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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Karbala International Journal of Modern Science
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2405-609X - ISSN (Online) 2405-6103
Published by Digital Commons Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Nuclear structure and Gamow-Teller B(GT) Transition Strengths for some
           Selected fp-shell Nuclei

    • Authors: Sarah M. Obaid et al.
      Abstract: In the present study, the calculations of the shell model based on large-scale unrestricted fp-model space have been conducted to study the low-lying energy levels and Gamow-Teller B(GT) transition strengths for the transitions (42Ca→42Sc, 42Sc→42Ti, 45Sc→45Ca, 45Ti→45Sc,45V→45Ti) lying in the fp-shell region. The calculations of the yrast levels and Gamow-Teller B(GT) transition strengths were compared with the related measured data. The low-lying energy levels were reasonably reproduced for the studied nuclei. The spin and parity of the unconfirmed energy levels for some studied nuclei have been confirmed. The calculated B(GT) transition strengths of Gamow-Teller (GT) for the selected isotopes lie in the fp-shell region agree very well with the measured data extracted from (3He, t), (3He, t)∗, (t,3He), (t, 3He+γ), and (p, n) reactions.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 03:17:23 PDT
  • Purifications of Iraqi Petroleum Using Ceramic Ball Nano Cobalt Nickel
           Ferrite Filter

    • Authors: Huda Jabbar et al.
      Abstract: Iraqi petroleum, especially from the Al-Ahdab, has a big problem resulting from its high percentage of heavy metals. In this paper, heavy metals were reduced or removed from Iraqi petroleum using a Ceramic Ball Nano Cobalt Nickel Ferrite Filter (BCNF), synthesized by combining kaolin and palm frond in a 30% ratio with Co0.8Ni0.2Fe2O4 nanoparticles in a various ratios (5, 10, 15, and 20%). The sol-gel technique prepared Co0.8Ni0.2Fe2O4 nanoparticles. The structure and magnetic properties of the material are described using X-RD, FT-IR, and VSM techniques. In addition, the water ab-sorption ratio and apparent porosity were assessed. The results show that the ceramic ball Nano cobalt-nickel ferrite filter reduces V, Ni, and Fe in crude petroleum. As a result, heavy oil has been converted to the lightest petroleum obtainable. These filters will also become more popular because of their low preparation costs, ease of preparation, and ability to remove crude petroleum.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 03:17:18 PDT
  • Studying The Physical and Biological Characteristics of Denture Base Resin
           PMMA Reinforced With ZrO2 and TiO2 Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Fatin A. Asim et al.
      Abstract: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) suffers from poor mechanical properties that limit its application in the bio-medical field. In this study, PMMA was reinforced with zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopar-ticles; subsequently, the hardness, porosity, biocompatibility, bacterial adhesion, and colonization of the reinforced PMMA with various oxide nanoparticles were characterized. The results of this study indicated that reinforced material inhibits bacterial growth and decreases bacterial adhesion by decreasing porosity and increasing PMMA hardness. Based on the findings, 3 wt% PMMA-ZrO2 and 3 wt% PMMA-ZrO2 -TiO2 composites significantly inhibited bacterial growth and adherence while maintaining hemolysis PT and INR and enhancing the hardness and decreasing porosity.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 03:17:13 PDT
  • Skin Lesion Segmentation based on U-Shaped Network

    • Authors: Muna Khalaf et al.
      Abstract: Skin lesion segmentation is an essential step toward accurate skin lesion diagnosis. The need to automate Skin lesion segmentation on the one hand, and the challenges it faces, on the other hand, have made it a growing area of research and focus. Automation of skin lesion segmentation helps reduce the effort and time needed for diagnosis and treatment and helps make better utilization of available data and shared experiences. The challenges faced by the automation of skin lesion segmentation can be broadly defined by (but not limited to); variations in texture, shape, and size for skin lesions and the low contrast between the lesion and surrounding skin.The rise of deep learning has significantly improved the semantic segmentation results in medical imaging. U-Net structure with encoder and decoder approach is one of the most successful deep learning models for medical image segmentation. This paper introduces two models based on U-shaped structures: AlexUnet and AlexUnet+.AlxUnet is a light U-Net model with an encoder based on pre-trained AlexNet on the ImageNet database. It significant-ly reduces memory consumption and the number of parameters, thus reducing the required FLOPS by eight times. In Alexunet+, another encoder was added to the AlxUnet structure that used pre-trained VGG11 on ImageNet. It is al-lowed to aggregate the feature maps obtained from two encoders to be used in the decoder.AlxUnet and AlxUnet+ models were evaluated using three publicly available databases provided by the International Skin Imaging Collaboration, ISIC 2016, ISIC 2017, and ISIC 2018. Sensitivity, specificity, Jaccard similarity index, and dice similarity were used as performance metrics. Then, obtained structures were compared with U-Net, and many deep learning segmentation networks that were recently built for skin lesion segmentation. AlxUnet outperformed U-Net and produced acceptable results compared with the other networks. AlexUnet+ produced a more robust result and outperformed other networks.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 03:17:08 PDT
  • C60 Hydrofullerene Induced Autophagy and Ameliorated GFAP In H2O2 Treated
           Human Malignant Glioblastoma U-373 Cell Line

    • Authors: Aryan M. Faraj et al.
      Abstract: Glioblastoma is one of the most combative astrocytoma that is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This resistance makes it very difficult to treat. However, researches have shown that nanoparticles especially C60 hydrofullerene have antioxidant and anticancer activity. The effect of C60 hydrofullerene in cancer has been extensively studied; however, the potential regulation of autophagy and modulation of the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) gene has not been addressed in glioblastomas. Glioblastoma U-373 cell was treated with 0.5 µM of C60 hydrofullerene and/or 1 mM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 24 hours. This study demonstrated that C60 hydrofullerene and H2O2 significantly decreased cell proliferation. The gene expression and conversion of LC3-II/LC3-I were significantly induced in the separate and combined treatments. The immunofluorescent results observe that H2O2 dramatically inhibits the expression of GFAP. However, when the cells were treated with both H2O2 and C60 hydrofullerene, GFAP expression was significantly restored. The anti-proliferative effects of C60 hydrofullerene and H2O2 are shown in the results. Both treatments induced LC3-based autophagy and H2O2 was down regulated GFAP.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 03:17:03 PDT
  • Improving Prediction of Arabic Fake News Using Fuzzy Logic and Modified
           Random Forest Model

    • Authors: Tahseen A. Wotaifi et al.
      Abstract: Throughout the last few years, the world is witnessing the so-called age of social media, as there is a complete dependence on these sites for following up on events and activities. The problem is that the misinformation or fake news is always released at the appropriate time, so this false news spreads quickly and takes a very wide resonance. Although several studies are performed to determine English fake news, the identification of Arabic misinformation remains underdeveloped. This study aims to build an improved learning model for detecting fake news in the Arabic language. Unlike previous studies that depended on analyzing the content of the tweet only, this study focuses on the text, user features, and text features. Regarding the content of the tweet, the TF-IDF method was used to convert the words into features and then determine the features that have a high rank. In contrast, a fuzzy model was used to determine the relevant features for the user. Finally, the random forest algorithm has been adapted and improved, and its results are better as compared to other machine learning methods. The accuracy of Improved Random Forest is (0.895), whereas the accuracy of Naive Bayesian and SVM techniques are found to be (0.809) and (0.848), respectively.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 03:16:58 PDT
  • Synthesized Zinc Nanoparticles via Pulsed Laser Ablation: Characterization
           and Antibacterial Activity

    • Authors: Sahar Naji Rashid et al.
      Abstract: The pulsed laser ablation of a metallic target in the liquid (PLAL) is a modern and good method for creating a variety of nanomaterials that have piqued the interest of researchers in the last decade. It is used in this work to prepare zinc na-noparticles and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnPNs and ZnO NPs) using Nd: YAG laser with the two wavelengths (532 nm) and (355 nm) using the energies (600 mJ) and (500 mJ) respectively, and the number of the pulse (500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 Pulses); for each wavelength used in this work. The properties of the prepared NPs were studied by diag-nosing them by (UV-Vis, FTIR, AFM, XRD, SEM, and EDX) techniques. Then the antibacterial activity of the pre-pared nanoparticles was tested against two types of Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus mutans & Staphylococcus aureus) and two types of Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Escherichia coli) isolated from the oral cavity. The finding showed that ZnNPs made using the PLAL approach could be employed to kill pathogenic and haz-ardous bacteria due to having antibacterial activity.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 03:16:54 PDT
  • Continuum Damping Effects in Nuclear Collisions

    • Authors: Hossein Sadeghi et al.
      Abstract: The Time-Dependent Skyrme Hartree-Fock (TDSHF) calculations have been conducted to study 100Sn+16O, 116Sn+16O, and 122Sn+16O collisions on a 3-Dimensional (3D) mesh with SV-bas SF. For the 100Sn+16O collision, the continuum damping width of the rotational amplitudes in Ecm = 100, 150, 200, and 250 MeV has been achieved around 108, 185, 277, and 318, with the time evolution width for z2 around 15/5, 13/5, 13/9, or 14/3 fm2. The quadrupole deformation, kinetic energy, and rotational amplitude are studied. It is seen that the compound nucleus becomes uniform and spherical as time grows. The results of the time evolution show the continuum damping effects after the fusion phase. The damping mechanism is related to removing the dependence on the size of the box. The results were compared with the available experimental and theoretical results.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 03:16:49 PDT
  • A Successful Elimination of Indonesian SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Airborne
           Transmission Prevention by Cold Plasma in Fighting COVID-19 Pandemic: A
           Preliminary Study

    • Authors: Muhammad Nur et al.
      Abstract: Global infection and mortality rates have soared to millions due to SARS-CoV-2 human-to-human transmission from via droplets which then declared as pandemic. This study examined the created cold plasma equipment (CPE) effectiveness in reducing COVID-19 transmission in a confined space. CPE sucked air using a fan in a test chamber then pushed it into a cold plasma reactor. The results indicated that it was able to terminate all SARS-CoV-2 variants along with bacteria and fungi indoors by keeping it turned on for 30 minutes’ minimum. CPE was proven as safe and effective to hinder virus transmission with the acceptable ozone emission as the side effect.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 03:16:44 PDT
  • The Distinction of Logical Decision According to the Model of the Analysis
           of Brain Signals (EEG)

    • Authors: Akeel Abdulkareem Al-Sakaa et al.
      Abstract: Recently, brain signal patterns have been recruited by researchers in different life activities. Researchers have studied each life activity and how brain signal patterns appear. These patterns could then be generalised and used in different disciplines. In this paper, we study the brain state during decision making in a lottery experiment. An EEG device is used to capture brain signals during an experiment to extract the optimal state for logical decision making. After collecting data, extracting useful information and then processing it, the proposed method is able to identify rational decisions from irrational ones with a success rate of 67%.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 03:16:39 PDT

    • Authors: Norul Aini Zakariya et al.
      Abstract: Cancer and microbial infections create numerous challenges nowadays. Chemotherapy agents cause severe side effects, while microbial infections, especially multidrug-resistant bacterial strains hard to treat with available antibiotics. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the green synthesis of Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) with their physicochemical properties and mechanism of action . The IONPs causes cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity by causing oxidative distress through the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The IONPs as an anticancer and antimicrobial agent may help to overcome the limitation of conventional treatments but needs toxicity evaluation before usage in clinical applications.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:37:17 PDT
  • A high yield method for protoplast isolation and ease detection of rol B
           and C genes in the hairy roots of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.)
           inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    • Authors: Qutaiba Shuaib Al-Nema et al.
      Abstract: Protoplasts represent a unique experimental system for the circulation and formation of genetically modified plants. Here, protoplasts were isolated from genetically modified hairy root tissues of Brassica oleracea L. induced by the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain (ATCC13332). The concentration of enzyme solutions utilized for protoplast isolation was 1.5 % Cellulase YC and 0.1 % Pectolyase Y23 in 13% mannitol solution, which resulted in high efficiency of isolation within 8 hours, in which the protoplast yield was 2 × 104 cells ml-1 and the percentage of viability was 72%. Each protoplast has one nucleus with a nucleation of 48%. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay verified the presence of rol B and rol C genes in hairy root tissues by detaching a single bundle of DNA replication from these roots using a specific pair of primers. The current study demonstrated that A. rhizogenes strain (ATCC13332) is a vector for the incorporation of T-DNA genes into cauliflower plants, as well as the success of the hairy roots retention of rol B and rol C genes transferred to it.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:37:13 PDT
  • Relationships of Magnetic Properties and Heavy Metals Content of Guano in
           Bat Cave, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Authors: Muhammad Arsyad et al.
      Abstract: Bat Cave is one of the caves with guano deposits in the Rammang-Rammang karst area, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The guano deposits can indicate environmental changes in the cave. This study aims to analyze the magnetic properties and correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal content in guano. Sampling was carried out in Bat Cave, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and magnetic susceptibility, XRD (mineralogy analysis), and XRF (heavy metal content analysis) were measured. The results showed that the guano sample contained superparamagnetic grains and stable single domain (SP-SSD) measuring -8m3/kg. The location of caves in karst areas and climate change affect the magnetic grains. The Pearson correlation coefficient analysis results showed that magnetic susceptibility had a negative correlation with the heavy metal content of Fe. Meanwhile, Fe has a positive correlation with the content of other heavy metals such as Cu, Zr, and Nb. Thus, magnetic susceptibility has the potential as a proxy indicator to detect the presence of heavy metals.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:37:08 PDT
  • Tapioca starch in the sol-gel synthesis of cobalt ferrites with divalent
           cation substitutions

    • Authors: Anuchit Hunyek et al.
      Abstract: An aqueous solution of tapioca starch was successfully used as a chelating agent in the sol-gel synthesis of Co0.7Me0.3Fe2O4, where Me denotes Co, Mn, Cu, Ni, or Zn. The hysteresis loops of all sintered ferrites revealed ferrimagnetic properties. The saturation magnetization was reduced in Co0.7Cu0.3Fe2O4 and Co0.7Ni0.3Fe2O4 because of the ion substitutions with smaller magnetic moments. Interestingly, Co0.7Cu0.3Fe2O4 exhibited the highest saturation magnetization and the lowest coercive field. This result demonstrates the value addition of local agricultural products in controlling nanoparticle formation during sol-gel synthesis.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:37:03 PDT
  • Investigating the Nuclear Properties of 162-172 Er Isotopes using IBM-1,
           SEF, and NEE

    • Authors: Amal M. Al-Nuaimi et al.
      Abstract: The energy levels of the ground state band (GSB), , and γ-bands for 162-172Er isotopes are calculated in this work by adopting the Interacting Boson Model (IBM-1), the Semi-Empirical Formula (SEF) and the New Empirical Equation (NEE). The GSB, , and γ-bands results revealed that IBM-1, SEF, NEE, and the available experimental data are all in agreement with certain variations. The NEE is more compatible with the experimental data than the IBM-1 and SEF calculations. This study demonstrates that the SEF and NEE equations are able to describe the energy spectra of Er isotopes in comparison to IBM-1. The Er isotopes exhibit rotational SU(3) transition behavior.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:36:59 PDT

    • Authors: Stephen Olugbemiga OWA et al.
      Abstract: ⦁ Background: Despite the continuous interest in the search for therapeutic agents, little attention has been given to the medicinal relevance of earthworm casts, with even less interest in over-seasoned worm-casts. Therefore, this study determined the phytochemical, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties of over-seasoned worm-casts of the earthworm Hyperiodrilus africanus (Eudrilidae). Methods: The earthworm casts were extracted with n-hexane, ethanol, and water and the crude extracts were evaluated for the presence of chemical constituents and antimicrobial properties. Cytotoxicity was inferred from the antimitotic effects of the extracts on the radicles of germinating seeds of Sorghum bicolor. Results: The chemical constituent determinations revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, and phenols. Screening the extracts for chemical constituents revealed that the ethanolic and aqueous extracts had more chemical constituents than n-hexane extracts. The ethanolic extract showed antibacterial activity against Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus; the aqueous extract showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Furthermore, both extracts showed antimitotic activity against healthy cells of S. bicolor in a manner similar to that of the reference drug (cyclophosphamide). Conclusion: The study provides evidence, lending credence to the antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of over-seasoned casts of H. africanus.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:36:54 PDT
  • A Review on the Ethnobotanical, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological
           Activities of Aristolochia longa L.

    • Authors: Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo et al.
      Abstract: Aristolochia longa L. is a plant native to Algeria and Morocco that has been used by the locals to combat different arrays of infections and diseases found among them. This particular plant is well-known for its therapeutic qualities that could be traced back to the presence of many effective phytochemicals that have been extrapolated from the different parts of the plant, like the leaves and roots: flavonoids, saponins, tannins, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, β-carotenes, limonenes, and palmitic acids. This plant has been identified in different research articles to be able to manage diseases effectively because it possesses some pharmacological attributes such as; antitumor/anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, as well as antioxidant properties. This review covers the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological activities of A. longa as well as its toxicological aspects. A thorough review of scientific literature published in a number of databases, including Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed, was used to acquire relevant data for A. longa. The plant includes phytochemicals that have been proven to alleviate a variety of diseases. As a result, it's safe to claim that this plant is a good source of traditional medicine, which could be useful in medication development, bearing in mind that it could also be toxic depending on its consumption rate locally.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:36:48 PDT
  • Thermal Aware Routing Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks: Review
           and Open Research Issues

    • Authors: Samir Bouldjadj
      Abstract: Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a promising technology that improves life quality and enhances medical healthcare services. The activities and communications of sensors lead to a temperature rise, which can be fatal for the human body. The heating problem is addressed by the thermal-aware strategy, which has great importance. This paper reviews sixteen thermal-aware routing protocols proposed for WBAN; it presents routing in WBAN and its associated challenges. It explains the principles and pros and cons of each protocol and compares the protocols studied using several criteria. Finally, the paper points out the open research issues and challenges. This review intends to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date reference for everyone interested in the thermal-aware communication protocols for WBANs.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:36:44 PDT
  • Applicability limits of the end face fiber-optic gas concentration sensor,
           based on Fabry-Perot interferometer

    • Authors: S.M.R.H. Hussein et al.
      Abstract: The mathematical model of the fiber-optic sensor for gas concentration analysis is under study. The sensor is imple-mented as Fabry-Perot interferometer at the end face of the optical fiber by applying a thin polymer film, which permit-tivity depends on the tested gas concentration. It is shown, that a change in the properties of the optical fiber or the at-mosphere permittivity leads mainly to the spectrum contrast changing and does not change the period and the wave-length shift of its comb. The influence of the polymer film thickness, the environment temperature and humidity on the Fabry-Perot spectrum is analyzed. The necessity of using the temperature and humidity compensation sensors is shown. The method, which determines the permittivity in narrow and wide ranges basing on the comb period and the wave-length shift of Fabry-Perot reflection spectrum, is developed. The relative error of measuring the polymer film permit-tivity depending on the film thickness for three wavelength ranges (810−890, 1270−1350, and 1510−1590 nm) is esti-mated. The real achievable relative error in determining the polymer film permittivity is in 0.3–1% FSI, depending on the conditions of the experiment. The mathematical methods and practical recommendations are proposed.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:36:39 PDT
  • Molecular Docking Reveals Phytoconstituents of the Methanol Extract from
           Muntingia calabura as Promising α-Glucosidase Inhibitors

    • Authors: Nurlena Andalia et al.
      Abstract: Inhibition of α-glucosidase has been used as a management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, where studies are focused on finding more efficacious and safe drugs. Herein, the research aimed to unveil the potential of phytoconstituents contained in methanol extract of Muntingia calabura leaves in inhibiting α-glucosidase through molecular docking simulation. From a systematic search (Scopus), we found 5 eligible articles and identified 28 phytocompounds. Fisetin, pinostrobin, and rhamnetin identified in M. calabura extract were predicted to have good bioavailability. Finally, fisetin was revealed as the most potential α-glucosidase inhibitor candidate with a binding affinity of -7.5 kcal/mol.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:36:34 PDT
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