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Journal of Scientific Research
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2070-0237 - ISSN (Online) 2070-0245
Published by Bangladesh Journals Online Homepage  [87 journals]
  • Simulation of Contaminants Transport from a Dumpsite into Shallow Aquifer
           of the Upper Deltaic Plain Deposits, Western Niger Delta

    • Authors: K. E. Aweto, G. Ovwamuedo
      Pages: 301 - 312
      Abstract: Dumpsites are a copious point source of groundwater pollution in the Niger Delta. The objective of this study seeks to assess contaminants transported from a dumpsite around Ekpan into groundwater. Dumpsite leachate and groundwater samples were collected for analysis, and the Modular 3D Solute Transport Model (MT3D) was used to evaluate the impact of leachate on the quality and flow direction of groundwater. The chemical analyses of leachate samples showed significant potential to contaminate groundwater. The pH of greater than 7 and BOD5/COD ratio of less than 0.1 indicated that the dumpsite is old with stabilized leachate. Groundwater models showed that the dumpsite has the propensity for Na and TDS increasing to 1500 and 3700 mg/L respectively after 10 years. The contaminants infiltrate into successive layers beneath the dumpsite and spread laterally in the direction of groundwater flow (southwestern direction). This study revealed that groundwater near the dumpsite did show some significant contamination. A pattern of decreasing concentration of contaminants with distance from the dumpsite was observed due to natural attenuation.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.61307
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Ordering Fuzzy Numbers with Weighted Mean Values and Their Application to
           Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Problem

    • Authors: S. Prasad, A. Sinha, S. Sinha
      Pages: 313 - 333
      Abstract: The most important aspect of fuzzy numbers is their ordering, which ensures a wide range of their applications in professional life and many academic applied models like linguistic decision-making and fuzzy risk analysis. Even though many researchers have presented various methods, there is still a lot of interest and scope for studies to address the weakness of methods. This paper proposes an approach for ordering generalized fuzzy numbers using weighted mean values (centroid values) of the left and the right fuzziness regions and exponential values of the altitude of the fuzzy number. The proposed method can order two or more fuzzy numbers simultaneously, irrespective of their linear or non-linear membership functions. Furthermore, the proposed method consistently orders the symmetrical fuzzy numbers, the partnered image of the fuzzy number, and the fuzzy numbers that depict the compensation of areas. The advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated through numerical examples with various types of fuzzy numbers and comparisons with the existing techniques published in the literature. Finally, the proposed method is effectively applied to solve a linguistic multi-criteria decision-making problem related to the stock market.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.61319
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Spatial and Temporal Variability of PM2.5, PM10 and BC Aerosols over
           Tropical Megacity Bengaluru, India

    • Authors: M. Shivkumar, T. S. Pranesha , K. R. Sudhindra , D. M. Chate, G. Beig
      Pages: 335 - 349
      Abstract: PM2.5, PM10 mass levels at six and BC levels at one station were monitored at the tropical megacity, Bengaluru, India, for the year 2019. The annual average levels of PM2.5, PM10 and BC were 31, 73 and 2.72 µg/m3 respectively. PM2.5 levels were within the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standard (INAAQS) value of 40 µg/m3 whereas that of PM10 exceeded INAAQS level of 60 µg/m3 for the year 2019 for all six stations. The season-wise diurnal variability of PM and BC shows bimodal peaks, first one in the morning and the second one in the late evening hours in all the stations. These peaks correspond to rush traffic hours and lower PBL height. The correlation analysis of PM and BC with meteorological parameters is presented. The data are also analysed for the Deepavali festival. The PM2.5 levels in festival have doubled, PM10 levels increased by more than 50 %, while BC showed marginal increase. Further, the night-time levels of PM and BC were higher than the daytime during the festival. The health risk assessment using Air Q+ for the city of Bengaluru for 2019 shows highest PM exposure risk to ischemic heart disease.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.61403
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Five-Dimensional Cosmological Model with One Dimensional Cosmic String
           Coupled with Zero Mass Scalar Field in Lyra Manifold

    • Authors: V. G. Mete, V. Deshmukh
      Pages: 351 - 359
      Abstract: A five-dimensional Bianchi type-III string cosmological model is studied with a one-dimensional cosmic string in the presence of zero mass scalar field in the context of the Lyra manifold. Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations are obtained by assuming quadratic equation of state (EoS) of the form p = kρ2 + ρ, where k is a constant and strictly k > 0 . The physical and geometrical aspects of the investigated model are analyzed in detail.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.61442
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Magnetocaloric and Magneto-transport Properties in Polycrystalline
           Ni56Mn20Ga24 Heusler Alloy

    • Authors: D. Pal
      Pages: 361 - 370
      Abstract: Polycrystalline ingots of Ni-rich Ni56Mn20Ga24 alloy were prepared by conventional arc melting procedure. The magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of the alloy were investigated within a temperature range from 4.2-300 K and up to a magnetic field of 8 T. A large magnetocaloric effect (∆SM ~ 29 J/Kg K) was observed in the alloy in the vicinity of magneto-structural transition temperature at a change of 5 T magnetic field. From magnetic measurements, it was observed that the martensite to austenite transition was accompanied by higher to lower magnetization in higher magnetic fields. The large entropy change was explained by considering the first-order magneto-structural transition in this alloy. A high negative magnetoresistance (⁓7 %) associated with magnetic field induced first order magneto-structural transition was also observed near room temperature due to a change of 8 T magnetic field for this alloy.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.61584
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Based Composite Reinforced with Kenaf,
           Grewia Serrulatta, Human Hair Fibers

    • Authors: P. Venugopal, R. Thanigaivelan
      Pages: 371 - 381
      Abstract: Composite products (polymer based) finds application in industries such as automobiles, space, home appliances, the navy, and defense. This paper focused on preparing a composite specimen with natural fibers such as kenaf, grewiaserrulatta (grewia), and human hair to replace synthetic fiber. Epoxy resin BA LY 556 (Bisphenol-A) is considered a matrix material. Four specimens are prepared with 195 g of matrix and 105 g of fibers in the weight fraction method. Among 105 g fibers, the grewia fiber of 15 g is fixed constant, and the remaining 90 g of fibers, namely kenaf and human hair, are distributed as 0 g, 22.5 g, 67.5 g, and 90 g, respectively. As per ASTM standards, the mechanical property investigation was conducted, namely tensile, flexural, and impact tests. The result shows that the highest mechanical strength, i.e., tensile, flexural, and impact, are obtained in specimen A which is composed of 195 g matrix, 90 g kenaf, and 15 g grewia. Also, specimen B shows the highest strength in flexural properties, composed of 195 g matrix, 15 g human hair, and 90 g grewia. Additionally, microscopic analyses are conducted to verify the orientation and substrate bonding of fibers in the composites.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.61596
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Simulation of Nanofluid Flow in Porous Square-Shaped Enclosures

    • Authors: M. J. H. Munshi, M. S. Islam, M. R. R. Khandaker, M. S. Hossain
      Pages: 383 - 399
      Abstract: Augmentation of heat transfer can be in so many ways, heat transfer of a nanofluid in a porous is one of the most recent methodologies. In this analysis, the physical properties of water as the base fluid and copper as the nanoparticles exercise. The Finite element method is applied to obtain numerical solutions. The effects of the Darcy number, Richardson number and solid volume fraction of nanofluids on the streamlines, isotherms, dimensionless temperature, velocity profiles, and average Nusselt numbers and average fluid temperature examined graphically. It has found that both the Richardson number and solid volume fraction have a noteworthy influence on streamlines and isotherms. Darcy number has a good control parameter for heat transfer in fluid flow through a porous medium in the enclosure. A heat transfer correlation of the average Nusselt number for various Darcy numbers and solid volume fraction presented here. Finally, for the validation of the existing work, the current results are compared with the published results, and a favorable agreement attained. Besides this, heat transfer in the square enclosure remains better than for the other enclosures with the wavy walls or curved walls.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.61667
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Hybrid Model based on ANFIS with Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix for
           Dementia Prediction

    • Authors: H. Kour, R. Sharma, J. Manhas, V. Sharma
      Pages: 401 - 420
      Abstract: Dementia is a brain condition in which cognitive abilities decline more quickly than expected from the usual consequences of biological aging. It impacts memory and a person's physical and mental health. Early stages of dementia are challenging to anticipate, and there is presently no treatment for this condition. Therefore, a precise and prompt diagnosis of dementia is strongly advised in order to give the patient the best possible treatment. This study provides a hybrid model for the automatic diagnosis of dementia from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs). The proposed model consists of two stages: the first step implements gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) to extract texture features from imaging data, and the second step applies an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for the prediction of dementia from these extracted texture features. The proposed framework has been evaluated on the benchmark Dementia dataset comprising 5154 2D T1w MRI scans. In order to assess the model's performance, the proposed model is also compared with a neural network, fuzzy logic, and other machine learning (ML) techniques using the same dataset. The accuracy of the proposed model is recorded as 82.5%, which is greater than that attained by existing ML methods.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.61672
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Classification of Image-Based Wheat Leaf Diseases using Deep Learning
           Approach: A Survey

    • Authors: T. Sharma, G. K. Sethi
      Pages: 421 - 443
      Abstract: This paper focuses on detecting leaf diseases in wheat plants from the beginning to the end of the plant's life cycle. It highlights the best techniques for detecting various types of wheat leaf diseases and emphasizes the use of computer vision, image processing, and machine learning. The main focus is on classifying these diseases through deep convolutional neural networks, a popular image recognition and classification approach. The paper reviews various techniques for classifying image-based wheat leaf diseases, including spot blotch, stripe rust, brown rust, and powdery mildew. The paper aims to summarize the state-of-the-art techniques for detecting wheat leaf diseases.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.61680
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Solution of Inhomogeneous Linear Fractional Differential Equations
           Involving Jumarie Fractional Derivative

    • Authors: A. K. Tyagi, J. Chandel
      Pages: 445 - 462
      Abstract: This paper presents a method for solving inhomogeneous linear sequential fractional differential equations with constant coefficients (ILSFDE) involving Jumarie fractional derivatives in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions. For this purpose, the fundamental properties of the Jumarie derivative and Mittag-Leffler functions are given. After this, the successive jumarie fractional derivatives of Mittag-Leffler functions, fractional cosine, and sine functions are obtained. Further, we determined the particular integrals of these functions and then found the complete solutions of ILSFDE. in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions, fractional cosine, and sine functions. We have demonstrated this developed method with a few examples of ILSFDE. This method is similar to the method for finding the complete solutions of classical differential equations with constant coefficients.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.62040
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Optimal Efficiency Control of Wind Mill Induction Generator Using Loss
           Minimization Technique

    • Authors: A. A. M. Faizal, R. S. Rajam
      Pages: 463 - 472
      Abstract: Improvement of the operating efficiency of generators used in large wind power generation systems becomes important since such a large machine's power loss is not negligible. In the conventional method integral controller is used to reduce the power loss by up to 25 % at low wind speeds. The proposed PID controller method is based on flux level reduction, where the flux level is computed from the machine model for the optimum d-axis current of the generator. For the vector-controlled induction generator, the d-axis current controls the excitation level to minimize generator loss. In contrast, the q-axis current controls the generator torque, by which the speed of the induction generator is controlled according to the variation of the wind speed in order to produce the maximum output power, thereby improve the efficiency of the induction generator.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.62111
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • A First-Principles Study of Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties
           of Be0.75Zn0.25S Semiconducting Alloy

    • Authors: U. Paliwal
      Pages: 473 - 479
      Abstract: In this work, we report the theoretical study of structural, electronic, and optical properties of Be0.75Zn0.25S semiconducting ternary alloy using the first-principles density functional theory approach. The calculations are performed using the Plane Wave Self Consistent Field (PWSCF) method implemented in the QUANTUM ESPRESSO code. The two approaches are used to calculate the properties of semiconducting alloy: the first is local density approximation, and the other is generalized gradient approximation in the framework of the density functional theory. Among structural properties, the ground state equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus, elastic constants, shear modulus, and Poisson ratio are computed for Be0.75Zn0.25S semiconducting ternary alloy. The electronic band structure is calculated to characterize the electronic properties, and bandgaps and electronic charge transfer between the cation and anion are evaluated. The optical nature of alloy is characterized by computing the static dielectric constant and refractive index. The computed parameters are compared with the available theoretical calculations due to the absence of experimental work on this system.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.62125
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Greener Protocol for the Synthesis of Carbamates

    • Authors: A. Satheesh, H. Usha , D. S. Priya, A. V. L. N. H. Hariharan, M. V. V. Ramanjaneyulu
      Pages: 481 - 488
      Abstract: An efficient and environmentally friendly protocol has been developed for synthesizing carbamates. Carbamate derivatives are frequently used as pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides), as starting materials in producing paints and polyurethanes, and as protecting groups of amines in organic synthesis. It is a simple and solvent-free methodology to prepare primary carbamates in high yield and purity from compounds sodium cyanate, Phenol/alcohol, and TCA (Trichloro acetic acid). We reported the application of TCA as a mild, convenient and effective reagent for this transformation.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.60649
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Theoretical Explorations of Structural, Electronic, and Spectroscopic
           Properties of a Series of Ruthenium Schiff-Base Complexes

    • Authors: C. G. Sarkar
      Pages: 489 - 508
      Abstract: The present work concentrates on theoretical investigations of the substituent effects on the reactivity, electronic properties, and UV-vis spectra of a series of ruthenium-Schiff base complexes using density functional theory (DFT). Four complexes are studied herein, where N-(2¢-hydroxyphenyl)benzaldimine is the Schiff base differing in the para-substituent (R) on the benzaldehyde fragment (R = CH3, H, Cl, CF3). B3LYP/SDD-6-31G(d,p) level of theory has been used for computational studies (Gaussian 16). All the structures have been optimized, and the compositions of the frontier molecular orbitals have been analyzed. The energies of HOMO and LUMO and the global indices parameters have been calculated, which reveals that [Ru(PPh3)2(CO)(L-CF3)] is the most reactive complex and [Ru(PPh3)2(CO)(L-Cl)] the least. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has been performed to study the electronic absorption parameters. The effect of solvent polarity upon absorption spectra has also been observed. It is found that the lowest energy absorptions in all the complexes show a blue shift with the increase in polarity of the solvent. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of the complexes has been conducted to examine the charge distribution on the donor and the acceptor atoms along with their variation with change in the para-substituent.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.61478
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Synthesis, Characterization of Various Substituted

    • Authors: M. B. Parmar, J. H. Pandya, M. K. Vara
      Pages: 509 - 518
      Abstract: A highly efficient, convergent approach to the synthesis of various substituted (E)-2-(2-butyl-5-chloro-4-((phenylimino)methyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(4-(3-oxomorpholino)phenyl) acetamide analogues is described. Directed vilsmeyer formylation of methyl pentanimidate with glycine provides the key intermediate 2-butyl-5-chloro-1H-imidazole-4- carbaldehyde (INT-01). BCFI (INT-01) is a major active metabolite and the most significant intermediate of Losartan. Therefore, BCFI moiety has scope for good application in medicine. Morpholin-3-one derivative reacts with chloroacetyl chloride in presence of acetonitrile provides 2-chloro-N-(4-(3-oxomorpholino)phenyl)acetamide (INT-02). Reflux INT-01 with INT-02 in presence of acetonitrile and potassium carbonate allowed the preparation of the 2-(2-butyl-5-chloro-4-formyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(4-(3-oxomorpholino) phenyl)acetamide with good yield. The reaction of 2-(2–butyl -5-chloro-4-formyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(4-(3-oxomorpholino)phenyl)acetamide with substituted anilines in methanol and glacial acetic acid at room temperature gives a key intermediate for the synthesis of the M2-29V analogs with good yield. Novel analogs were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR Mass Spectroscopy, and elemental analyses. Spectroscopic identification of intermediates and final products taken and favors the synthesis of M2-2901 to M2-2912.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.61736
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Study of Corrosion Inhibitory Effects of Alcoholic Extracts of Tinospora
           Cordifolia on Metal Tin in Acidic Media HCl with and without Additive

    • Authors: V. Mandawara, A. Chaturvedi
      Pages: 519 - 529
      Abstract: The corrosion inhibitory efficiency of Tinospora Cordifolia stem and leaf extract in different concentrations of HCl acid (0.5, 1, 2, and 3N) was examined using weight loss and thermometric methods in the absence and presence of an additive (KCl). According to the findings of this investigation, inhibition efficiency (ɳ%) rises with increasing inhibitor concentration as well as acid strength, and additional improvement in inhibition efficiency was found with the addition of additives (KCl) owing to a synergistic effect. According to the findings, stem extract is a better corrosion inhibitor than leaf extract. The maximum inhibition efficiency was observed for stem and leaf extracts (95.76 and 92.47 %) at their maximum concentrations (0.8 %) in the absence of an additive in the maximum strength of HCl acid (3N), while it was observed at 98.58 and 95.29 % in the presence of additive (3N KCl) of maximum strength.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.61760
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • A Computational Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Certain Random
           Copolyesters Containing Bis(arylidene) Cycloalkanone Moiety in the Main

    • Authors: B. Kiruba, S. Chidambaravinayagam
      Pages: 531 - 546
      Abstract: A series of five random copolyesters was synthesized by polycondensation of different arylidene diols with curcumin as a common diol and a common diacid chloride in the ratio of 1:1:2, respectively. The five arylidene diols were synthesized by an acid-catalyzed Claisen condensation reaction. The repeating units present in these five random copolyesters and also the backbone was identified by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The curcumin based copolyester exhibited good antioxidant activity, confirmed by various antioxidant activity determinations. Structural analysis such as HOMO and LUMO energies and the HOMO-LUMO energies gap of the molecule has been calculated using the B3LYP/6-311+G (d, p) level of theory. The antioxidant property of the molecule can be explained by the hydrogen atom transfer by theoretical study.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.62038
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Determination of Phytochemicals, Minerals, and Evaluation of Antioxidant,
           Antidiabetic Activities of Young Fronds of Diplazium esculentum: A
           Vegetable of Tripura, India

    • Authors: K. Manna, B. Debnath, A. M. A. Ikbal, K. Paul, A. Rajkhowa, R. Majumder
      Pages: 547 - 557
      Abstract: Diplazium esculentum belongs to the family Athyriaceae, an edible fern rich in micronutrients, beta-carotene, folic acid, and minerals like calcium, iron, and phosphorus. The present study aims to determine secondary metabolites and minerals content and evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of young fronds of Diplazium esculentum. The plant extract was prepared by the Soxhlet apparatus method. Total alkaloids and total tannin content were determined by the titrimetric method. Folin and Ciocalteu's colorimetric method used gallic acid as a standard drug to determine total phenols. The antioxidant activity of plant extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. α-amylase inhibition assay was performed for evaluation of the antidiabetic activity of plant extract. Fronds of Diplazium esculentum contain a significant number of total alkaloids (145.54±1.49), phenols (174.2±0.95), and tannins (263.96±1.32) mg/g of dry extract. Fronds of Diplazium esculentum also contain a significant amount of minerals. Diplazium esculentum shows significant antioxidant activity compared to the standard drug ascorbic acid and antidiabetic activity compared to the standard drug metformin. Based on these findings, young fronds of Diplazium esculentum can be recommended as a good source of phytochemicals and minerals. It also shows significant antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.62193
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Antibiogram and MDR Pattern of the Bacterial Isolates from German
           Cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.) at RMCH, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    • Authors: M. S. Akter, M. S. Islam, M. K. Mohanta, S. Parvin
      Pages: 559 - 570
      Abstract: German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L. are the most dangerous pests in hospital environments which cause diseases like food poisoning, dysentery, and diarrhea. Antibiogram and multidrug resistance (MDR) patterns of the bacterial isolates from the cockroaches inhabiting three Wards of Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh, were determined. A total of 52 bacterial isolates, 26 from the cuticle and 26 from the gut, comprising 20 (38.5 %) from the Neuromedicine ward, 18 (34.6 %) from the Orthopaedic ward, and 14 (26.9 %) from the Surgery ward, were used for biochemical assays and diagnostic characteristics, where seven Gram-negative rod species were identified. E. coli (n=8 or 40 %), Klebsiella spp. (n=5 or 28 %) and Klebsiella spp. (5 or 35 %) constituted the most dominant bacteria from the three wards respectively. Antibiogram of the bacterial isolates against 18 commonly used antibiotics revealed that Serratia, Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Pseudomonas were resistant to Ceftazidime, whereas Salmonella, Enterobacter, and Proteus were sensitive to the drug. Results of the present study suggest that the German cockroaches might serve as reservoirs for pathogenic and MDR bacteria, which in turn could be responsible for the spread of common food-borne diseases in hospital patients, their attendants, and health professionals.
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3329/jsr.v15i2.62557
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
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