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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Journal of Scientific Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2070-0237 - ISSN (Online) 2070-0245
Published by Bangladesh Journals Online Homepage  [88 journals]
  • Temperature-Dependent Changes in Gamma Irradiated Porcine Gelatin with Low
           Bloom (PGL) Value: an ESR Investigation

    • Authors: N. S. Rao, D. Shireesh, S. Kalahasti, B. S. Rao
      Pages: 395 - 404
      Abstract: Gamma irradiation of Gelatin brings important changes in its chemical structure, making it suitable for different applications. The irradiated Gelatin may be subjected to different thermal treatments during these applications. Therefore, temperature-dependent changes in irradiated gelatins are a point of interest. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is vital for detecting free radical processes in irradiated polymers. As such, ESR spectra of temperature-dependent porcine Gelatin with low bloom are recorded, and they are analyzed by computer simulation techniques. Component spectra under different conditions are evaluated by the magnetic parameters employed to simulate the ESR spectra. The results indicate that the spectral shape at 300 K (RT) is stable up to 350 K, and signal intensity begins to decay beyond 350 K. The signal vanished around 355 K, designated as radical decay temperature. Bloch analysis is applied to evaluate activation energy associated with free radical decay, calculated around 35 KJ/mole.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.55078
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Symmetric Shaped Slot on Patch Antenna Design and Performance
           for 10 GHz 5G Applications

    • Authors: K. K. Giri, R. K. Singh, K. Mamta
      Pages: 405 - 417
      Abstract: A microstrip patch antenna is considered the most suitable radiating and receiving element for millimeter-wave application due to its low cost, simple construction, low weight, and ease with which it is integrated into the circuits. In this paper, we have reported the effects of different symmetric shaped slots on millimeter-wave patch antenna design and its performance at 10 GHz frequency in the X band (8-12 GHZ). The rectangular, circular, and elliptical slots area is kept constant at 11.2 mm2. The radius of circular and spherical slots is the same. High-frequency simulation software (HFSS) simulation results in parameters like S11 (reflection coefficient), Y-parameter (driving point admittance), Radiation Pattern, 3D Polar plot and illustrate that the results are in good agreement with the desired value. A rectangular slot is found to achieve the target resonance frequency with a low voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) towards a ‘good match.’ Circular, spherical, and elliptical-shaped slots have high VSWR values, indicating a larger degree of mismatch. Surprisingly, results are obtained for the spherical-shaped slot, implying that the antenna will work at the target resonance frequency and has a Dual-Resonance. The proposed antenna design is suitable for 5G device applications in the X band.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.55209
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Energy-Aware Threshold Sensitive Stable Election Protocol (EATSEP) for
           Wireless Sensor Networks

    • Authors: B. Sarkar, M. G. Rashed, D. Das, R. Yasmin
      Pages: 419 - 433
      Abstract: In most of the traditional cluster-based hierarchical routing protocols, the cluster head (CH) selection is made on a random basis. As a result, some unlucky sensor nodes (SNs) become dead quickly; thereby, network lifetime reduces drastically. To overcome this problem, in this paper, a new cluster-based routing protocol- Energy-Aware Threshold Sensitive Stable Election Protocol (EATSEP) is presented for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In the EATSEP protocol, the CH selection is an optimum process where the initial and residual energy of each SNs are considered within a heterogeneous SNs energy environment. Additionally, our proposed EATSEP protocol has managed to reduce long-distance transmission by routing data among CHs to the base station. In our present study, we have simulated the EATSEP protocol through MATLAB to compare its performance with other popular protocols under some well-known performance metrics. The experimental results indicate that the network stability of the EATSEP protocol improves by 80.81, 66.41, and 27.06 %, respectively, compared to the low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), Stable Election Protocol (SEP), and Threshold Sensitive SEP under a particular setting. In terms of energy consumption and network throughput, the EATSEP is also superior to other protocols.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.55330
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Bianchi Type-VI0 Inflationary Model in Lyra Geometry

    • Authors: P. M. Lambat, A. M. Pund
      Pages: 435 - 442
      Abstract: In this paper, we have studied Bianchi type metric in Lyra's geometry with scalar field and flat potential. The Einstein's field equations have been solved by taking the shear scalar in the model proportional to the expansion scalar, which leads to A = Bn, where A and B are metric functions and n is a positive constant. Also, we discuss some physical and geometrical features of the obtaining model.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.55557
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer Slip Flow over an Exponentially Permeable
           Stretching Sheet

    • Authors: M. A. Islam, M. Y. Ali, S. M. O. Gani
      Pages: 443 - 457
      Abstract: In this paper, the problem of unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer heat and mass transfer flow over an exponentially stretching sheet embedded in a porous medium in the presence of a uniform magnetic field with thermal radiation, heat generation/absorption, and suction/blowing is analyzed numerically. Instead of no-slip boundary conditions, velocity slip, thermal slip, and mass slips at the boundary are considered. Using a suitable similarity transformation, the governing partial differential equations are transformed to a system coupled with nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are solved numerically by using bvp4c with the MATLAB package. A detailed parametric study is performed to illustrate the physical parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration profile and the local skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt and Sherwood number. Then the results are exhibited in both graphical and tabular forms. It is observed that the present results have been in close agreement with the previously published studies under some special cases.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.55577
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Variation of Ozone, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxides of Nitrogen at Bengaluru,
           India

    • Authors: G. Dhanya, T. S. Pranesha, K. Nagaraja, D. M. Chate, G. Beig
      Pages: 459 - 470
      Abstract: The present study analyses the continuous in-situ observations of surface ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOX) conducted in an urban location, Bengaluru, India, during the year 2019 (January to December). The seasonal concentration of O3 fluctuated with the highest concentrations in the summer (39.6 ppbv) and winter (40.4 ppbv) and the lowest concentrations during the monsoon (16.8 ppbv). The seasonal mixing ratio of CO showed the highest value in post-monsoon (1.71 ppmv) and lowest during monsoon (0.79 ppmv). The seasonal trend of NOX showed highest in winter (56.8 ppbv) and lowest in monsoon (22.5 ppbv). The monthly mixing ratios of O3, CO, and NOX showed distinct variability, which may be attributed to changing anthropogenic activities, planetary boundary layer processes, and local meteorology. O3 was significantly related to temperature but inversely associated with relative humidity and wind speed. The association between CO, NOX with relative humidity, temperature, wind speed showed discrete results. The (dO3/dt) in the morning and evening duration were about 5.0 ppbv/h and -4.1 ppbv/h respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.55626
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • An Artificial Neural Network Technique of Modern Cryptography

    • Authors: S. Pal, B. Datta, A. Karmakar
      Pages: 471 - 481
      Abstract: An enormous volume of data transmitted through the internet in every second nowadays, so data protection is still a big challenge as communication channels are mostly public. Several approaches are there for protection of data when transmitted through the network channel, cryptography is one of them. Cryptography is a technique to hide original and confidential information from intruder. Considering information security principles i.e. confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA-triad) an efficient, portable, dynamic, and simple, artificial neural network (ANN) based cryptography algorithm have been presented in this paper. A multi-substitution tree parity machine (TPM) approach is used here to generate dynamic single digit secret key. The secret key created by the tree parity machine will be different in each phase of execution. This single digit dynamic secret key is used in the proposed encryption and decryption techniques. The complexity and execution time taken by the proposed algorithm is improved comparing to the existing algorithms. The proposed algorithm provides higher reliability and robustness in terms of security because of it dynamic nature.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.55669
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Modeling of the Peristaltic Lithogeic Bile Flow in the Calculus Duct Under
           the Influence of Heat Transfer with Slip Boundary Conditions

    • Authors: T. K. Rawat, S. Kumari, S. P. Singh
      Pages: 483 - 500
      Abstract: This paper deals with a mathematical model that represents non-Newtonian bile flow through a calculus duct under the influence of heat transfer with wall slip conditions. The peristaltic flow of bile is characterized by a generalized Carreau's model. An ordinate transformation is initiated to map the cosine geometry of the stone into a rectangular grid. It allows evaluation velocity, pressure distribution, flow rate, and reflux occurrence conditions, adopting the perturbation technique, the analytical solution obtained under various parameters, such as Knudsen number, amplitude ratio, Grashof number, Weissenberg number, and power index. These mathematical expressions are analyzed by plotting the graph in MATLAB R2018b software and observed that the axial velocity and the pressure gradient are strongly affected by heat and wall slip parameters.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.55882
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • On Certain Quadruple Fixed Points of Integral Type Contraction Mappings in
           G-Metric Spaces and its Applications

    • Authors: B. S. Rao, L. V. Kumar, C. Maheswari, S. M. Shaw
      Pages: 501 - 512
      Abstract: In this paper, the existence of common quadruple fixed point results for integral type contraction of two mappings in G-metric spaces is established. Some interesting consequences of our results are achieved. Moreover, we give an illustration that presents the applicability of the achieved results.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.56189
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Classification of Hot Jupiter Population through Statistical Framework

    • Authors: S. Mondal
      Pages: 513 - 519
      Abstract: The recent trend in the discovery of a range of exoplanets opens up a door to evaluate their origin and classification under the light of different planetary attributes. This paper enthusiastically focused on a typical branch of exoplanets, hot Jupiter, and several planetary characteristics were observed to frame the population into substantive categories. In this paper, a statistical framework was also established to understand different planetary formation processes for hot Jupiters. Finally, the relevance of hot Jupiters in search of habitable planets is also discussed briefly.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.56497
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A New Integral Transform “Rishi Transform” with Application

    • Authors: R. Kumar, J. Chandel, S. Aggarwal
      Pages: 521 - 532
      Abstract: In this paper, authors propose a new integral transform “Rishi Transform” with application to determine the exact (analytic) solution of first kind Volterra integral equation (V.I.E.). For this purpose, authors first derived the Rishi transform of basic mathematical functions (algebraic and transcendential) and then the fundamental properties of Rishi transform is discussed, which can be used for solving ordinary differential equations (O.D.E), partial differential equations (P.D.E.), delay differential equations (D.D.E.), fractional differential equations (F.D.E.), difference equations (D.E.), integral equations (I.E.) and integro-differential equations (I.D.E.). After this, authors determined the exact (analytic) solution of general first kind V.I.E.. They have considered three numerical problems and solved them completely step by step for explaining the utility of Rishi transform. Results depict that the proposed new integral transform "Rishi Transform" provides the exact results for first kind V.I.E. without doing complicated calculation work.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.56545
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Video Summarization Using Deep Learning for Cricket Highlights Generation

    • Authors: D. Gaikwad, S. Sarap, D. Y. Dhande
      Pages: 533 - 544
      Abstract: Recently, video surveillance technology has grown pervasive in many aspects of our lives. Automatic video monitoring produces massive amounts of data that need human examination at some point. The primary emphasis is on reducing storage usage by compressing or eliminating superfluous frames without sacrificing real information. The current effort seeks to close the growing gap between the amounts of real data and the volume. Searching through key events in large video collections is time-consuming and tedious. In this paper, smart surveillance for various applications by using video summarization has been presented. A method for generating highlights has presented which pre-processes extracted Video Frames. Convolutional Neural Networks are then used to evaluate these highlighted frames. The proposed technique extracts and calculates characteristics utilized to generate summary movies. For training deep neural networks, cricket datasets have been used. Experimental results show that the proposed solution attains improved results than other advanced summarization methodologies. Experimental results show that the proposed video summarization method consistently generates high-quality reviews for all types of videos. The proposed video summarization method is easy to use, and it can also help extract highlights of cricket games with high accuracy.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.56856
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Synthesis, X-ray Crystallography, Hirshfeld Surface Analysis, Spectral
           Analysis, and Molecular Docking Studies on
           (E)–2–(1–(4–Fluorophenyl)Ethylidene) Hydrazine Carbothioamide

    • Authors: M. Sivasubramanian, R. R. Saravanan, R. Mendoza–Meroñob
      Pages: 545 - 558
      Abstract: Synthesis, X-ray crystallography, spectral analysis, and molecular docking analysis on (E)–2–(1–(4–fluorophenyl) ethylidene) hydrazine carbothioamide (EFEHC) are performed. Thiosemicarbazones are a class of small molecules used as anticancer therapeutics. The FT–IR and FT-Raman spectra of EFEHC have been recorded in 4000–400 and 4000–100 cm–1, respectively. The present communication deals with the quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure, and vibrational wavenumbers of EFEHC using the density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6–31G (d, p) basis set. The conformational analysis gives the energy values based on the change in the position of atoms in the EFEHC molecule. Hirshfeld surface analysis (HSs) is used to discuss the evaluation of intermolecular interactions. Molecular docking analysis of the small molecule EFEHC with macromolecule HMG–CoA protein showed that this is a good molecule and is suitable for anti-cholesterol targets.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.57111
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Reliability and Fault Analysis of a Stochastic Model of a Standby System
           with Cost Depended Repair/Replacement of Substandard Unit and Correlated
           Life Time

    • Authors: Sarita, P. Bhatia, S. Kumar, H. K. Dhingra
      Pages: 559 - 568
      Abstract: The present paper deals with the reliability and fault analysis of a stochastic model for two non-identical units, in which the first unit is kept as operative and the other sub-standard one. The sub-standard unit may be repaired or may be replaced by another sub-standard unit on its failure, depending on the cost of repairing/replacement. Failure and repair times are considered correlated using bivariate point exponential distribution. Analysis of a system is done to find various reliability measures, which gives the system's effectiveness. The conclusion about these reliability measures is carried out by graphical studies. The main emphasis is on the correlation between repair time and failure time.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.57494
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Phytochemicals from Eggplant Peel:
           Physicochemical and Antibacterial Evaluation

    • Authors: S. Sharma, A. K. Ojha, S. Chakkaravarthi, B. Bhattacharya
      Pages: 569 - 581
      Abstract: The present study aimed to prepare and characterize eggplant peel extract (EPE) with suitability for application in the food industry. EPE was prepared via ultrasound-assisted extraction method employing ethanol as an extraction solvent, then reconstituted in water. The total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity of EPE in an organic and aqueous solvent were determined. In EPE, the major anthocyanin, delphinidin-3-rutinoside, was quantified via LC-MS/MS. The agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination method were used to analyze the antibacterial activity of EPE against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity of EPE when reconstituted in water. The inhibition zones of EPE (at 100 mg/mL concentration) ranged from 15.6 to 21.6 mm, whereas MIC ranged from 2.34 to 4.68 mg/mL against all tested bacteria. The lower values of MIC for B. cereus and S. aureus indicated that EPE was more effective for gram-positive bacterial strains. The water-reconstituted EPE with significant antioxidant and antibacterial activity would have potential food industrial applications, like food packaging, nutraceuticals, and functional foods.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.55675
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Electroorganic Synthesis and Characterization of 4-Ethoxy Acetanilide
           using Platinum and Graphite as Anodes

    • Authors: S. Antonysakthi, M. S. Selvakumar, P. L. Prabha
      Pages: 583 - 591
      Abstract: Alkoxy group substituted compounds of acetanilide are found to have pharmacological and industrial importance. Synthesis of alkoxy substituted acetanilides via conventional thermal methods involves multi-step processes, formation of side products, and the poor yield of desired products. But, the vast literature studies reveal that electroorganic synthesis of alkoxy substituted acetanilide derivatives would be effectively carried out through electrochemical oxidation methods. The direct substitution of the ethoxy (alkoxy) group onto the aromatic ring, an electrophilic substitution, has not been attempted so far. This concept is taken as a preparatory attempt to find an alternative method to the tedious chemical route and to invent a direct method of introducing the ethoxy groups into the aromatic ring in a single step. A polarization study on acetanilide with ethanol as an electrolyte is carried out on platinum and graphite anodes to find out the oxidation potentials. Electrochemical ethoxylation of acetanilide at the platinum electrode is done by the Potentiostatic method using the oxidation potentials. The products are separated using preparative TLC and purified with suitable solvents. The products are characterized by UV, IR, NMR, and Mass spectra.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.54735
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A 20-Gene Expression Diagnostic Signature of Bovine Respiratory Disease in
           Cattle

    • Authors: A. Giwa, R. Giwa
      Pages: 593 - 599
      Abstract: Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is a prevalent disease in cattle rearing systems globally with significant health and economic costs. Current diagnostic methods of BRD rely on subjective visual signs and physical examination, which are suboptimal. This study, therefore, aims to find a blood-based gene expression signature for the diagnostic identification of BRD in cattle. The Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, GSE152959, was downloaded and used for analysis. The analyses performed included differential gene expression (DGE), clustering and machine learning prediction. Ninety genes were differentially expressed in BRD samples compared to controls. The GSE150706 dataset was used as the test dataset for machine learning prediction. The DEGs identified clustered the GSE150706 samples with good accuracy. For the machine learning prediction, 92 % of correctly predicted samples were obtained using twenty genes as features. Therefore, the identified 20-gene expression signature has BRD diagnostic utility in cattle. This signature could potentially be used to develop standardized and reliable diagnostic tests of Bovine Respiratory Disease in cattle. Improved diagnostics will lead to early detection and treatment, reducing the health and economic costs associated with the disease. Further validation in larger cattle cohorts is required.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.55193
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Synthesis Method of Hemp-Derived Graphene

    • Authors: M. Z. Hossain, S. Sutradhar, M. R. Karim
      Pages: 601 - 606
      Abstract: Graphene has attracted great attention to researchers nowadays for its electronic, optical, and mechanical properties. A key requirement for applications is the development of industrial-scale, reliable, and inexpensive production processes. In this work, we present a scalable approach of graphene synthesis from a biomass source such as hemp bat fiber which is called hemp bast fiber derived graphene (HGr). The structure and morphology of HGr are confirmed by performing several characterization techniques such as XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and TEM analysis. Mesoporosity of the HGr is confirmed by BET surface area and BJH pore size distribution analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.55694
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Metronidazole and 2-Methylimidazole as Corrosion Inhibitors in
           Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    • Authors: J. D. Girase, P. Kamble, R. S. Dubey
      Pages: 607 - 616
      Abstract: Microbial corrosion behavior of mild steel was studied by exposing mild steel coupons in Barr’s medium inoculated with sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulphuricans). During the investigation, a considerable loss in weight and deterioration of microstructure of mild steel coupons surface was observed. Coupons were further exposed to culture media containing different concentrations of metronidazole (MNZ) and 2- methylimidazole (MIZ) inhibitors. The corrosion behavior of mild steel was measured by weight loss, electrochemical studies, and SEM. Polarization studies indicated the mixed-type behavior of these inhibitors. MNZ and MIZ exhibited 82.23 and 78.30 % inhibition efficiencies, respectively, as revealed by polarization measurements. The results show that the inhibition efficiencies increased with inhibitor concentration. The surface analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.56113
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Total Phenolic Contents and Anti-lipooxygenase Activity of the Methanolic
           Extracts from Durio zibethinus Murr

    • Authors: S. Adeniyi, G. A. Olatunji, O. S. Oguntoye
      Pages: 617 - 623
      Abstract: Durio zibethinus parts (leaves, stem bark, and root) used to treat malaria fever, vermifuge, diabetes, jaundice, inflammation, and oxidative stress management prompted the investigation of their total phenolic contents and anti-lipooxygenase activities. The total phenolic concentration of D. zibethinus parts was determined spectrophotometrically after collection and extraction. The anti-inflammatory activity was estimated using a lipooxygenase assay. Total phenolic content measured in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) gave the highest levels of 6.88 ± 1.54, 23.32 ± 1.73, and 29.00 ± 3.43 mg GAE/g sample weight leaves stem bark, and root extracts, respectively. The plant extracts showed lower anti- lipooxygenase activity in leaves (IC50 µg/mL- 1.464) and stem bark (IC50 µg/mL- 1.203), but had significant activity in root (IC50 µg/mL- 1.400) compared to standard indomethacin (IC50 µg/mL- 1.660). The plant extract's declining order of anti- lipooxygenase activity follows the same trend with the phenolic contents, indicating that the extract's magnitude of anti- lipooxygenase activity is comparable with the quantity of phenolic compounds present in the extracts. Hence, the D. zibethinus extracts are a potential candidate for a plant-derived anti-inflammatory agent.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.56287
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Transgenic Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Plants Conferring Enhanced
           Protection Against Fungal Pathogens by Expressing Tc chitinase-I Gene

    • Authors: R. Marka, G. S. Malothu, R. S. Nanna
      Pages: 625 - 640
      Abstract: In this study, an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method followed by Tc chitiI gene for enhanced expression in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cv ICG 7827 is reported. A. tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pBinAR contains the Tc chitI gene and nptII gene as a selectable marker. The precultured leaflet (LL) explants were infected with A. tumefaciens containing Tc chitiI gene and cocultivated on SIM (MMS+10 mg/L BAP+1 mg/L NAA+2 mg/L AgNO3) for four days. After co-cultivation, these explants were transferred to selection medium (SIM+75 mg/L Kan+250 mg/L Cefotaxime). In T0 generation, 70 % of transformation efficiency was recorded. T1 generation derived from the primary transgenic (T0) events revealed a Mendelian inheritance pattern (3:1) for the Tc chit I transgene. T1 transgenic peanut plants were tested for resistance against C. arachidicola, C. personatum, and P. arachidis by infection with the microspores using detached leaf assay. The Tc chitI gene expressed in T1 transgenic plants have shown longer incubation, longer latent period, and lower infection frequencies than non-transformed (WT) plants. A significant negative correlation was recorded between chitinase activity and the frequency of infection to the C. arachidicola, C. personatum and P. arachidis pathogens.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.56542
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Synthesis and in vitro Biological Studies of Copper Complexes Derived from
           Some Novel Hetero-Organoselanylquinoline Ligands

    • Authors: P. Moohambihai, K. Nagashri
      Pages: 641 - 658
      Abstract: A set of copper(II) complexes (3a-i) comprises (16E)-N-(2-phenylquinolin-4(1H)-ylidene)-3-(phenlselanyl)pyridine-2-amine (L1-L3), (16E)-2,6-dimethyl-N-(2-phenylquinolin-4(1H)-ylidene)-5-(phenlselanyl)pyrimidine-4-amine (L4-L6), 16E)-N-(2-phenylquinolin-4(1H)-ylidene)-2-(phenylselanyl)H-imidazo[1,2-α]pyridine-3-amine (L7-L9) ligands were synthesised and characterised using spectroscopic techniques. The metal-to-ligand 1:1 stoichiometry of prepared copper complexes was confirmed by mass spectra. The Cu(II) ion produces complexes with a distorted square planar, according to UV–Vis and ESR spectroscopy studies. The antioxidant activity of these complexes has been determined. The cytotoxic potential of the complexes was also investigated in vitro. The complex 3f was found to have significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7. The DNA binding characteristics of copper(II) complexes were investigated. The findings indicate that the complexes interacted with the calf thymus (CT-DNA). In addition, the complexes were tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity against three Gram-negative bacteria, three Gram-positive bacteria, and three Fungi.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.56544
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Study of Different Acid Doped Polyaniline Nanostructures and Their
           Electrical Conductance Properties

    • Authors: R. S. Kamble, T. S. Patil, R. P. Patil
      Pages: 659 - 669
      Abstract: The different acid doped polyaniline (PANI) materials were prepared in situ using mineral acids like HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and HClO4 of different concentrations in presence of 0.2 M aniline solution and 0.25 M ammonium persulfate as oxidising agent by the chemical oxidation method. The synthesized materials were studied for their physico-chemical characterizations like XRD, IR and SEM. IR studies revealed the formation of emeraldine salt in all the acid doped PANI samples. XRD of samples exhibited the partly crystalline structure of which HClO4 doped showed good crystallinity over other samples. SEM images displayed the formation of nanorods like structural agglomerates. The effect of acid dopants on their electrical conductivity was investigated by using the four probe set up technique. It was found that HClO4 doped PANI exhibited good electrical conductivity over the other acid doped samples whereas the lowest electrical conductivity was recorded for HNO3 doped PANI samples. The electrical conductivity of 1 M HClO4 doped PANI was the highest i.e. 9.1 S cm-1 among all PANI samples.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.56647
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • GC-MS, Phytochemical Analysis and In Silico Approaches of a Medicinal
           Plant Acalypha indica

    • Authors: P. Rajkumar, S. Sundari , S. Selvaraj , A. Natarajan , R. Suganya, R. Jayaprakash , K. Kasthuri , S. Kumaresan
      Pages: 671 - 684
      Abstract: The goal of this study is to look into the preliminary phytochemical and GC-MS analyses of a methanol extract of the leaves of Acalypha indica. Alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic substances are found in leaf extract after phytochemical analysis. A. indica is a plant that grows in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It has medicinal characteristics and is used as a diuretic, anthelmintic, and respiratory disorders like bronchitis, asthma, and pneumonia. The present work is designed to investigate GC-MS. Thirty compounds are found in the leaf extract. The structure-based biological activities study supported the Pass online database findings from the current study support that the use of this plant compound responsible for the anticancer activity is based on structure-based drug development. Based on in-silico results, it was shown that the interactions of hydrogen bonds, binding affinity with JAK2 kinase inhibitors, tumor suppressor proteins pRB Retinoblastoma protein, and COX-2 target proteins were compared with known values. It can be considered an increase in the possibility of conniving potential anticancer drugs as an anti-inflammatory agent.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.56648
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Microglia, the Sentinel of Brain in the Evolution of Nervous System from
           Invertebrate to Vertebrate: A Short Review

    • Authors: S. Sardar, N. Saha, A. Ghosh
      Pages: 685 - 697
      Abstract: The presence of microglial cells as resident macrophage population in the Central Nervous System (CNS) is well documented from the study of repairing of lesions in CNS that varies widely throughout the animal kingdom. The existence of neuroglia cells similar to vertebrate microglia and small mobile phagocytes and hemocytes were documented from ganglia of some invertebrate animal models like leech (H. medicinalis), insects (P. americana and D. melanogaster) and mollusca (M. edulis). Neuronal replacement and migration of immunocompetent cells (macrophage, microglia, ependymal cells etc.) after surgical lesions in CNS of non-mammals (fishes, reptiles and aves) are much restricted to specific neurogenic niches associated to the neural regeneration and migration of cells in invertebrates. Microglial presence is largely restricted in the optic tract of fish and amphibian ganglionic cells because they have a surprising capacity to regenerate their neurons after lesions. Hence the CNS of both invertebrates and vertebrates contain microglia like mononuclear phagocytes, ensheathing glia and reticular glia, which indicate about the evolutionary conserved innate immune response to maintain CNS development and health. But the presence and gradual changes in the structure and function of microglia and neuron-microglia relationship in the CNS along the phylogeny need to be focused thoroughly.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v14i2.56222
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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