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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted by number of followers
Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4908)
Scientific American     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 493)
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 163)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 82)
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Science Advances     Free   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Scientometric Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Studies in Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Scienze Regionali : Italian Journal of Regional Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Scientific American Mind     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Royal Society Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Scientific Data     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
SINET : Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tanzania Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Східно-Європейський журнал передових технологій : Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nordic Studies in Science Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science & Diplomacy     Free   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nuncius     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TECNOSCIENZA: Italian Journal of Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Springer Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
OmniScience : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
National Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fontanus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Образование и наука     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
THEORIA : An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Heliyon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MundoFesc     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Científica de la FAREM     Open Access  
Mutis     Open Access  
Ruhuna Journal of Science     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Revista Logos Ciencia & Tecnología     Open Access  
World Scientific Research     Open Access  
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Jurnal MIPA     Open Access  
Unnes Science Education Journal     Open Access  
Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies     Open Access  
Selforganizology     Open Access  
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Revista Catarinense da Ciência Contábil     Open Access  
Reviews in Theoretical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Temas y Debates     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Universitas (León)     Open Access  
Seminário de Iniciação Científica e Seminário Integrado de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão     Open Access  
ScienceRise     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
Open Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Revista UNIMAR     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
Revista UniVap     Open Access  
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
Sakarya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Smart Science     Open Access  
Science World Journal     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Población y Desarrollo - Argonautas y caminantes     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
MethodsX     Open Access  
Journal of Unsolved Questions     Open Access  
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Metode & Forskningsdesign     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Sciences du jeu     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Scientific World     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
SAINSTIS     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science     Open Access  
QScience Connect     Open Access  
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Trilogía     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
The Scientific World Journal     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Revista Sociedad y Economía     Open Access  
Revista Cientifica Guillermo de Ockham     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Universitas Scientiarum     Open Access  
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, The     Full-text available via subscription  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe     Open Access  
TD : The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Open Access  

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Science & Diplomacy
Number of Followers: 3  

  Free journal Free journal
ISSN (Print) 2167-8618 - ISSN (Online) 2167-8626
Published by AAAS Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Looking Towards a Sustainable Future: A Conversation with Ambasssador Al
           Otaiba, UAE’s Ambassador to the United States
    • Authors: Katie Garner
      Abstract: Looking Towards a Sustainable Future: A Conversation with Ambasssador Al Otaiba, UAE’s Ambassador to the United States Katie Garner Tue, 12/05/2023 - 12:05 Conversation 12/05/2023 Ambassador Yousef Al Otaiba has served as the Ambassador of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to the United States since 2008 and as Minister of State since 2017. He previously worked under President Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, during the latter’s tenure as the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, and served as Non-Resident Ambassador to Mexico. He was awarded Ambassador of the Year in 2010 by the National U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce and listed among TIME’s 100 Most Influential People in 2020.Ambassador Al Otaiba spoke with Kim Montgomery, Director of International Affairs and Science Diplomacy at AAAS and Executive Editor of Science & Diplomacy, on the UAE’s approach to science and technology diplomacy. This conversation is part of the Ambassador Conversation Series, which was launched in Spring 2021.Kim Montgomery (interviewer): The United States and the United Arab Emirates have had a friendly relationship since diplomatic relations were established in 1972. You have served as the Ambassador of the UAE to the United States since 2008. Given your experience in the position, what do you think are the most significant shared priorities in science and technology between the United States and the UAE, and how have you seen them evolve over the years'Ambassador Yousef Al Otaiba: Climate and the energy transition have been the biggest priorities in the UAE-U.S. scientific relationship throughout my 15-year ambassadorship. The UAE has long recognized that facilitating the energy transition is a strategic, economic, and environmental imperative, and has thus made this issue a serious policy priority.Indeed, the increasingly devastating weather events that we see on the news on a near-daily basis—in the United States, in the UAE, and around the world—underscore just how urgent the need is for strong international collaboration on climate science and clean energy technology. As a result, the UAE is prioritizing work with partners across the United States—in government, higher education, the private sector, and beyond1—to strengthen the international response to climate change through scientific research and technological innovation.One example of this shared interest is the Partnership for Accelerating Clean Energy (PACE),2 which will mobilize $100 billion USD and deploy 100 new gigawatts of clean energy in the United States, the UAE, and emerging economies around the world by 2035. The initiative represents a shared commitment by two major energy producers to a responsible and ambitious energy transition.The energy transition is not just an environmental imperative; it is also a major opportunity to diversify and expand the economy, create new jobs, and create innovative solutions to our shared challenges. On that front, I’m pleased to say we’re in lockstep with the United States, as our two nations work together to decrease global emissions and lead a just energy transition.Another shared priority is the sustainable production of food. The UAE and United States co-lead the Agriculture Innovation Mission for Climate (AIM for Climate),3 a coalition of over 500 partners that seeks to accelerate innovation, research, and development in agriculture and food systems in order to spur low-carbon growth and enhance food security.Montgomery: Oil and gas have played a major role in the UAE’s economy for decades, but the country is working to create greener sources of energy through nuclear reactors and solar parks. Why is it important to adapt to new, greener energy methods for both environmental and economic reasons' What role does science play in this transition, and how is hosting COP28 affecting these efforts'Ambassador Al Otaiba: We just got through the hottest month on record in human history in July 2023. Everywhere you look, wildfires are destroying communities, hurricanes are hitting coastlines, and droughts are wiping out crops. These observations confirm what science tells us. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we need to dramatically cut emissions to maintain a livable planet. Unless we all take urgent action now, climate impacts will only get worse.In 2008, the UAE clean-energy company Masdar, with funding from the government of Abu Dhabi, began construction on a low-carbon eco-city that now serves as a “greenprint” for future cities and sustainable living—fittingly dubbed “Masdar City.” This was the UAE’s first-ever large-scale “greening” initiative and demonstrated its commitment to serving as a regional leader and first mover in the clean energy space. Today, the city is home to a rapidly growing clean-tech cluster, a residential neighborhood, and a free zone where businesses can benefit from a wide array of business support services. Since then, the UAE has continued make significant investments in clean and renewable energy at h...
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Dec 2023 17:05:34 +000
  • Scientists Must Use Their “Outside” Voices: A Conversation with
           Ambassador Emanuel, U.S. Ambassador to Japan
    • Authors: Katie Garner
      Abstract: Scientists Must Use Their “Outside” Voices: A Conversation with Ambassador Emanuel, U.S. Ambassador to Japan Katie Garner Thu, 11/02/2023 - 09:03 Conversation 11/02/2023 Ambassador Rahm Emanuel was nominated to serve as the U.S. Ambassador to Japan in December 2021. Before becoming Ambassador, he had an impressive political career, including serving as the 55th mayor of the City of Chicago, White House Chief of Staff under President Barack Obama, U.S. Representative from Illinois’ 5th Congressional District, and Senior Advisor to President Bill Clinton for Policy and Politics.Ambassador Emanuel spoke with Dr. Sudip Parikh, CEO of AAAS and Executive Publisher of the Science family of journals, during a AAAS visit to Japan in October 2023. This is the fourteenth conversation in the Ambassador Conversation Series, and the first with a U.S. Ambassador posted abroad.Sudip Parikh (interviewer): Having been the U.S. Ambassador to Japan since 2021, how have you observed science, technology, and innovation having an impact on bilateral cooperation'Ambassador Rahm Emanuel: Let me start by saying that I come from a family of scientists, with my dad and brother both being doctors. Along with my personal connection, I’ve also interacted with science professionally, having worked to expand the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under U.S. Presidents Clinton and Obama, as well as often collaborating with the U.S. National Science Foundation. So, I came into this position with a viewpoint that science can create points of dialogue between countries. People often talk about sports, appropriately, as a channel of communication between nations, but science is another important example of soft power, which can greatly contribute to diplomatic efforts.When I think of the American and Japanese relationship in terms of science, several things come to mind. For example, there are several different collaborations between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), including the Gateway1 and Artemis2 agreements, that have led to crucial successes in space science. We’re also seeing new and strong collaborations, such as a Purdue University initiative to train engineers in the semiconductor space,3 and a potential collaboration on AI on the horizon. Clearly, science plays an important role in our diplomatic relationship, and this will continue to expand as new technology and new situations arise.Parikh: In May 2023, a partnership that you helped arrange between the University of Chicago and the University of Tokyo, supported by IBM and Google, focused on quantum computing, was formalized during the G7 Hiroshima Summit. I’m curious to know, with these collaborations between universities that you helped originate, is there a chicken and an egg there' Is it international relationships that create these partnerships, or the scientific dialogue'Ambassador Emanuel: I do not necessarily think it is a chicken or egg situation; it’s more chutzpah. The particular collaboration on quantum computing between the University of Chicago and the University of Tokyo4 came about because of a lunch I had with the President of the University of Tokyo. By coincidence, he brought up quantum and I asked if he was interested in partnership. After nine months of work and numerous conference calls, we created this unique partnership and raised $100 million ($10 million over ten years) from IBM and $50 million ($10 million over five years) from Google. For these partnerships to happen, I think you really just need people willing to put in the work to get them started, and those efforts can come from scientists or policymakers.I will say that what is interesting about these partnerships and scientific collaboration in general is that none of us will be in the same role or have the same title when we see the benefits of these collaborations. When we think about important and recent legislation, like the CHIPS and Science Act or the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), the most important things about them are the R&D resources they will create. We cannot know now what will necessarily come out of it, but this is where, one day, we will see the biggest impact. That is not to say that I am against a new runway or terminal, which have legitimate benefits, but I believe the real punches are the breakthroughs that occur when the United States decides to activate its universities and national laboratories.Parikh: We could not agree more and appreciate you bringing up the importance of this legislation. Thinking of this legislation as well as the collaboration between the University of Chicago and the University of Tokyo begs the question: why do you think this stuff doesn’t seem to happen without support from government'Ambassador Emanuel: I do not necessarily think I am the person to answer this question, but in terms of our collaboration on quantum computing, I am not sure that this partnership would exist without the help of the Embassy, and I do not think IBM and Google would have funded it. First, I think existing relationships are important; from being Mayor of...
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Nov 2023 13:03:17 +000
  • Pursuit of Knowledge in a World of Politics: Alexander von Humboldt as an
           Early Advocate of Science Diplomacy
    • Authors: Katie Garner
      Abstract: Pursuit of Knowledge in a World of Politics: Alexander von Humboldt as an Early Advocate of Science Diplomacy Katie Garner Thu, 10/26/2023 - 10:53 Perspective 10/27/2023 Though the term science diplomacy is relatively recent and has lately received growing attention, the connection between the pursuits of science and politics has a long history. The past provides numerous examples of institutions and individuals aware of the chances and opportunities generated by this combination of fields, including those who took advantage of their fame, expertise, and networks to bring both worlds closer together. Particularly in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, inspired by the postulates of the Enlightenment and a new understanding of the sciences and their role in society, a growing number of people practiced science diplomacy avant la lettre. Well known is the important role of the Royal Society in this context, as one of the oldest academies of science, as well as the efforts of eminent personalities like Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson.1Another science diplomat of this era was the Prussian naturalist Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), mostly known for the scientific expedition he carried out in the Spanish possessions in the New World from 1799 to 1804. The itinerary comprised today’s countries of Cuba, Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, and Mexico, followed by a brief visit to the United States before returning home to Europe. This expedition was exceptional in that Humboldt undertook it fairly independently at a time when scholars mostly carried out their scientific pursuits as part of a larger exploration voyage, financed and directed by political interests. He obtained an extremely generous authorization by the Spanish Empire for the personal voyage and covered the costs himself, meaning that he was able to follow his private scientific agenda, which he defined very broadly: to study, measure and understand the world, and every component of it with their complex interdependencies.2Yet, while Humboldt became famous for the vast body of knowledge he created on the natural world and the societies living in them, he was also criticized for the way he navigated the complex connection between science and politics, in his position as an independent explorer. The close ties that he maintained with the world of politics, and his nearness to many political leaders, led to a broad array of misinterpretations.Humboldt is portrayed by turns as a mere pinball among competing political interests, an active agent willing to provide his knowledge to the strategic benefit of one nation, or an opportunist who would do anything for his own benefit. Yet he was none of those things. Interestingly, most of these critical voices have focused—and still do—on his connections to the Spanish Empire on one side, and the United States on the other; while some saw in him the ideological leader of the independence movement in Spanish America, others took him as being yet another colonial explorer. Some interpretations consider him a tool for the Spanish Empire, yet others criticize him for providing information to the young United States.3 These contradictory attributions tend to be based on both a lack of knowledge of the historic and political context and of the nature of Humboldt’s relationship with both political powers.In response to these incorrect interpretations, Humboldt’s skillful navigation between the worlds of politics and science requires a more thorough analysis. He was far from having a passive role between the political powers of his time, nor did he solely aim to further his own agenda, scientific or otherwise, by connecting it with these strategic interests. Instead, aware of the benefit of being at the intersection of science and politics, Humboldt sought to combine these perspectives. Over his lifetime, he found multiple ways to address the challenges of his time by strengthening the ties between both worlds. Even less well known is the fact that he undertook those efforts mainly in connection to the Prussian Court—and not in alliance with the Spanish crown or the U.S. cabinet, as depicted by critics. Having grown up in a wealthy aristocratic family, with close connections to the Prussian Court, Humboldt was used to socializing in those elite circles. Already as a young man he was entrusted with diplomatic missions and, after his return from the New World, the Prussian Court was eager to strengthen this connection on account of his growing international fame and excellent relationships with the highest scholarly and political circles in Washington, London, and particularly Paris.4 Humboldt immediately received official honors and was provided with a monthly salary. Over the next decades, the scholar-turned-diplomat lent his intellectual fame and cosmopolitan glamour to the Court. Some of the missions – including his role at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818 and his travels with Friedrich Wilhelm III to the Congress of Verona in 1822, part of the series of international conferences initiated with the Congress of Vienna – were in the imminent political interests of the Court while others concerned broader strategic goals, and Humboldt undertook all of them diligently, though generally not without an eye to their benefits for...
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2023 14:53:58 +000
  • Creating New Opportunities for Genomics in Central Asia
    • Authors: Katie Garner
      Abstract: Creating New Opportunities for Genomics in Central Asia Katie Garner Fri, 10/13/2023 - 13:01 In the Field 10/13/2023 Higher education institutions play an important role in the relatively young diplomatic relations between the United States and central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan).1 I witnessed this firsthand in my experience as a grantee of UniCEN (Central Asia University Partnerships Program). Funded by the Embassy of the United States in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, and administered by the U.S.-based nonprofit American Councils for International Education,2 this program aims to create engagement and partnerships between institutions of higher education in the United States and Central Asia. Initially, my UniCEN proposal was conceived for working with Uzbekistan, as it has made significant strides in genomics research related to plant and agricultural sciences but lags behind in human genomics and related fields. Using the existing capacity in plant genomics would boost life/medical sciences in the same techniques. However, meaningful interdisciplinary interactions on specific topics are often limited. Moreover, genomics and bioinformatics may be seen as “elitist” fields of science worldwide, due to the high cost of experiments and, in countries that lag behind in science, to a smaller number of facilities and an overall deficit in associated skills (owing to a lack of human capital, outdated university curricula, and other factors). Notably, genomics research has the potential to impact agriculture, biotechnology, biodiversity, and precision medicine, among other essential areas for human development.As a biomedical scientist in academia, I experience international mobility thanks to the universality of science. This has heightened my fascination with the idea that knowledge creation is a global asset and sparked my interest in science diplomacy. My passion for bridging countries through science was one of my motivations to apply to the UniCEN funding scheme with a project to create new opportunities for research using genomics and bioinformatics3 not just in Uzbekistan, but in all Central Asia.  The model of international collaboration developed for this project4 focuses on and has impact at different levels, from individuals to universities to national and regional networks. Specifically, the activities included a graduate student exchange, webinars,5 a hands-on bioinformatics workshop,6 and a two-day multidisciplinary symposium.7 Due to the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, the student exchange was done in virtual mode, including online training courses, while the symposium was held in hybrid mode (in person at the National University of Uzbekistan and online for participants from the rest of Central Asia8. The high attendance confirmed that the First Central Asia Genomics Symposium was needed (a summary is presented in the endnotes).9 The project explicitly considered inclusivity and equity, supporting mostly early and mid-career researchers from the region. As a minority, diaspora, and early-career scientist, I conceptualized the project from my own experience; this shows the importance of expanding eligibility criteria and opening funding opportunities to younger researchers. Key actorsSupporting institutions play a key role in meaningful scientific partnerships like this project. First, the funding and commitment to support science and education from the U.S. Embassy in Tashkent were pivotal to the project’s realization. The guidance on cultural nuances and educational system from the American Councils was instrumental in facilitating the partnership. The American Councils also provided unanticipated logistics support, such as helping navigate payment methods. Also, with offices across Central Asia, they regularly interact with researchers from the region, supporting the continuity of the research and educational networks.The collaboration model I developed through this project is replicable and customizable, and the outcomes are measurable. I hope it encourages other embassies to incorporate academia into their agendas for bilateral relations, and scientists to see the materialization of diplomacy-supported partnerships as it is a sustainable collaboration model for both sides. This project serves as a success story of science for diplomacy and diplomacy for science, offering a replicable model applicable in other contexts. AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to acknowledge Dilfuza Egamberdieva, Jakhongir Alimov, and Abdullokh Abdurakhmon for their invaluable support and commitment on site in Tashkent. Special thanks are extended to all the scientists who generously contributed to making the symposium and workshop a reality. A list can be found on the website www.centralasiagenomics.com. Endnotes
      United States Department of State, United States Strategy for Central Asia 2019-2025: Advancing Sovereignty and Economic Prosperity (Overview),
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Oct 2023 17:01:21 +000
  • Science and Sanctions: Lessons Learned from Twelve Years of Collaboration
           with the DPRK (North Korea)
    • Authors: Katie Garner
      Abstract: Science and Sanctions: Lessons Learned from Twelve Years of Collaboration with the DPRK (North Korea) Katie Garner Tue, 10/03/2023 - 12:07 Article 10/05/2023 The use of international sanctions has increased dramatically since the end of the second World War (Figure 1) and these have become more complex due to their multinational nature when implemented through the United Nations or European Union. However, over this same period, science has become more international, with multinational collaborations becoming the norm. This apparent paradox of simultaneously restricting and encouraging international collaboration creates many challenges for scientists and gives rise to the following questions: How do international sanctions affect scientific collaboration' What are the most effective avenues to maintain scientific collaboration during times of geopolitical strain' In an increasingly complex geopolitical climate where international sanctions are not uncommon, this paper specifically investigates the unintended impacts of sanctions on scientific collaboration based on the author’s experiences of collaborative research at a time of sanction development and implementation in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK, the formal name for North Korea).Figure 11 Figure 1Figure 1: Global number of active sanctions from 1949–2022. Data from the Global Sanctions Database (more details on endnote 1). Credit: Author. The impacts of sanctions on scienceSanctions are a political tool that commonly use economic pressure to attempt to achieve foreign policy objectives. They are designed to put pressure on a country to effect change, such as to improve democracy, human rights, reduce terrorism, change policy or, as in the case of recent sanctions on Russia and Belarus, ending or preventing conflict. At one end of the spectrum of approaches are so-called “smart” sanctions, usually financial or travel restrictions, which target individual people or companies who have acted in a particular manner or who may be able to influence policy in the targeted country. At the other end of the spectrum are sanctions that cover a much wider remit and attempt to encourage local populations to put pressure on their governments. Sanctions can target trade, travel, financial transactions, and the military.2 Overall, the use of sanctions has increased since 1950 (Figure 1), although there has been a move to more targeted sanctions over this time. At face value, this move toward targeted sanctions may have benefits for scientific collaboration, with these sanctions having fewer unintended consequences. However, broad sanctions continue to be used such as in the case of the DPRK, Iran, and, most recently, Russia and Belarus.Different types of sanctions have different impacts on science. For example, trade sanctions, where the import of materials is restricted, can mean that scientific equipment cannot be maintained or upgraded. This was the case in Iran, where in 2018 the Royan Institute in Tehran reported being unable to import specialized equipment for genetics research.3 Even obtaining free and open-access software and related updates can be challenging in the face of trade sanctions, as documented in Sudan.4 Untargeted travel restrictions limit person-to-person contacts, restricting opportunities for collaboration and interaction at international meetings and creating gaps in knowledge between researchers in different countries. The Pyongyang University of Science and Technology faced this issue when the United States banned American citizens from traveling to the DPRK, resulting in difficulties recruiting teachers.5 Publishers or service providers may seek to minimize their risks by implementing restrictions on scientists from targeted countries.6 For example, Elsevier currently restricts access to peer review, editing, and other services, thus preventing publication by authors from the DPRK, Crimea, Donetsk, and Luhansk.7 Financial sanctions may restrict the movement of funds between research institutions. This impacted the operations of the SESAME synchrotron in Jordan when Iran could not pay their share.8 Even military and weapons sanctions can impact scientists, because much scientific equipment is considered “dual use,” having both a civilian and military use. This has been a significant issue in life sciences, where much research overlaps with areas of...
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 16:07:56 +000
  • Medical Research Centers in Mali and Uganda: Slideshow
    • Authors: Katie Garner
      Abstract: Medical Research Centers in Mali and Uganda: Slideshow Katie Garner Tue, 07/18/2023 - 10:33 Article 03/17/2014 Denis BurkittDenis Burkitt, the Irish surgeon who in 1957 described in East Africa the childhood lymphoma now known as Burkitt Lymphoma (BL). Child with BLA child with BL. Courtesy of John Ziegler Burkitt and patientsBurkitt with two of his patients at Mulago Hospital near the Makerere Medical School in Kampala, Uganda, circa 1960. Courtesy of John Ziegler Boy with BLA boy with BL responded like many others to a single intravenous dose of the chemotherapeutic drug Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide). Courtesy of John Ziegler Tissue CultureIn 1963, Anthony Epstein and his colleagues at Middlesex Hospital in London grew BL cells (shown here under a conventional light microscope) in tissue culture from a tumor specimen provided by Burkitt. Courtesy of John Ziegler Virus particlesVirus particles observed by Epstein et al., in the culture medium from BL cells and later named Epstein-Barr Virus. Courtesy of John Ziegler Treatment CenterThe Lymphoma Treatment Center, the precursor to the Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI), established in the 1960s at Mulago Hospital. Courtesy of John Ziegler
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jul 2023 14:33:45 +000
  • Making PEPFAR: Slideshow
    • Authors: Katie Garner
      Abstract: Making PEPFAR: Slideshow Katie Garner Mon, 07/17/2023 - 10:42 Article 12/01/2013 HIV Distribution
      Global distribution of 7.7 million working physicians in 2004. The actual sizes of countries are increased or decreased in proportion to the number of physicians working in them. Note that Africa, in particular, is woefully deficient in medical care and in research facilities. Credit: Worldmapper (#219) HIV Distribution
      Global distribution of HIV-infected persons ages 15 to 49 in 2003. The sizes of countries are increased or decreased in proportion to the number of persons with HIV living within them. Despite its deficiencies in the number of physicians, Africa is over-endowed with disease. Credit: Worldmapper (#227) AIDS deathsGlobal distribution of the 2.6 million known deaths from AIDS that occurred in 2002. Credit: Worldmapper (#374) Variation of AIDS death ratesVariation of annual AIDS death rates and numbers of patients using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by geographical region, 2001. Credit: UNAIDS President and Secretary of StatePresident George W. Bush and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. Credit: The White House White House AnnouncementAnnouncement of U.S. support for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria at the White House, May 2001, with President Bush and (at right) UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. Credit: The White House Bono and PresidentBono, leader of the musical group U2 and advocate for programs to combat HIV/AIDS, with President Bush. Credit: The White House
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2023 14:42:58 +000
  • Emerging Technology, Networks, and Trust in Science: A Conversation with
           Dr. Kazuhito Hashimoto
    • Authors: Katie Garner
      Abstract: Emerging Technology, Networks, and Trust in Science: A Conversation with Dr. Kazuhito Hashimoto Katie Garner Wed, 05/24/2023 - 11:08 Conversation 05/24/2023 Kazuhito Hashimoto is currently the President of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and serves as the Science and Technology Advisor to the Cabinet for the Government of Japan. He earned his BS (1978), MS (1980), and Doctor of Science degree (1985) in Chemistry from the University of Tokyo. Previously, he held the position of Professor of Applied Chemistry at the University of Tokyo from 1991 to 2016, followed by his role as President of the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) from 2016 to 2022. Hashimoto's research interests lie in the areas of physical chemistry and materials science. He has also been actively involved in science and technology policy as an executive member of the Council for Science, Technology and Innovation Policy (CSTI) from 2013 to 2022. Hashimoto has received numerous awards for his contributions to the field of science, including the Japan Prime Minister Award (2004), the Imperial Award/Japan Invention Award (2006), the Japan Chemical Society Award (2012), the Electrochemical Society Heinz Gerischer Award (2017), and the Medal of Honor with Purple Ribbon (awarded by the Emperor of Japan in 2019).The conversation with Dr. Kazuhito Hashimoto is part of a series of interviews with national science advisors who attended the 2023 AAAS Annual Meeting in Washington, DC. All science advisors in the series were asked the same questions.Montgomery (interviewer): What are the most pressing scientific issues that governments are facing' How are you adapting to the increasing complexity and changing nature of those global challenges' What are some mechanisms that a science advisor has at his or her disposal to highlight the role of science in addressing those global challenges and to elevate the role of science in foreign policy more generally'Hashimoto: Today, science and technology are developing at a far faster pace than we have ever imagined. In addition, the distance between fundamental research, applied research, and implementation is greatly reduced, and in some cutting-edge fields such as artificial intelligence (AI) and quantum technology, basic research and everyday use can proceed simultaneously. Many people are surprised that AI, which can mimic human conversation and answer our questions, is now easily accessible on the internet. However, there have already been reports on the negative aspects of such AI, and there are even calls for it to be banned.At the same time, the impact that science and technology have on society is becoming increasingly significant, and their importance in policymaking is growing, particularly with regard to emerging technologies such as AI, quantum technology, cybersecurity, and biotechnology, which are essential not only for achieving a better society but also for securing national interests and ensuring security. Cutting-edge technologies can change society significantly—both positively and negatively. How to effectively steer cutting-edge scientific and technological advancements is an important challenge for governments.Turning to the global situation, the Russian invasion of Ukraine and fears of economic insecurity due to related geopolitical tensions have led to a growing momentum for international cooperation among like-minded countries. Also, with the increasing sophistication of science, even fundamental research requires enormous amounts of funding, and only a limited number of countries and sectors are able to invest sufficiently in research. In such situations, it is critical to promote research more efficiently through collaboration. At the same time, broader global cooperation is essential to mitigate the impacts of global challenges, such as climate change, pandemics, food security, and energy issues, and to find solutions for a sustainable future. That is to say, it is important to balance the cooperation of like-minded countries for securing national interests with global cooperation that contributes to the whole world’s interests.To do so, dialogue with partners across borders is essential. Since I was assigned as the science and technology advisor in September 2022, I have had many dialogues. Recently, in March 2023, I hosted the G7 Science and Technology Advisors’ Roundtable, where we had a frank and meaningful exchange of opinions on international brain circulation, research integrity, and security. I believe that understanding other parties’ thoughts through dialogue significantly enhances the role of science in foreign policy.Montgomery: Science encompasses a huge array of issues, including technology, health, environmental concerns, and much more. As a scientific advisor, you have to represent the entirety of this massive and complex field on a national scale. How do you approach this daunting task' What experience and skills are required' What advice would you give someone interested in preparing themselves to be eligible for this role in the future'Hashimoto: As a scientific advisor, one of my most important missions is to provide the Prime Minister with freshly updated advice based on cutting-edge science and technology trends from the perspective of a scientist who understands the mechanisms of science and technology po...
      PubDate: Wed, 24 May 2023 15:08:39 +000
  • Pandemic-Preparedness, Collaboration, and Representation: A Conversation
           with Dr. Mona Nemer, Canada's Chief Science Advisor
    • Authors: Katie Garner
      Abstract: Pandemic-Preparedness, Collaboration, and Representation: A Conversation with Dr. Mona Nemer, Canada's Chief Science Advisor Katie Garner Tue, 05/23/2023 - 14:24 Conversation 05/23/2023 Dr. Mona Nemer has served as Canada’s Chief Science Advisor since 2017. In this role, she advises Canada’s Prime Minister and Cabinet on issues related to science and has represented Canada at G7 science meetings and other international science forums. Prior to this role, Dr. Nemer was Professor and Vice President of Research at the University of Ottawa and Director of the school’s Molecular Genetics and Cardiac Regeneration Laboratory. A leader in the field of molecular cardiology, she has contributed to the development of diagnostic tests for heart failure and the genetics of cardiac birth defects. She is the author of over 200 academic publications and has trained more than 100 students from various countries. She holds a PhD in Chemistry from McGill University and did postdoctoral training in Molecular Biology at the Montreal Clinical Research Institute and Columbia University.The conversation with Dr. Mona Nemer is part of a series of interviews with national science advisors who attended the 2023 AAAS Annual Meeting in Washington, DC. The interview with Dr. Mona Nemer by Dr. Kim Montgomery took place on Sunday, March 5, 2023.Montgomery (interviewer): What are the most pressing scientific issues that governments are facing' How are you adapting to the increasing complexity and changing nature of those global challenges' What are some mechanisms that a science advisor has at his or her disposal to highlight the role of science in addressing those global challenges and to elevate the role of science in foreign policy more generally'Nemer: One of the most pressing challenges we are facing today is the increased need for pandemic preparedness. The COVID-19 pandemic has proven just how significant this is, as it has highlighted issues of health, food security, and much more. We need to learn from this and determine how we can better respond to future health crises. Another pressing challenge is the climate crisis, which will not improve unless we act together. Beyond rising temperatures, extreme weather, and other environmental threats, the climate crisis also has serious impacts on health, food and water security, social cohesion, and migration of populations. The environmental threats exacerbate these humanitarian issues, and vice versa. We therefore find ourselves trapped in a vicious cycle.These two issues affect all of humanity regardless of borders, even if different populations are affected differently. They are also similar in that their solutions will require data and science input which must come from international collaborations. Some of the solutions we already have, others must be scaled, and others have yet to be discovered.Now, where do science advisors fit into all of this' We bridge the gap between scientists and policymakers. We serve as a voice for science in government, representing the entire scientific enterprise, which has many facets. We therefore must work collaboratively to understand the whole picture.Montgomery: Science encompasses a huge array of issues, including technology, health, environmental concerns, and much more. As a scientific advisor, you have to represent the entirety of this massive and complex field on a national scale. How do you approach this daunting task' What experience and skills are required' What advice would you give someone interested in preparing themselves to be eligible for this role in the future'Nemer: It is a daunting task, and I first must clarify that no scientist knows everything, and, in turn, no science advisor knows everything. As a science advisor, you must look at all of the dimensions of particular policies that require scientific input. From there, you must be humble about what you know and what you do not know… and when you are unsure, you must seek the advice of those with the needed expertise. As scientists, it is part of our training and part of the scientific method to consult with others like this rather than working in vacuums.When consulting with experts, it is important to ask the right questions, so you need to do some research yourself. You must both listen to their answers and challenge them in order to move toward a solution. Then, after consulting with several experts and drawing conclusions, you have to determine what resources are required to reach that solution. Then, you have to put all of this work and research into something that is digestible for the population, as most people do not have a scientific background. It’s important to ensure they understand the situation if you want their support.It is therefore crucial for a science advisor to have a network of experts that they can reach out to, and not only from their own country. But thanks to advances in technology, it is easier than ever to connect with the right people who can be anywhere in the world. During the pandemic, I was in constant touch with my counterpart science advisors, helping each other identify experts in different countries that could help us. It is significant to note the plural here: you must find several experts who can provide different perspectives.If I were to give advice to someone interested in being a science advisor...
      PubDate: Tue, 23 May 2023 18:24:14 +000
  • Contours of Space Diplomacy in the Global South
    • Authors: kgarner
      Abstract: Suryesh K. Namdeo and Nevia VeraCountries in the Global South are often left out conversations in space diplomacy despite growing capabilities in space technology. This piece looks at space diplomacy challenges and opportunities in the Global South. 
      PubDate: Fri, 12 May 2023 19:22:50 +000
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