco Cathedral in Venice are analysed according to their symmetries and motifs. We find that all the possible crystallographic plane symmetry groups are represented with the exception of threefold symmetric p3, p3m1, p31m, and sixfold symmetric p6mm. The occurrence of the fourfold-symmetry group p4mm prevails with a rich collection of motifs. The wealth of this symmetry may have resulted from the aim to cover the surface with crosses in order to keep the evil forces away from the sacred place.
       
  • Development of a centrifugal separator for grape marc: effect of the blade
           position and rotor speed on grape seed separation performance

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Roberto Romaniello, Antonia Tamborrino, Alessandro Leone The present study was conducted to find a method to separate grape seeds and soft solids from fresh marc at the end of wine-making processes. Interest in these by-products is growing owing to the high content of phytochemicals and other components useful in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. A prototype centrifugal separator was developed and its separation performance was evaluated.Four different reel speed rotations (480, 576, 687, and 842 rpm) and two different blade adjustments (Type-A blade with 1.5 mm and Type-B blade with 8.5 mm) were evaluated at the same mass flow rate (350 kg·h−1).Results showed that the separation of seeds from the fresh grape marc using a centrifugal separator is possible and that this could be achieved by setting the optimal rotation speed of the reel (480 rpm) and establishing the best distance between the blades and the cylindrical separator (8.5 mm with TypeB blades).
       
  • Preparation and characterization of epicuticular wax films

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Marco Antônio de Carvalho Faria, Marcos da Silva Sousa, Kevin Figueiredo dos Santos, Nara C. de Souza, Josmary R. Silva Dipping films from epicuticular wax (EW) were prepared as model systems of epicuticular wax films found in plants. In these films, the growth uniformity, surface morphology, and hydrophobicity were examined. It was observed growth uniformity (linear growth) only from the fifth layer onwards because of the influence of substrate. The surface morphology of the films was found to be composed of pores formed by aggregates of EW molecules, both with a fractal form. An increase in the number of film layers resulted in the increase of the number of pores up to a maximum value followed by a decrease. Such increase was assigned to the growth of aggregates whereas the decrease was explained by the increase of pore sizes, because during the growth of the aggregates, the small pores are replaced by the large pores. Hydrophobicity increased with the number of layers, which was associated with the increase of irregularities on the surface caused by the pores and aggregates. In addition, it was observed that the number of pores increased with temperature. This was explained by the increase in the mobility of EW molecules, which led to a larger amount of EW molecules deposited. Based on our results and the advantages offered by dipping films – including the control of thickness and structure – this type of film is feasible as a model for studies of cuticular water transport in plants.
       
  • Husks of Zea mays as a potential source of biopolymers for food additives
           and materials' development

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Dana C. Bernhardt, Nora M.A. Ponce, Maria F. Basanta, Carlos A. Stortz, Ana M. Rojas Maize husks, an agricultural and industrial residue generated in a large volume, were investigated as a potential source of useful biopolymers. Thus, their chemical composition was firstly studied, after which two biopolymer products were obtained and characterized. Maize husks were dried and milled, obtaining a 210 μm-main particle size powder (MHP). It contained carotenes (4 mg/100 g), and exhibited antioxidant capacity (≈195 mg ascorbic acid/100 g MHP) coming also from extractable coumaric and cinnamic acids-derivatives (14 mg/100 g). A 31% of the MPH was water-soluble at room temperature, mainly constituted by fructose, glucose, and sorbitol of mesophylls' intracellular origin. The water insoluble fiber (WIF, ≈70%), which showed antioxidant capacity (≈25–33 mg ascorbic acid/100 g WIF), was almost entirely constituted by the cell wall biopolymers or alcohol insoluble residue (AIR) of the MPH, mostly arabinoxylans (≈26%) crosslinked by ferulic residues (18.6 mg/100 g MPH), and cellulose (26%). Low levels of pectins (5.5%) and lignin (7%) were found. Hence, a 1.25%-sulfur nanocellulose (NCC) was directly obtained with sulfuric acid (−15 mV Zeta-potential; 147 °C onset of thermal-degradation) without the necessity of previous delignification. On the other hand, a water soluble arabinoxylan enriched fraction (AX-EF) with pseudoplastic behavior in water and sensibility to calcium ions (≈3 Pa⋅s initial Newtonian-viscosity) was isolated by alkaline hydrolysis of diferulate bridges. Despite a 56% of crystallinity, NCC showed the highest water absorption capacity when compared to that of the AX-EF and AIR. Maize husks constitute an important source of biopolymers for development of materials and food additives/ingredients with relevant hydration and antioxidant properties.
       
  • A high-throughput analytical tool for quantification of 15 metallic
           nanoparticles supported on carbon black

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Felipe de Moura Souza, Fernanda Pollo Paniz, Tatiana Pedron, Mauro Coelho dos Santos, Bruno Lemos Batista Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in different areas of science. Usually, they are immobilized on a low-cost support for catalysis purposes. However, there is a lack of studies for specific methods for analytical quantification since the extraction of these metallic NPs from the matrix is still a challenge. In this work, 15 metallic NPs were synthesized (Pt, Pd, Au, Ag, Rh, Ru, Nb, Mn, Co, Cu, Zr, Sn, Ce, Ni and W) supported on a commercial carbon black (Vulcan XC72). Then, six different methods were employed for sample preparation and further determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results can be divided in three groups concerning the extraction of metallic NPs: the first group could be extracted from the matrix with nitric acid, for the second one it was necessary to employ a digestion at 25 °C (room temperature), and finally a third group which was found to be independent of acid and temperature. These findings can contribute to future research in the field of catalysis to improve their characterization regarding the metallic NPs.
       
  • Autonomic maturation from birth to 2 years: normative values

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Hugues Patural, Vincent Pichot, Sophie Flori, Antoine Giraud, Patricia Franco, Patrick Pladys, Alain Beuchée, Frédéric Roche, Jean-Claude Barthelemy BackgroundWhile heart rate variability (HRV) constitutes a relevant non-invasive tool to assess the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function with recognized diagnostic or therapeutic implications, there is still a lack of established data on maturation of autonomic control of heart rate during the first months of life. The Autonomic Baby Evaluation (AuBE) cohort was built to establish, the normal autonomic maturation profile from birth up to 2 years, in a healthy population of full-term newborns.MethodsHeart rate variability analysis was carried out in 271 full-term newborns (mean gestational age 39 wGA + 5 days) from reliable polysomnographic recordings at 0 (n = 270) and 6 (n = 221) months and from a 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) at 12 (n = 210), 18 (n = 197), and 24 (n = 190) months. Indices of HRV analysis were calculated through the ANSLabTools software.ResultsIndices are dissociated according a temporal, geometrical, frequency, Poincaré, empirical mode decomposition, fractal, Chaos and DC/AC and entropy analysis. Each index is presented for five different periods of time, 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months and with smoothed values in the 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90th and 97th percentiles. Data are also presented for the full cohort and individualized by sex to account for gender variability.Discussion & conclusionThe physiological autonomic maturation profile from birth to 2 years in a healthy population of term neonates results in a fine-tuning autonomic maturation underlying progressively a new equilibrium and privileging the parasympathetic activity over the sympathetic activity.
       
  • The occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in freshwater ecosystems
           and their link with hydro-meteorological and environmental variations
           in Tanzania

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Offoro N. Kimambo, Jabulani R. Gumbo, Hector Chikoore Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are photosynthetic bacteria that under favorable environmental conditions produce secondary metabolites (cyanotoxins) which are harmful to the environment, including humans. The mass proliferation of harmful cyanobacteria is termed CyanoHABs. CyanoHABs can adapt to different climatic fluctuations, therefore, understanding their dynamics in freshwater systems is crucial. Variation in climatic and hydrological processes, changing land use and economic growth all influence the occurrence and distribution of CyanoHABs. There have been inadequate CyanoHAB studies at local scales, therefore their occurrence and dynamics cannot be generalized. This study reviews and synthesizes cases of CysnoHAB occurrence, magnitude, and timing and how these are linked with climatic and hydrological variations in the United Republic of Tanzania. In this study, a scoping review approach was adopted. Research articles, reports, and databases were consulted. The most common species of toxin-producing cyanobacteria were identified in different water bodies in Tanzania, as well as the record of mass fatality of birds (Lesser Flamingo) in Lake Manyara, which in almost all cases occurred during dry years. While previous studies on CyanoHAB dynamics and their links to climate, hydrological, and environmental changes have not been undertaken in Tanzania, there are studies in Lake Victoria and Tanganyika. Therefore, there should be an immediate response from water users, managers, researchers, and water authorities to address and actively engage in monitoring and managing the risks associated with CyanoHABs in Tanzania.
       
  • An integrated assessment of water quality in a land reform settlement in
           northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Thayana Paranhos Portal, Marcos Antonio Pedlowski, Cibele M.S. de Almeida, Maria C. Canela The Zumbi dos Palmares land reform settlement lacks modern facilities for water and sewage treatment. Local farmers often use shallow wells as alternative source of water supply, because the water table is reasonably high in the region. This work presents a multivariate analysis assessment of physicochemical and bacteriological parameters and pesticide residues in water samples collected from these shallow wells. The physicochemical parameters analyzed were: conductivity, pH, DOC (dissolved organic carbon), nitrate, turbidity, and bacteriological analysis measuring total and fecal coliforms. The results show non-compliance with Brazilian legal standards in most samples where low pH values were found, characterizing the presence of acidic waters. Another example of non-compliance is the presence of total and fecal coliforms in for drinking water in most of the samples and, in some cases, very high values (2,400 CFU). Some wells showed high conductivity values, probably associated with a history of oceanic intrusion. Analyses determining the contamination by pesticides show the presence of ametrine, atrazine, methyl parathion, carbaryl and hexazinone. The concentration for these compounds ranged from 0.14 to 1.17 μg/L. Ordinance No 2914/2011 from the Brazilian Ministry of Health establishes the acceptable limits for atrazine and methyl parathion as 9 μg L−1 and 2 μg L−1. None of these exceeded the allowable Brazilian and European limits. However, for the other two pesticides, the European Legislation (Council Directive) recommends the maximum allowable concentration of 0.1 μg L−1 and, 0.5 μg L−1 for total pesticides. Our samples that were above the quantifiable limit of 50 ng L−1, were also above the European limit values. Our results therefore suggest that water gathered from shallow wells at the Zumbi dos Palmares settlement is not proper for consumption without proper disinfection treatments.
       
  • Homology modeling and docking analysis of ßC1 protein encoded by Cotton
           leaf curl Multan betasatellite with different plant flavonoids

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Muhammad Waseem Sarwar, Adeel Riaz, Nazia Nahid, Ahmed Al Qahtani, Nisar Ahmed, M. Shah Nawaz-Ul-Rehman, Ayesha Younus, Muhammad Mubin Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) belonging to begomoviruses (Family Geminiviridae) can infect cotton and many other agricultural crops. Betasatellite associated with CLCuMuV i.e., cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) is a small circular single-stranded deoxyribose nucleic acid (ssDNA) molecule that is essential for CLCuMuV to induce disease symptoms. Betasatellite molecule contains a ßC1 gene encoding for a pathogenicity determinant multifunctional protein, which extensively interacts with host plant machinery to cause virus infection. In this study the interaction of ßC1 with selected plant flavonoids has been studied. The study was focused on sequence analysis, three-dimensional structural modeling and docking analysis of ßC1 protein of CLCuMuB. Sequence analysis and physicochemical properties showed that ßC1 is negatively charged protein having more hydrophilic regions and is not very stable. Three-dimensional model of this protein revealed three helical, four beta pleated sheets and four coiled regions. The score of docking experiments using flavonoids as ligand indicated that plant flavonoids robinetinidol-(4alpha,8)-gallocatechin, quercetin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside, swertianolin, 3′,4′,5-trihydroxy-3-methoxyflavon-7-olate, agathisflavone, catiguanin B, 3′,4′,5,6-tetrahydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone, quercetin-7-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1->6)-beta-D-galactopyranoside], prunin 6″-O-gallate and luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucosiduronic acid have strong binding with active site of ßC1 protein. The results obtained from this study clearly indicate that flavonoids are involved in defense against the virus infection, as these molecules binds to the active site of ßC1 protein. This information might be interesting to study plant defense mechanism based on the special compounds produced by the plants.
       
  • Frequency re-use distance calculation in cellular systems based on
           Monte-Carlo simulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Solomon T. Girma, Dominic B.O. Konditi, Ciira Maina Radio spectrum's sharing guideline is an essential component of spectrum utilization process. Since there is no insightful interference avoidance method in a radio system, the careful selection of sharing conditions is the only means for achieving successful co-existence and optimal spectrum usage in the radio system. Spectrum sharing rule can be obtained by an analytical method or statistical method. The analytical method considers the worst case scenario to calculate sharing rules. Nonetheless, this doesn't represent the lasting phenomenon amid ordinary task; moreover sharing rules may be unnecessarily rigid. Henceforth, the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) strategy has been utilized to establish a probability of interference based on a random distribution of victim link receiver in time and space with respect to victim link transmitters.The study has been done for cluster number N with values of 1, 3, 4, and 7 in a cellular system. Monte Carlo Simulation analysis showed the percentages of interference are 24.94%, 9.36%, 3.33%, and 0.4% for N = 1, N = 3, N = 4, and N = 7 respectively. In terms of throughput per total bandwidth per a single site, N = 7 offers a spectrum utilization of 1/7 and N = 4 offers a spectrum utilization of 1/4. Therefore, a relative enhancement in capacity of 7/4 has been achieved with 3.3% probability of interference which is below the threshold value of 5%.
       
  • Corrigendum to “Treatment resistant depression incidence estimates from
           studies of health insurance databases depend strongly on the details of
           the operating definition” [Heliyon 4 (7) (July 2018) e00707]

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Daniel Fife, Jenna Rep, M. Soledad Cepeda, Paul Stang, Margaret Blacketer, Jaskaran Singh
       
  • Origin of mutations in genes associated with human glioblastoma multiform
           cancer: random polymerase errors versus deamination

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Min Zhang, Da Yang, Barry Gold The etiology of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most serious form of brain cancer, remains obscure, although it has been proposed that cancer risk is a function of random polymerase errors that occur during stem cell division and the resulting mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Analysis of the 8 genes (PTEN, TP53, EGFR, PIK3R1, PIK3CA, NF1, RB1, IDH1) that are mutated in at least 5% of GBM tumors indicates a non-random mutation pattern that reflects a significant role for hydrolytic deamination at CpG sites. The formation of activating mutations in some genes, e.g., IDH1, where a very limited set of mutations are oncogenic, statistically cannot involve random mutagenesis due to polymerase errors that occur during each stem cell replication. Comparison of the in vitro misincorporation tendencies of three replicative polymerases and the “random” mutation pattern in a subset of genes indicates non-polymerase based pathways are involved. Analysis of the mutation patterns shows that chemical deamination that occurs at a slow rate at each CpG is favored over random polymerase errors by a factor of more than 10 million. Therefore, if a truncating nonsense mutation in a tumor suppressor, or an activating missense mutation in an oncogene, can occur due to a C> T base substitution at a CpG sequence, it is highly favored over other mutation pathways.
       
  • Multi-scale computational modeling of lightweight aluminum-lithium alloys

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Pınar Acar The present study addresses the multi-scale computational modeling of a lightweight Aluminum-Lithium (Al-Li) 2070 alloy. The Al-Li alloys display significant anisotropy in material properties because of their strong crystallographic texture. To understand the relationships between processing, microstructural textures at different material points and tailored material properties, a multi-scale simulation is performed by controlling the texture evolution during deformation. To achieve the multi-scale framework, a crystal plasticity model based on a one-point probability descriptor, Orientation Distribution Function (ODF), is implemented to study the texture evolution. Next, a two-way coupled multi-scale model is developed, where the deformation gradient at the macro-scale integration points is passed to the micro-scale ODF model and the homogenized stress tensor at the micro-scale is passed back to the macro-scale model. A gradient-based optimization scheme which incorporates the multi-scale continuum sensitivity method is utilized to calibrate the slip system parameters of the alloy using the available experimental data. Next, the multi-scale simulations are performed for compression and tension using the calibrated crystal plasticity model, and the texture data is compared to the experiments. With the presented multi-scale modeling scheme, we achieve the location-specific texture predictions for a new generation Al-Li alloy for different deformation processes.
       
  • Using technology to enhance and encourage dance-based exercise

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Alethea Blackler, Shital Desai, Levi Swann, Marianella Chamorro-Koc, Gene Moyle, Mikaela Stephens This study investigated the role of Self-Service Technologies (SSTs) in dance-based exercise in order to begin exploring the motivations behind the use (or not) of SSTs by ordinary men and women in this context. The research approach employed interviews to gain insights into participants' use of SSTs and their exercise practices, in order to start establishing ways in which dance can be re/incorporated into people's lives through the design of appropriate SSTs. Findings from this study highlight the significant opportunity to further explore how the properties of music and dance can be integrated into the design of new SSTs. Literature suggests dance could be a beneficial exercise format for many people and self-service technology abounds for exercise but is often not used consistently. Our interviews asked participants about dance-based exercise and SSTs for exercise and showed that there is an opportunity to design SSTs to help people access dance-based exercise. SSTs should help people learn dance, build confidence, and dance alone or with others. SSTs could facilitate movement and increase engagement with physical activity whilst addressing issues around logistics, confidence and dance knowledge and experience.
       
  • QSAR study of anti-Human African Trypanosomiasis activity for
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Samir Chtita, Mounir Ghamali, Abdellah Ousaa, Adnane Aouidate, Assia Belhassan, Abdelali Idrissi Taourati, Vijay Hariram Masand, Mohammed Bouachrine, Tahar Lakhlifi The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of sixty 2-phenylimidazopyridines derivatives with anti-Human African Trypanosomiasis (anti-HAT) activity has been studied by using the density functional theory (DFT) and statistical methods. Becke's three-parameter hybrid method and the Lee-Yang-Parr B3LYP functional employing 6–31G(d) basis set are used to calculate quantum chemical descriptors using Gaussian 03W software, and the five Lipinski's parameters were calculated using ChemOffice software.In order to obtain robust and reliable QSAR model, the original dataset was randomly divided into training and prediction sets comprising 48 and 12 compounds, respectively. An optimal model for the training set with significant statistical quality was established. The same model was further applied to predict pEC50 values of the 12 compounds in the test set, further showing that this QSAR model has high predictive ability. It is very interesting to find that the anti-HAT of these compounds appear to be mainly governed by four factors, i.e., the number of H-bond donors, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, the molecular weight and the octanol/water partition coefficient. Here the possible action mechanism of these compounds was analysed and discussed, in particular, important structural requirements for great anti-HAT activity will be by increasing molecular size and substitute the 2-phenylimidazopyridines derivatives with polar, ionic, stronger accepting electron ability group and heteroatoms attached to one or more hydrogen atoms. Based on this proposed QSAR model, some new compounds with higher anti-HAT activities have been theoretically designed. Such results can offer useful theoretical references for future experimental works.
       
  • Differentiating pasture honey from eucalyptus honey based on carbon
           isotopic data in Uruguay

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Verónica Berriel, Carlos H. Perdomo To avoid false declarations of geographic and botanical honey origin, traceability should be based on analytical data, which could then be processed by multivariate statistical methods. Obtaining this data, however, is costly and time consuming. Thus, it would be more convenient to acquire this information from routine trials, for example from the analysis for determination of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) concentration in honey. The availability of a procedure of this kind in Uruguay would be useful in discriminating between honeys from grasslands to that from eucalyptus, the two main floral sources for commercial production. To this effect, honey samples (47 from pastures and 42 from eucalypts) were analyzed for δ13C in both honey and its protein fraction. We identified a logistic regression model that allowed us to correctly assign 90% of the training samples, using δ13C data of honey, protein fraction, and the isotopic index as variables. This model was then validated, obtaining 100% correct allocation for honeys from pasture and 90% for honeys from eucalyptus. Moreover, we found that this information could also be used to establish adulteration with HFCS based on a local stricter cut-off limit than that of -1.0‰ of the international index.
       
  • Corrigendum to “Influence of saliva on individual in-mouth aroma release
           from raw cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra L.) and links
           to perception” [Heliyon 4 (12) (December 2018) e01045]

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Damian Frank, Udayasika Piyasiri, Nicholas Archer, Jenifer Jenifer, Ingrid Appelqvist
       
  • Effects of domestic cooking on flavonoids in broccoli and calculation
           of retention factors

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Xianli Wu, Yang Zhao, David B. Haytowitz, Pei Chen, Pamela R. Pehrsson The flavonoid contents in vegetables are strongly influenced by domestic cooking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of domestic cooking on the structurally complex flavonoids in broccoli. Raw broccoli was cooked by boiling, steaming and microwaving. Seven kaempferol (Km) glycosides and one quercetin (Qn) glycoside were identified and quantified in raw and cooked broccoli by HPLC-MS. Boiling resulted in significant loss of all flavonoids, while steaming and microwaving led to minor loses or even increases of the flavonoids. Apparent retention factors (AR) and true retention factors (TR) were calculated for individual flavonoids. AR ranged from 35.6% to 147.5% and TR ranged from 30.4% to 174.1%, respectively, depending on the cooking method and chemical structures of flavonoids. Two different ways to calculate total retention factors, “Retention Factor by Glycoside” and “Retention Factor by Aglycone”, were also calculated. In conclusion, domestic cooking significantly altered the flavonoid contents in broccoli, with cooking method and chemical nature being key influential factors. Acylated Km tri- or tetra-glycosides appeared to be more resistant to domestic cooking.
       
  • Sir2D, a Sirtuin family protein, regulates adenylate cyclase A expression
           through interaction with the MybB transcription factor early in
           Dictyostelium development upon starvation

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Hideo Taniura, Shuhei Soeda, Tomoko Ohta, Maya Oki, Risako Tsuboi Sirtuin interacts with many regulatory proteins involved in energy homeostasis, DNA repair, cell survival, and lifespan extension. We investigated the functional roles of Sir2D during early Dictyostelium development upon starvation. We found that ectopic expression of Sir2D accelerated development among three Sirtuins containing highly homologous catalytic domain sequences to mouse Sirt1. Sir2D expression upregulated adenylate cyclase A (aca) mRNA expression 2, 4 and 6 h after starvation. We have previously reported that nicotinamide, a Sirt1 inhibitor, treatment delayed the development and decreased the expression of aca at 4 h after starvation. Sir2D expressing cells showed resistance against the nicotinamide effect. RNAi-mediated Sir2D knockdown cells were generated, and their development was also delayed. Aca expression was decreased 4 h after starvation. Sir2D expression restored the developmental impairment of Sir2D knockdown cells. The induction of aca upon starvation starts with transcriptional activation of MybB. The ectopic expression of MybB accelerated the development and increased the expression of aca 2 and 4 h after starvation but did not restore the phenotype of Sir2D knockdown cells. Sir2D expression had no effects on MybB-null mutant cells during early development. Thus, MybB is necessary for the upregulation of aca by Sir2D, and Sir2D is necessary for the full induction of aca after 4 h by MybB. MybB was coimmunoprecipitated with Sir2D, suggesting an interaction between MybB and Sir2D. These results suggest that Sir2D regulates aca expression through interaction with the MybB transcription factor early in Dictyostelium development upon starvation.
       
  • Corporate image as a mediator between service quality and customer
           satisfaction: difference across categorized exhibitors

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): LiHsien Chien, ShuYi Chi Impact of service quality and corporate image on satisfaction and loyalty behavioral intention are explored by using the PLS-SEM (Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling) analysis for the exhibition industry. Service quality has a significant enhancing effect on the corporate image of the trade exhibitions, and both have significant positive effects on exhibitor satisfaction. Also, the role of the image as a partial mediating variable between service quality and satisfaction is emphasized. Additionally, the results obtained from multi-group analysis also supported the hypothesis that corporate image and service quality bring different satisfaction responses in exhibitors of the different industry with 4 business sizes in the capital. In light of scale and types of the enterprises for trade shows market, price segmentation strategies should be offered to maintain satisfaction and loyalty from the SMEs. Service quality and image of the service-offering company are more emphasized by big enterprises in choosing the trade organizer. Multiple group analysis also considered categorizing the specific industrial enterprises. The organizer can apply the result to explore workable market strategies to meet the needs of business partners with different capital size. This research not only has avail for trade exhibition organizers but provides necessary theory-based research in the trade exhibition territory.
       
  • Anti-corrosion and microstructural properties of Ni–W alloy coatings:
           effect of 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): U. Pramod Kumar, S. Shanmugan, C. Joseph Kennady, S.M.A. Shibli In the present work impact of 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde on the microstructural and corrosion behavior of nanocrystalline Ni-W alloy coatings has been elucidated. A systematic investigation on the protection ability of Ni-W alloy coatings in 0.2 M H2SO4 solution was done with the aid of tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies. Corrosion performance of the alloy films obtained in the absence and in the presence of different concentrations of 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde (0–500 ppm) in the bath was explained in the light of additive concentration. Compared to the blank and other concentrations of additive, 250 ppm of additive containing bath was predicted as the most promising one for the introduced citrate based Ni-W alloy electrodeposition. Low corrosion rate (0.06 mm/year) and high charge transfer resistance (2505.3 Ω cm2), for the electrodeposits, obtained from the bath containing 250 ppm of 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde supports for its high anticorrosion performance. The marked difference in the corrosion resistance property is ascribed to the formation of fine-grained deposits, smooth surface, and inclusion or adsorption of additive within the deposits in the presence of the additive (250 ppm) in the bath. Further, the adsorption of additive molecules on the metal surface was explored with the help of quantum chemical calculations based on DFT.
       
  • A theoretical analysis of elastic and optical properties of half Heusler
           MCoSb (M=Ti, Zr and Hf)

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Himanshu Joshi, D.P. Rai, Lalhriatpuia Hnamte, Amel Laref, R.K. Thapa Ab initio calculation of the Elastic and Optical properties of cubic half-Heusler compounds MCoSb (M = Ti, Zr and Hf) are reported using the FP-LAPW approach of the Density Functional Theory. Generalized Gradient Approximation was used as the exchange and correlation potential for investigating these properties. It was found that the Bulk modulus decreases with the increase in temperature and increases with the increase in pressure for all of the three Heusler compounds under study. The Debye's temperature along with compressional, Shear and average elastic wave velocities has also been calculated. The elastic results are compared with the available theoretical and experimental works. The optical investigation of the compounds shows high reflectivity at the infrared region of the photon energy. The imaginary part of the dielectric function reveled the optically non-metallic behavior of the MCoSb compounds, with optical band gap being around 1 eV.
       
  • Effect of walnut kernel septum membranes hydroalcoholic extract on the
           shelf life of traditional butter

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Heliyon, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Tooraj Mehdizadeh, Neda Mohammadipour, Ali Mojaddar Langroodi, Mojtaba Raeisi Incorporation of natural ingredients antioxidants in edible fats can profitably affect their oxidative stability during production and storage. The purposes of the current work were to assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of walnut kernel septum membranes hydroalcohol extract (WHE) in traditional butter (TB). Antioxidant characterization of the extract was screened through methods of DPPH, reducing power and total phenolic assays. After preparation of traditional butter from yogurt, WHE was incorporated into TB at three different concentrations; 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5% and compared with a control, BHT and tocopherol treated samples (200 mg of BHT and tocopherol/kg). Microbiological studies (Staphylococcus aureus, Coliforms, Psychrotrophic bacteria, yeasts and molds) were done during 90 days of storage time. Changes in Anisidine value (AV), acid value, peroxide value (PV) free fatty acids (FFA), Schaal and Totox value were monitored at 45-day intervals. Sensory evaluation was done using 10 semi-trained panelists based on the 5-point hedonic scale.It was found that the total phenolic content of WHE was 368.86 mg GAE/g. The BHT had higher antioxidant activity than WHE inhibiting 92.3% of the DPPH radical at 600 μg/mL. Peroxide value of TB treated with tocopherol, BHT and WHE 0.5% was 0.29 ± 0.07, 0.39 ± 0.07 and 0.52 ± 0.04 respectively. Furthermore, the WHE incorporated butter has shown low levels of free fatty acids, Schaal and Totox value when compared to control treatment. The WHE 0.5% incorporated sample had the most antimicrobial activity and it inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms (except Staphylococcus aureus) used in the study. Among the treated TB, the samples treated with the control and WHE 0.05% had the highest sensory attributes score. The study showed that WHE could be an excellent natural origin of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents which can be used in butter.
       
 
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