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Sakarya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1301-4048 - ISSN (Online) 2147-835X
Published by Sakarya Üniversitesi Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Evaluation of Statistical Power in Random Effect Meta Analyses for
           Correlation Effect Size

    • Authors: Burçin ÖNER
      Abstract: In meta-analysis, numerical index is used as an estimate of effect size to describe the results of each study and thereafter these estimates of across studies are combined to obtain summary of results. It should be known that calculations of the power of statistical tests are important in planning research studies and for interpreting situations in which a result has not proven to be statistically significant. Although statistical power is often considered in the design of primary research studies, it is rarely considered in meta-analysis. Despite the importance of statistical power, few studies have been examined the performance of simulated power in meta-analysis. (In this study, calculations of statistical power for statistical tests that are used for unequal sample size on random effects model in meta-analysis using correlation coefficient as effect size were conducted.)The power of the test for the overall effect size was calculated by using both analytical method and simulation method. Thus, it was investigated whether there was any difference between the simulation power and analytical power in random effects meta-analysis by using correlation coefficient as an effect size.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • A New Novel Synchronization Index of Brain Networks in Hyperbolic EEG

    • Authors: Rüştü Murat DEMİRER
      Abstract: The functional connectivity of brain connectivity changes its pattern over time i.e. dynamics, even in the resting state with an infinite number of degrees of freedom with local couplings. Recently, quantifying the level of synchrony has received considerable attention. We hypothesized that time-varying instantaneous phase synchronization over local couplings are defined in hyperbolic space and different brain regions can identify failures, flexibility, and stability in network dynamics. Our goal is to understand the phase synchronization changes of the beta-gamma band, and in addition, to investigate Shannon entropy based on phase synchronization stability. Whole EEG dynamics from local phase synchronizations was used to detect treatment resistance from both hemispheres in OCD patients. Temporal filtering and Hilbert transforms were performed to infer beta-gamma band phase difference activity from the EEG brain dynamics. Then, the response beta-gamma band phase stability was quantified using a new phase synchronization index (PSI). Results indicated significantly changed phase synchronization of the response and non-response to treatment, patients in OCD patients in F7 electrode. Greater phase fluctuations of beta-gamma synchronizations in treatment resistance OCD is claiming phase deficiencies within neural populations. This study first provides experimental and theoretical support for characterizing cycle structure depends on the non-Euclidian dynamics of neural phase synchrony caused by disturbances of underlying neurotransmitter systems, as reflected in different normal and disease states.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • A Configurable Interface for Analog Sensor Outputs

    • Authors: Baran DEMİRER; Faik BAŞKAYA
      Abstract: Reading out analog sensor outputs can be a challenging task at low frequencies because of the low frequency noise. To obtain a sensor signal clearly, special interface circuits are required. By using such circuits, analog signals are cleaned from offset, drift and 1/f noise. Besides, if the interface circuitry is configurable, it can be possible to interface to inputs at different frequency ranges. At the interface block, analog sensor output signal is moved to a frequency band where low frequency noise effects are not dominant by using chopping modulation technique. The frequency-shifted signal is then filtered using various filter types. To remove the low frequency noise before moving the signal back to the original band, Gm-C filter is used. The entire topology can be configured by a 5-bit digital to analog converter (DAC) called Biasing DAC (BDAC). This allows us to digitally change the biasing current of operational transconductance amplifiers (OTA), so that OTA based amplifiers and filters can operate at different frequency ranges. As conclusion, a configurable analog sensor interface has been designed. The design and layouts have been realized and simulated in Cadence Virtuoso using UMC 130nm CMOS technology.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Thermal Effect Estimation of Smartphone Virtual Reality Headsets on Human
           Eye by Finite Element Method

    • Authors: Niyazi ULUAYDIN; Selim ŞEKER
      Abstract: Smartphones (SP) terminals are becoming the most popular media for virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) effects with their central processing unit (CPU) and video capabilities. Simple VR headsets with reasonable costs can host smartphones, and they can together be used for many different applications. But with the outbreak of Covid-19 pandemic, their usage has become essential for many people working from their homes. VR and AR capabilities provide a much richer experience for entertainment, gaming, and video conferencing. The increasing popularity of 3D virtual worlds add up to this usage. On the technology side, multi-radio connectivity is supported both on terminal and network side. A certain risk may arise when using SP VR headsets for such applications requiring a broadband Internet connectivity. SPs with multi-radio connectivity feature may elevate specific absorption rate (SAR) values in those cases. The smartphone used for VR and AR applications is positioned in front of the eyes; and there is very limited ventilation in VR/AR headsets.
      Authors ’ model aims simulate these exposure scenarios in 4G and 5G mobile telecommunication frequencies by finite element method (FEM); and, possible thermal and non-thermal risks of related electromagnetic (EM) radiation on human eye according to the outputs of the model are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Important Factors Affecting the Quality of Indoor Air and a Bibliometric

    • Authors: Bahar TÜRK
      Abstract: Indoor air quality is critical for human health, and as such, it must be continuously improved. As a result, it is critical to identify the factors influencing indoor air quality. In this context, the purpose of this study is to investigate the factors influencing indoor air quality and to conduct a bibliometric analysis of the studies on the subject. The method of bibliometric analysis was used to examine academic publications on indoor air quality published between 1975 and 2020. A total of 2398 academic studies from the Web of Science database were examined. According to the findings of the analyses, academic research has primarily been conducted in the fields of construction technology and environmental sciences, public environmental occupational health, and environmental engineering. Since 2010, there has been a significant increase in the number of publications. The year with the most publications was 2017, and especially after 2010, publications have been cited more and more. One-fourth of the publications were produced solely in the United States. Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Denmark Technical University had the most publications. It has been determined that ventilation and air flow rate are the most heavily researched factors affecting indoor air quality. On the other hand, a substantial amount of research has been conducted to investigate the effects of pollutants. Furthermore, publications on temperature, humidity, bacteria, and thermal comfort were discovered. There have been studies on indoor air quality in residential buildings, houses, schools, and hospitals.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Economic and Technical Performance Assessment of a Thermal Energy Storage
           System for Ancillary Services

    • Authors: Emin Selahattin UMDU; Levent BİLİR
      Abstract: Increasing renewables in energy mix results in lower emissions but also increased fluctuations in the electricity grid. Current thermal energy conversion-based systems will stay as main electricity generation in the grid, and they will support base loads of the system. Whether these systems are fossil or geothermal sourced they need adaptive technologies to harmonize with the changing network. This study aims to investigate feasibility and performance to satisfy response demands for a proposed thermal energy storage system connected to feed stream of thermal power generation to support ancillary services in a case study in Turkey. Tin is selected as the phase change material for its good inductive properties. It is demonstrated numerically that the evaluated heat storage tank, filled with tin, provides adequate time for thermal discharging within time limits to benefit from hourly ancillary power market. Using hourly pricing data for entire 2020, it is found that proposed system shows better economic performance than investment requirement of ROI over 11% as stated in various literature for renewable energy systems. Analysis of system economic performance shows a ROI of 16% and NPV is 17.8% higher than required investment.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Investigation of The Effect of Design Variables on Slip Assembly: Spline
           Module and Slip Length

    • Authors: Onur ŞEN; Mert Can KAHYALAR, Hüseyin ÖZGÜRLER
      Abstract: The driveshaft which transmits the power from the engine to the wheels in the motor vehicles is one of the vital elements in the driveline. Driveshafts have two basic motions depending on the road conditions, angular and axial movements. Angular movement is provided by the universal joints while the axial movement is provided by the slip assembly which involves a group of sliding components. Therefore, the slip assembly is an important part of the drive shaft. Basically, a slip assembly consists of two parts which are connected to each other by means of their spline forms. The parts can move back and forth longitudinally while they transmit the torque thanks to the connection interface of their spline forms. And so, they can slide and adjust the drive shaft lengths due to the position of the axles under road conditions.During the motor vehicle movement, slip assembly are subjected to torsion like the other components on the driveshaft. In this context, spline size and magnitude of the length compensation are highly important in the design process of the slip assembly. In this study, the effect of the spline size and the slip length have been investigated for the yoke shaft design, by using analytical and numerical methods in terms of shear stress. It has been observed that the analytical and the numerical methods give the similar results in shear stress on the pitch diameter of the spline. Thus, the analytical method can be preferred instead of the finite element analysis (FEA), especially considering that the FEA is a time consuming method compared to the analytical method in the design process.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Life Cycle Assessment of Microbial Electrolysis Cells for Hydrogen
           Generation Using TRACI Methodology

    • Authors: Seçil TUTAR ÖKSÜZ
      Abstract: Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) use electrochemically active microorganisms to convert the chemical energy of organic matter into electrical energy, hydrogen, or other useful products through redox reactions. Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is one of the most common BESs which are able to convert organic substrate into energy (such as hydrogen and methane) through the catalytic action of electrochemically active bacteria in the presence of electric current and absence of oxygen. In the past decades, BESs have gained growing attention because of their potential, but there is still a limited amount of research is done for the environmental effects of BESs. This study initially provides an update review for MECs including general historical advancement, design properties, and operation mechanisms. Later, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was conducted using a midpoint approach, which is TRACI methodology with EIO-LCA model to identify the potential impacts to the environment whether adverse or beneficial using the MECs to produce hydrogen with domestic wastewater as a substrate. The results show that the cumulative negative impacts were substantially larger than the positive impacts by contrast with the expectations, and the cumulative output data show that human health non-cancer impact provides the highest environmental effects than others mainly because of the inorganic chemicals, pumping and wastewater recycling equipment step. In addition, global warming potential and smog creation potential are also elevated mainly due to electricity usage, inorganic chemical and glassware reactor production. Later we are externally normalized each impact category to compare the results at the normalization level, and we again found that human health (cancer or non-cancer) potential provides the most negative impact on the environment in the MEC system originates on human health indicators.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Using Locusta Migratoria as a Nitrogen Source for the Growth and
           Development of Microorganisms

    • Authors: Perihan AKBAŞ; Esabi Başaran KURBANOĞLU
      Abstract: Characteristics and the use as culture media of protein hydrolysate from Locusta migratoria were determined in comparison with different peptones. After powdering, it was hydrolyzed chemically (acid hydrolysis) and obtained product Locust Peptone (LP). The contents of protein, fat, nitrogen, ash, minerals, total sugars and amino acids of LP were determined and it was seen that it has both organic and inorganic materials enough to use as a component of the medium. The effects of different concentrations added 20g/l glucose of LP on the growth of four test bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida and Staphylococcus aureus) and test yeasts (Rhodotorula glutinis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were investigated and it was found that the optimal concentration for bacteria and yeast are %0,6 and LP was compared with bacteriological peptone (BP), fish peptone (FP) and meat peptone (MP) .The obtained results with surface streaking and shaking culture procedures showed that LP yielded a little higher or equal FP and BP in both normal bacteria, but these values were lower than values obtained from MP. The results show that LP performed similar to or even better than commercial peptones as nitrogen sources for microorganisms growth. A new peptone has been developed from locust for microbiological media in the present study.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Artificial Intelligence Based Determination of Cracks in Eggshell Using
           Sound Signals

    • Authors: Zekeriya BALCI; İsmail YABANOVA
      Abstract: Although the egg is a cheap food source, it is one of the valuable nutritional sources for people because of its rich nutritional values. It is also among the most consumed foods in daily nutrition. With the increase in egg production, it is very difficult to collect them with the human power in the egg production farms, to classify them according to their weights and to separate the defective (dirty and broken) eggs. Therefore, the mechanization has become a necessity in large capacity production farms. Cracks and fractures may occur in the egg shell as a result of exposure to external factors such as the transportation of eggs. The cracks or fractures that are formed leave the egg vulnerable to disease-causing micro-organisms. Before the egg sorting and packing, the broken and cracked eggs must be separated. This process is commonly carried out with manpower by which it is very difficult to obtain the necessary efficiency. In this study, the egg crack detection was performed by using Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). As a result of the application of studied methods, the accuracy values of crack detection process were 0.99 for ANN and 1 for SVM. In addition, a data acquisition and processing program was developed in LABVIEW environment to detect cracks in real time.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Improvement of Strength Characteristics of a Highly Plastic Expansive Soil
           with Fly Ash

    • Authors: Gaye KODAZ; Hasan Emre DEMİRCİ, Hasan Fırat PULAT
      Abstract: Highly plastic expansive clays swell or shrink due to change in moisture content and they often have very low bearing capacity. Construction of engineering structures particularly pavements and lightweight buildings on problematic soils such as highly plastic expansive clays may create severe structural problems due to poor engineering properties of that kind of soil. This study focused on the influence of fly ash on strength properties of highly expansive clays which are problematic soils due to their undesirable engineering characteristics such as high plasticity index, liquid limit, swelling and shrinkage characteristics, and low bearing capacity. Atterberg’s limit tests and hydrometer tests were conducted to obtain consistency limits and grain-size distribution of the highly plastic expansive clay. Standard proctor tests for clay samples with different fly ash contents such as 10%, 15%, and 20% were performed to determine maximum dry densities and optimum water contents of the mixtures of clay and fly ash. The clay and fly ash mixtures were prepared at optimum water content and maximum dry density for unconfined compression strength (UCS) and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests. Effects of fly0ash content on the strength characteristics of a highly plastic expansive clay were investigated through unconfined compression and CBR tests. The experiment results showed that fly0ash is a promising additive to enhance strength characteristics of highly plastic expansive clays. An approximately 66% increase in UCS and CBR values was observed with the addition of 20% fly ash into the clay mixture in weight.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • GUP-corrected ΛCDM cosmology

    • Authors: Salih KİBAROĞLU
      Abstract: In this study, we investigate the effect of the generalized uncertainty principle on the ΛCDM cosmological model. Using quantum corrected Unruh effect and Verlinde’s entropic gravity idea, we find Planck-scale corrected Friedmann equations with a cosmological constant. These results modify the ΛCDM cosmology.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Decolorization of Some Textile Dyes Using Phormidium sp. in
           Heterotrophıc Culture Conditions

    • Authors: Tuğba ŞENTÜRK
      Abstract: Cyanobacteria have gained interest in recent decades as intriguing potential bioresources candidates due to their potential applications in biotechnology. Under heterotrophic circumstances, the decolorization of Dianix Blue CC, Benazol Black Zn, and Dianix Yellow Brown CC by the low-cost biosorbent Phormidium (Cyanobacteria) with three different initial dye concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mg/L was examined. For the best dye decolorization, the carbon source, incubation period, temperature, pH, and agitation rate were 10 g/L glucose, 168 h, 40 0C, 8.5, and 60 rpm, respectively. Phormidium showed high dye uptake, with maximum efficiency ranging from 20% to 40% (5.47 to 40.04 mgg-1) for Dianix Blue, 22% to 52% (5.95 to-52.32 mgg-1) for Benazol Black ZN and 20% to 68% (13.18 to 20.78 mgg-1) for Dianix Yellow Brown under heterotrophic conditions at all dye concentrations tested. The best color decolorization in terms of maximum efficiency was obtained 57% (57.76 mgg-1) for Dianix Blue, 74% (74.04 mgg-1) for Benazol Black at 100 mg/L and 77% (19.42 mgg-1) for Dianix Yellow Brown at 25 mg/L dye concentrations. The study reveals that the decolorization of dye process using Phormidium offers an efficient, quit of charges and environmentally friendly biosorbent for the remediation of textile effluents.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Evaluations Of Taxonomic Classifications In The Genus Trifolium L.
           Based On ITS Sequences

    • Authors: Aykut YILMAZ; Yudum YELTEKİN
      Abstract: The genus Trifolium L. belonging to family Fabaceae is represented by about 255 species in the world. Two classifications based on the sections or subgenus are commonly used by the researchers in the taxonomically evaluation of the genus Trifolium. However, there are still some confusing and complex situations about the taxonomy of the genus. For this reason, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions between rDNA genes in nrDNA were examined for 139 Trifolium taxa with the Maximum Parsimony (MP) method. Furthermore MP tree were evaluated based on two classification used commonly in the genus to provide contributions to taxonomic classification of the Trifolium species and to evaluate phylogenetic relationships of the Trifolium species. Study results support the status of subgenus proposed by new infrageneric classification. Also it can be stated that it is rationale to divide the section Lotoidea into several sections according to phylogenetic relationships of the taxa examined. Finally, this study reveals the importance of sequence information and problems in the barcoding.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Determination of Nutrition Habits and Food Supply Changes During Covid-19

    • Authors: Nilgün BUDAK
      Abstract: The research aims to determine the changes that took place in the lifestyles and dietary and food purchasing habits of the Turkish population during the Covid-19 pandemic by considering regional distribution and age factors. A survey was applied in this study. The survey evaluated the participants' sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, dietary habits, food purchasing habits, and their daily, weekly, and monthly consumption of 22 different food items in terms of both the pre- and during-pandemic periods. The study enrolled 725 participants' between the ages 15-80, living in Turkey. The answers to the online questionnaire showed that there was an increase in their frequency of taking vitamin C and D, zinc, complex vitamins, fish oil, food supplements, buying packaged products, dairy products, probiotic supplements, fruits, seafood. While there was a decrease in the participants' smoking and alcohol consumption frequency, an increase in their daily sleep duration and gaining weight. Also, it was determined that online shopping increased by 166%, while local food market decreased by 41.12%. It has been determined that people should eat healthy and strengthen their immune system in epidemics. For this reason, it has been determined that the infrastructures of producers, carriers and sellers in the food supply chain should be improved in order to meet the needs of people.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Experimental Investigation on the Variation in Shear Strength of Clayey
           Soil Reinforced with Randomly Distributed Alkali-Resistant Glass Fiber

    • Authors: Ercüment KEKEÇ; Sedat SERT, Eylem ARSLAN, Ertan BOL, Aşkın ÖZOCAK
      Abstract: Geotechnical investigations are one of the most crucial parts of the construction to save the time and effort spent on the projects. Particularly, in the case of the clays with high plasticity are encountered, the analysis of bearing capacity and settlement of structures such as buildings, roads, and dams governs the design. The possible solutions can be leaving the land, reaching a strong soil bypassing the weak one, removing the weak soil by replacing it with a higher strength of the material, and applying soil improvement methods. Glass fibers are one of the synthetic additives which may be used to address improving the weak soil properties. In this study, the effect of alkaline-resistant glass fiber additive on the undrained shear strength of the clayey soils was investigated. Fibers with distinct lengths were added to the natural soil at increasing rates, and the mixtures were prepared in the optimum water content. The prepared mixtures were compacted in a compaction mold with a diameter of 50 mm and a height of 100 mm with standard energy. Unconfined compression test (UC) were conducted on a total of 210 cylindrical samples, 10 of natural clay and 200 of fiber-reinforced. The maximum increase was at 0.5% of a fiber blend of 40 mm length. As a result of 210 UC tests, it was observed that the alkaline-resistant glass fiber additive increased the shear strength of the clay soil.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • A Conformal Fractional Derivative-based Leaky Integrate-and-Fire Neuron

    • Authors: İsmail DEVECİOĞLU; Reşat MUTLU
      Abstract: Neuron model have been extensively studied and different models have been proposed. Nobel laureate Hodgkin-Huxley model is physiologically relevant and can demonstrate different neural behaviors, but it is mathematically complex. For this reason, simplified neuron models such as integrate-and-fire model and its derivatives are more popular in the literature to study neural populations. Lapicque’s integrate-and-fire model is proposed in 1907 and its leaky integrate-and-fire version is very popular due to its simplicity. In order to improve this simple model and capture different aspects of neurons, a variety of it have been proposed. Fractional order derivative-based neuron models are one of those varieties, which can show adaptation without necessitating additional differential equations. However, fractional-order derivatives could be computationally costly. Recently, a conformal fractional derivative (CFD) is suggested in literature. It is easy to understand and implement compared to the other methods. In this study, a CFD-based leaky integrate-and-fire neuron model is proposed. The model captures the adaptation in firing rate under sustained current injection. Results suggest that it could be used to easily and efficiently implement network models as well as to model different sensory afferents.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Quasi-Focal Curves of Spacelike Adjoint Curves in 3D Minkowski Space

    • Authors: Talat KÖRPINAR; Ahmet SAZAK
      Abstract: Associated curves bring meaningful geometric expression to the physics and mathematics fields in the characterization of curves and surfaces created by those curves, their behavior, and the study of particle motion in space-time. In this work, we examine the relationship between adjoint curves and focal curves, which are two important examples of associated curves. We do this review for spacelike curves under quasi(q)-frame in 3D Minkowski space. To put it more clearly, we obtain some new characterizations by defining the focal curve of the adjoint curve of a spacelike curve in this space.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • All Solutions of the Diophantine Equations $2F_{n}=3^{s}⋅y^{b}$ and

    • Authors: İbrahim ERDURAN; Zafer ŞİAR
      Abstract: The Fibonacci sequence 〖(F〗_n) is defined by F_0=0, F_1=1, and F_n=F_(n-1)+F_(n-2) for n≥2. In this paper, we will give all solutions of the Diophantine equations 2F_n=3^s∙y^b and F_n±1=3^s∙y^b in nonnegative integers s≥0, y≥1, b≥2, n≥1 and (3,y)=1.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Attitudes of the Telecommunication Customers in the COVID-19 Outbreak:
           The Effect of the Feature Selection Approach in Churn Analysis

    • Authors: Handan DONAT; Saliha KARADAYI USTA
      Abstract: Today's rising cutting-edge technology requirements and competitive environment in telecommunication industry has gained a remarkable importance due to the COVID-19 pandemics in terms of high need of information sharing and remote communication necessity. Telecommunication companies conduct significant analyses by highlighting that the customer data is the most valuable information. Besides, they obtain results emphasizing that acquiring new customers is costlier than retaining the existing ones. Therefore, the companies are willing to determine the important customer features in order to understand why they shift to the other telecommunication service providers. Hence, this study aims to conduct a churn analysis by feature selection approach with large volumes of telecommunication customer data in order to present what kind of customer behaviors and qualifications exist. Since there is a huge amount of data in this field, data mining is a vital requirement. The performance outputs were observed, and the features carrying these outputs to the highest value were identified. The data collection and analysis were carried out in mid-2019, and the same data collection and analysis were carried out again at the beginning of 2021, and these before and after results were compared. In addition, a comparison was made with the results obtained by the other churn analysis studies. This paper contributes to the practitioners by presenting the most important customer features in telecom customer churn, and a new approach in performance evaluation have been proposed specific to the telecommunication market with the industry experts’ guidance as a theoretical contribution.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +030
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