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Karbala International Journal of Modern Science
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2405-609X - ISSN (Online) 2405-6103
Published by Digital Commons Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Multiple structural and functional annotations based in-silico
           characterization of Q9BRX8 protein

    • Authors: Eiman Zahid et al.
      Abstract: Numerous proteins found in humans are poorly understood because there is a dearth of experimental evidence. Hypothetical proteins (HPs) or uncharacterized proteins are the terms used to describe these proteins. In this work, one of these proteins, Q9BRX8, is investigated using in-silico or bioinformatics tools to reveal its significant properties. In this regard, NCBI for the sequence retrieval, ProtParam tool for analysis of physiochemical properties, SOPMA for secondary structure prediction, SWISS-Model for homology modelling, STRING for protein-protein interaction and HDOCK for protein-protein docking analysis among other tools, were incorporated. The physiochemical characteristics indicated that Q9BRX8, which has an instability score of 32.57, is a stable protein. It was identified in other cellular compartments, such as the cytosol, mitochondria, etc., where it may be betrothed in a variety of cellular functions, according to the sub-cellular localization studies. In addition, its secondary structure consists of high percentage of alpha helices (44.10%), among other components. Additionally, it was discovered through protein-protein interactions that this protein belongs to FAM213A family suggesting that it may function as antioxidant and affect bone resorption among other crucial functions. While, molecular docking analysis indicated that Q9BRX8 had a larger degree of similarity with the HLA-G protein, scoring -332.53kcal/mol. It can be hypothesized that the functions of Q9BRX8 and the HLA-G may be associated as a result of this similarity.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Sep 2023 11:07:20 PDT
  • In vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and photoprotective activities of
           aqueous extract of the endemic plant Hammada scoparia L. from Algeria

    • Authors: Benine Chaima et al.
      Abstract: This study aimed to analyze the chemical profile and evaluate the biological activities of the aqueous extract of H. Scoparia, an endemic plant found in Southeastern Algeria. The aqueous extract was subjected to phytochemical screening, RP-HPLC, and FT-IR analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity was examined using the protein denaturation method, and the photoprotective activity was evaluated using UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was assessed using ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The study found the presence of various secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, tannins, and saponins. This study suggests that H. Scoparia extract has the potential as a natural source of bio-actives for developing drugs. The extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity. The study revealed that H. Scoparia extract demonstrated excellent photoprotective activity against UV, and significant biological activities in vitro.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Sep 2023 23:07:04 PDT
  • Online Data Transmission Reduction Scheme for Energy Conservation in
           Wireless Video Sensor Networks

    • Authors: Iman Kadhum Abbood et al.
      Abstract: Wireless Video Sensor Networks (WVSNs) are networks of low-cost, low-power camera sensor nodes. These nodes communicate locally and process information to meet an application's goal. WVSNs are extensively used in diverse monitoring applications, such as security, military, industrial, medical, and environmental monitoring. However, the transmission of large amounts of data collected by video sensor nodes in WVSNs poses challenges in terms of energy consumption, bandwidth usage, and network congestion. Reducing energy for processing and transmitting data in WVSNs is difficult due to the huge amount of sensed data in real-time. To address this issue, this paper proposes an Online Data Transmission Reduction Scheme (ODaTReS) for energy conservation in WVSNs. The data reduction by the ODaTReS is based on two phases: the sensing phase and the transmission phase. ODaTReS adapts the frame rate to limit the number of video frames captured during the sensing phase. It does this by using three efficient techniques: ORB (Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF), Brute-Force (BF) Matcher, and Grid-based Motion Statistics (GMS). During the transmission phase, we use an adaptive transmission threshold that is responsible for deciding whether to transmit the current captured frame or remove it. Several experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the ODaTReS. The proposed ODaTReS outperforms the FRABID method in terms of data reduction and energy consumption. The results reveal that ODaTReS reduced the transmitted data by 80%, compared to 43% for the FRABID method. This reduction in data transmission contributes to a decrease in the total energy consumed, which is reduced to 141.22 joules compared to the FRABID method, which consumes 173.16 joules of energy.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Aug 2023 10:42:34 PDT
  • Biogenesis Synthesis of ZnO NPs: Its adsorption and photocatalytic
           activity for removal of acid black 210 dye

    • Authors: Zahraa A. Najm et al.
      Abstract: This study investigated the treatment of textile wastewater contaminated with Acid Black 210 dye (AB210) using zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) through adsorption and photocatalytic techniques. ZnO NPs were synthesized using a green synthesis process involving eucalyptus leaves as reducing and capping agents. The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, EDAX, XRD, BET, Zeta potential, and FTIR techniques. The BET analysis revealed a specific surface area and total pore volume of 26.318 m2/g. SEM images confirmed the crystalline and spherical nature of the particles, with a particle size of 73.4 nm. A photoreactor was designed to facilitate the photo-degradation process. The study investigated the influence of key variables on the adsorption and photocatalytic break-down of AB210. The results indicated that under optimal conditions (AB210 concentration: 5 mg/L, ZnO NPs dosage: 0.75 g/L, pH: 5, and temperature: 45 °C), the removal efficiency after 180 minutes of adsorption was 62%. However, in the case of photo-degradation, complete removal of 5 mg/L AB210 was achieved within 30 minutes at a pH of 7, UV intensity of 24 W/m2, and temperature of 45 °C. The adsorption process exhibited the best fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Various adsorption isotherms, including Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and Dubinin models, were studied, and the Langmuir isotherm provided the best fit to the experimental data (see Supplementary Materials). Fur-thermore, thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic, and favorable, with ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° values of -0.782 kJ/mol, 26.93 kJ/mol, and 0.086 kJ.mol/K, respectively.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Aug 2023 09:01:59 PDT
  • Ultrasound assisted comparative study of fucolam and so-dium alginate and
           impact on their physiochemical proper-ties using Box-Behnken Design

    • Authors: Uday Bagale et al.
      Abstract: The article discusses about the possibility of comparing the impact of ultrasonic treatment on fucolam and sodium algi-nate. The purpose was to study the effect of micronization on the sulfated heteropolysaccharide fucolam, analyzing its dispersed state and accessibility by reducing its molecular weight and increasing antioxidant activity. The optimization of the micronization process was carried out using the Box-Behnken Design (BBD) method, with a sonication time ranging from 15 to 45 min, power ranging from 50 to 100 W/cm2, and temperature between 30 °C and 40 °C. The fixed lower fucolam concentration was 0.1%. The results illustrated that sonochemical treatment significantly decreased the molecular weight (Mw) of fucolam compared to sodium alginate. Using BBD, the ideal treatment conditions for fu-colam were 31 °C, 62 W/cm2, and 36 min, resulting in a lower molecular weight (180 kDa), particle size (231 nm), and antioxidant activity (AOA) of 81% compared to sodium alginate, which had an Mw of 2046 kDa and an AOA of 43%. Antioxidant activity tests showed a significant increase due to the sonication treatment. The findings suggest that soni-cation treatment may be a valuable strategy to lower fucolam levels with minimal structural damage, as observed in scanning microscope images
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Aug 2023 07:27:41 PDT
  • Deep Learning-based CAD System for Predicting the COVID-19 X-ray Images

    • Authors: Aqeel R. Talib et al.
      Abstract: According to World Health Organization data, Coronavirus (COVID-19) has infected about 660, 378, 145 patients around the world. It is nonetheless difficult for physicians to detect COVID-19 infections out of CT or X-ray radiographs. Thus, several computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems based on deep learning and radiographs were developed to detect COVID-19 infections. However, the majority of approaches considered small datasets, which is ineligible to provide diverse COVID-19 radiographs. This work utilizes a massive number of X-ray radiographs, and compared standard CNN, DenseNet-121, and GoogLeNet for isolating COVID-19 infections out from normal and other pneumonia radiographs. The dataset in this work is large enough to evaluate the realistic performance of those models in labeling COVID-19 infections. Considering the time complexity, accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score, the experimental results shows that the DenseNet-121 is not only the optimal model, but also there is superior for standard CNN compared to the second output of GoogLeNet, which is an unexplained phenomenon.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Aug 2023 07:27:38 PDT
  • Mutation-Induced Changes in the Stability, B-Cell Epitope, and
           Antigenicity of the Sars-Cov-2 Variant Spike Protein: A Comparative
           Computational Stud

    • Authors: Nira Meirita Wijayanti et al.
      Abstract: The spike (S) protein is a major antigenicity site that targets neutralizing antibodies and drugs. The growing number of S protein mutations has become a severe problem for developing effective vaccines. Here, we investigated four severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that were the most infectious and widespread during the COVID-19 pandemic to determine the trends and patterns of mutation-induced changes in the stability, B-cell epitope, and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. The data showed that the Beta and Gamma variants had three mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which is the specific site on the S protein for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) binding. The Delta variant had only two mutations, whereas the Omicron variant had 15 mutations on the RBD. The results showed that the stability of the S protein varied and depended on the mutation type and that Gamma and Omicron are the most stable of the four variants analyzed. The S protein–hACE2 complexes of the Beta and Gamma variants were relatively stable after 20 ns of simulation compared with those of the Delta and Omicron variants. We predicted that the B-cell epitopes of the mutant S protein would be different from those of the wildtype. Moreover, the antigenicity of Omicron changed drastically compared with that of the other variants. Bioinformatics analysis and a molecular dynamic simulation revealed that the mutations affected the stability of the S protein. A large number of mutations do not always stabilize the S protein. Mutations in Omicron significantly altered the B-cell epitope and antigenicity, which decreased vaccine effectiveness. These findings provide insights into SARS-CoV-2 evolution for vaccine development.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Aug 2023 23:52:03 PDT
  • Representing quantum spins in different coordinate systems for modelling
           rigid body orientation

    • Authors: Nadjet Zioui et al.
      Abstract: Various methods for representing the spatial orientation and rotation of objects are presented and compared with the quantum bit state representation. By contrasting spherical, Euler angle, quaternion, and quantum spin coordinate systems, this work highlights important concepts regarding the rotation axis of the X gate. Several ambiguities and incomplete definitions associated with the qubit state representation are discussed, such as the spin around the qubit itself and the explanation of the considered rotation angles and signs. A mathematical analysis of the physical meaning of each eigenstate is provided along with a new comprehensive and meaningful YPR-based 3D representation of a qubit state.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 Aug 2023 10:22:23 PDT
  • Quercetin as an anticancer candidate for glioblastoma multiforme by
           targeting AKT1, MMP9, ABCB1, and VEGFA: An in silico study

    • Authors: Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda et al.
      Abstract: Quercetin, a natural compound present in various fruits and vegetables, shows promise as a potential inhibitor for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) development. This study aims to examine the anti-GBM potential of Quercetin. The protein target of Quercetin is identified and analyzed using databases such as NCBI, SEA, CTD, and STRING. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) and functional annotation are carried out based on the obtained target proteins. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations are employed using AutoDock Vina and WebGro tools to analyze the interaction between Quercetin and its target proteins. The prediction of protein targets reveals that Quercetin directly targets four proteins associated with GBM. In conclusion, Quercetin demonstrates potential as an anti-GBM agent, specifically by targeting AKT1, MMP9, ABCB1, and VEGFA proteins.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 Aug 2023 10:22:19 PDT
  • Improving the BURT’s Sensitivity using Noise Calibration Unit via
           Crab Nebula Observations

    • Authors: Uday E. Jallod et al.
      Abstract: Radio observations from astronomical sources like supernovae became one the most important sources of information about the physical properties of those objects. However, such radio observations are affected by various types of noise such as those from sky, background, receiver, and the system itself. Therefore, it is essential to eliminate or reduce these undesired noise from the signals in order to ensure accurate measurements and analysis of radio observations. One of the most commonly used methods for reducing the noise is to use a noise calibrator. In this study, the 3-m Baghdad University Radio Telescope (BURT) has been used to observe crab nebula with and without using a calibration unit in order to investigate its impact on the signal. Radio observations of crab nebula have been carried out for different periods in 2022. Several parameters of the telescope have been calculated and analyzed using statistical measurements with and without using the noise calibration unit. Those parameters are receiver gain, system temperature, antenna temperature, and degree per flux unit. The results of this research revealed that the fluctuation sensitivity of BURT improved by about an order of magnitude, when the noise calibration unit is used. The root mean square error and the radiometer equation of the antenna temperature decreased to less than 33% and 10%, respectively in comparison to their initial values. In conclusion, the noise calibration unit plays a crucial role to improve the sensitivity of a radio telescope drastically.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 Aug 2023 10:22:16 PDT
  • Elucidation of antibacterial, synergistic, antioxidant, and anticancer
           activities of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles against human
           breast cancer cells

    • Authors: Ravindran Muthukumarasamy et al.
      Abstract: The study conducted biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of Aspergillus niger and in-vestigated their potential biomedical applications. The nanoparticles were characterized using various techniques in-cluding UV-Vis, SEM, TEM, and EDX, revealing their spherical to crystalline shape with sizes ranging from 21 nm to 48 nm. The nanoparticles demonstrated notable antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a zone of 8 mm and Escherichia coli recorded high synergistic activity with 20.93%, as well as antioxidant properties. Furthermore, selective cytotoxicity towards breast cancer cells was observed with an IC50 of 107.81 ug/ml and an IC50 of 250.93 ug/ml on normal cells, suggesting their potential use as an anticancer agent and for targeted drug delivery.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 Aug 2023 10:22:12 PDT
  • Novel epoxy-based biocidal composite material filled with
           polylactide-capsulated copper (I) oxide particles

    • Authors: Maxim Danilaev et al.
      Abstract: To maintain performance of polymer composite materials (PCM) in tropical climate, it is necessary and relevant to deal with biodegradation among other factors. Increasing strength and improvement of biodegradation resistance of polymer composites simultaneously is a critical practical challenge. State-of-the-art methods of polymer composites production do not provide a possibility to address both issues at the same time. In this study, it is the first time when a method to increase strength of ED-20 epoxy-based polymer composite and improve its biodegradation resistance simultaneously is applied. In this study, the authors applied for the first time polylactide-capsulated copper oxide particles to improve biocidal and mechanical performance of ED-20 epoxy-based polymer composite. It was established that composite filled with capsulated particles has better resistance to micromycete-induced damage compared to the one filled with non-capsulated particles. Reduction of surface area affected by micromycetes isolated from samples exposed to tropical conditions was demonstrated for the composite that contained capsulated particles. The paper highlights that prevalence of Aspergillus niger is based on the high productivity of organic acids. It was found that elasticity moduli of polymer composite samples do not have significant differences. The average elasticity modulus of PCM samples was 3.4 ± 0.2 GPa before and after exposure to tropical conditions. Apparently, the thing that elasticity modulus remained the same after exposure to tropical conditions was due to the fact that only surface of the sample was subject to destruc-tion. The samples with non-capsulated particles experienced 20% decrease in ultimate strength after exposure to tropi-cal conditions while the samples with capsulated particles experienced only 10% decrease, so the material with capsu-lated particles was stronger. The fact that the elastic moduli of samples with capsulated particles remain the same after exposure to the microbial destructors indicates improved resistance of new PCM to biodegradation and confirms prom-ising practical application of the created material. Thus, this article is the first one to demonstrate that application of polylactide-capsulated copper oxide particles in combination with ED-20 epoxy-based polymer provides a possibility to obtain a new composite with improved biocidal effect
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Aug 2023 08:17:50 PDT
  • Watermark Hiding in HDR image based on Visual Saliency and Tucker

    • Authors: Roa'a M. Al_airaji et al.
      Abstract: Recently, great attention has been paid to high dynamic range (HDR) images because of their richly detailed and high dynamic range of intensity. The need for pre-processing of the HDR image format with tone mapping (TM) operators makes it unique; the TM operators are provided on display with a low dynamic range (LDR). On the other hand, TM can be regarded as an inevitable attack when protecting HDR image ownership is considered. An adaptive approach for concealing watermarks based on visual saliency and Tucker decomposition has been presented in this article. In the first step, three feature maps were produced and split into three color components (RGB) using the host image. Considering that out of the three feature maps, the first one represents the most significant part of the information in the HDR image, it was selected due to its robustness in terms of watermark insertion. Afterward, an HDR image saliency is created to identify the most significant locations that can be used to securely embed data to achieve a balance between visual quality and watermark strength. The salience map is produced by decomposing a specific HDR image into three LDR images with various intensity levels using a tone-mapping operator. Consequently, the contrast feature (CF) model is applied to each decomposed LDR image; then, the three saliency maps are integrated into a single map. Results of the experiments show that the proposed technique demonstrated superior performance compared with the extant algorithms for HDR image watermarking in terms of resisting various attacks while considering invisibility and embedding capacity
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2023 06:47:08 PDT
  • A Note on the Combination of the New Similarity Formula with Feedback to
           Better Handle Complaints of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Patients

    • Authors: Irwan Sembiring et al.
      Abstract: In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) patients frequently experience anxiety and report it right away to their fertility doctors. But because the fertility specialists took their time to respond, IVF patients eventually became more anxious. The research's findings demonstrated that using the standard feasibility value of 80% along with the Chris Case-Based Reasoning (CCBR) similarity formula led to an accurate system recommendation (100%) with a higher precision value (83.15%). The F value of the ANOVA test was 9.902 with a significance level of 0.007
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jul 2023 07:47:18 PDT
  • N–((2–Acetylphenyl)carbamothioyl)benzamide: Synthesis, crystal
           structure analysis, and theoretical studies

    • Authors: Akin Oztaslar et al.
      Abstract: N–((2–Acetylphenyl)carbamothioyl)benzamide has been synthesized and characterized. The molecular conformation of the investigated compound is stabilized by C16–H16B⋅⋅⋅O2i (i: 1+x, y, z) intermolecular and C14–H14⋅⋅⋅S1, N2–H2⋅⋅⋅O2, and N2–H2⋅⋅⋅O1 intramolecular H–bonds. All DFT calculations have been implemented at the B3LYP level with the 6–311G(d,p) basis set. The optimized molecular structure parameters have been compared with the experimental one in the solid phase. The energy gap, global chemical reactivity descriptor parameters, MEP, Fukui functions, DoS, NLO, and NBO analysis were also computed and investigated. The intermolecular interactions and their energies are evaluated using Hirshfeld surface and energy framework analyses. To determine the synthesized compound’s inhibitory effect against the COVID–19 coronavirus’s primary protease, molecular docking investigations were carried out.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2023 08:32:29 PDT
  • Performance evaluation of Sb2Se3-based solar photovoltaic cells with
           various ETL and Cu2O as HTL by SCAPS-1D

    • Authors: Abdelmajid El Khalfi et al.
      Abstract: Sb2Se3 photovoltaic cells have garnered much attention recently because of their inexpensive manufacture and long-term stability. So, different buffer layers were investigated using the SCAPS software to improve the device's output. By comparing J-V characteristics and QE for cells with different ETLs, WS2 was discovered to be the best ETL. The impact of carrier concentrations, the active layer, ETL and HTL thickness, absorber density of defects, and electron affinity were also investigated. It was discovered that WS2 could be a good substitute for conventional ETLs. After optimization, efficiency is 30.03%, FF is 87.13%, JSC is 37.15 mA/cm2, and VOC is 0.928 V. This research provides a new strategy to fabricate high-efficiency and Cd-free Sb2Se3-based photovoltaic cells.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2023 08:32:26 PDT
  • Eutectic Formation and Cutaneous Wound Healing by Binary Allantoin-
           Octadecenedioic Acid System

    • Authors: Syed Waqar Hussain Shah et al.
      Abstract: Eutectic formation in allantoin-octadecenedioic acid system (AOM) has been studied. The binary phase diagram revealed the existence of eutectic at Xallantoin = 0.7. Dioic acid caused disruption of network in allantoin and induced defects, ultimately causing the reduction in crystallinity as shown by XRD and SEM analysis. The thermal stability in TGA graphs of allantoin was negligibly altered after mixture formation. Classical hydrogen bonding and alkyl interactions were predicted using software Avogadro and BIOVIA Discovery Studio. The functionalities involved in interactions taking place in the system were studied through in-depth FT-IR spectroscopy. The eutectic showed efficacy for cutaneous wound healing in oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus, hence it could be used as therapeutic for regulation and control of bioactivity.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2023 08:32:23 PDT
  • Fullerene, Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene: A comprehen-sive review

    • Authors: Sunila Bakhsh
      Abstract: The aim of this review is to provide an update on the present status of carbon allotropes, namely fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, with a focus on various structures that result from changes in carbon bonding. This review will also help us understand the main features, processes and advancement in the study of fullerene, CNTs and graphene. The extraordinary mobility that is extremely sensitive to field effect makes graphene an appealing substitute to CNTs in FET-based applications. For this, graphene can also be used to produce sensitive sensors and as coating material.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2023 08:32:20 PDT
  • A study on image processing techniques and deep learning techniques for
           insect identification

    • Authors: Vinita Abhishek Gupta et al.
      Abstract: Automatic identification of insects and diseases has attracted researchers for the last few years. Researchers have suggested several algorithms to get around the problems of manually identifying insects and pests. Image processing techniques and deep convolution neural networks can overcome the challenges of manual insect identification and classification. This work focused on optimizing and assessing deep convolutional neural networks for insect identification. AlexNet, MobileNetv2, ResNet-50, ResNet-101, GoogleNet, InceptionV3, SqueezeNet, ShuffleNet, DenseNet201, VGG-16 and VGG-19 are the architectures evaluated on three different datasets. In our experiments, DenseNet 201 performed well with the highest test accuracy. Regarding training time, AlexNet performed well, but ShuffleNet, SqueezeNet, and MobileNet are better alternatives for small architecture.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 May 2023 08:37:08 PDT
  • Improved Face Morphing Attack Detection Method Using PCA and Convolutional
           Neural Network

    • Authors: Iman S. Razaq et al.
      Abstract: Face recognition is the most extensively utilized security and public safety verification method. In many nations, the Automatic Border Control system uses face recognition to confirm the identification of travelers The ABC system is vulnerable to face morphing attacks; the face recognition systems give acceptance for the traveller, even though the passport photo does not represent the actual image of the person but is a result of the merger of two images. Therefore, it is vital to determine whether the passport image is altering (morph) or actual. This research proposes an improved method to extract features from facial images. The proposed method consists of four phases: In the first stage, morph images were generated using a set of databases of images of real people, used every two images that were similar in general shape or landmarks in producing the morphed image using three types of techniques used in this field (Automatic selection landmark, StyleGAN, and Manual selection landmark). StyleGAN has been relied upon to achieve the best results in producing artefact-free images. In the second phase, a Faster Region Convolution neural network is utilizing for determining and cutting important landmarks area (eyes, nose, mouth, and skin) in the face, where we leave the hair, ears, and image background for every image in the database. In the third phase, the features are extracted using three techniques Principal component analysis, eigenvalue, and eigenvector; a matrix of two-dimensional features is generated with one layer for each technique. Then merge the extracted features (with out s) from each image into one image with three layers. The first layer represents the principal component analysis features, the second the eigenvalue features, and the third the eigenvector features. Finally, the features are introduced into the convolutional neural networks to obtain optimal features. The fourth phase represents the classification process using the Deep Neural Network (DNN) classifier and Support Vector Machine (SVM) second classifier. The DNN classifier achieved an average accuracy of 99.02% compared with SVM, with an accuracy of 98.64%. The power of the proposed work is evident through the FRA and RFF evaluation. Which achieved values as low as possible for DNN FAR 0.018, indicating the error rate in calculating morphed images is actual, and FRR 0.003, meaning the error rate in calculating the actual images is morphed, FAR 0.023, FRR 0.06 for SVM whenever these ratios are less than one, the higher system's accuracy in detection. The AMSL dataset (Accuracy 95.8%, FAR 0.039, FRR 0%) (Accuracy 95.2%, FAR 0.047, FRR 0.98) for DNN and SVM, respectively. It turned out that the training of the proposed network optimized for the features extracted for the landmarks area significantly affects finding the difference and discovering the modified images, even in the case of minor modifications as in the AMSL dataset.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 May 2023 05:32:17 PDT
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