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Tanzania Journal of Science
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0856-1761
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [260 journals]
  • Thermal Performance of a Mechanical Thermostat for Charging an Energy
           Storage System

    • Authors: Swaleh Tusiime, Karidewa Nyeinga, Denis Okello, Ole J. Nydal
      Pages: 284 - 297
      Abstract: Thermal energy storage (TES) systems enhance the use of solar energy for cooking by matching the energy demand to its supply. Useful energy is extracted from TES systems that are thermally stratified and this is enhanced when charged at an averagely constant-temperature. This paper presents an experimental analysis of a mechanical-thermostat used to control the charging of an oil based TES system. The thermostat consisted of a slider-valve, an expansion-system acting both as a thermal-sensor and actuator, and an adjusting-knob for setting the charging temperature. Oil from a cold-oil reservoir flows by gravity into a heating-chamber when a manual valve is opened. In the heating-chamber, the oil is heated causing the oil to expand triggering the opening of the slider-valve at a preset temperature. This allows the hot-oil to flow into the TES system at the set temperature. The thermostat was demonstrated for charging a TES system at preset temperatures of 116 °C, 150 °C, 200 °C and 230 °C. The volume of hot-oil delivered into a TES tank decreased with increasing charging temperature. The observed temperature variations were minimized by reducing the oil flow-rate using a valve hence achieving a fairly stable charging temperature.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • The Presence of Unusual Foramina in the Femoral Intercondylar and
           Trochanteric Fossae on Skeletonized Individuals from Tanzania

    • Authors: Wilson Jilala, David Ngassapa, Ali Hamad
      Pages: 298 - 310
      Abstract: According to the standard nomenclature, skeletal land marks are all identified by their given names in the world of human skeletal anatomy. But it is also clear that the discovery of new anatomical features continues because human beings have so many anatomical variations caused by genetics, functions, geographical adaptations, and diseases; they are all described and given names. Therefore, an anatomical feature that is rare and undescribed is certainly a discovery and it deserves to be recorded. The discovery of anatomical features on the epiphyseial ends of the femur reported here adds two new names, namely the intercondylar fossa foramen and the trochanteric fossa foramen in that long list of human skeletal anatomical structures. The intercondylar fossa foramen is an outlet found in the intercondylar fossa of the distal femur. It passes through the diaphysis of the femur and emerges in the trochanteric fossa of the femoral neck;  and vice versa is the trochanteric fossa foramen. This feature was first observed on one skeletonized archaeological individual and  later on five cadaveric remains. There seems to be a presence of this anatomical variation within the Tanzanian population. Only a small percentage of people have this unusual anatomical feature of the intercondylar fossa foramen, which might be a developmental ossification failure or a particular genetic-based trait. These features were assessed in the laboratory of the Anatomy Department at the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) using a Dino-lite digital microscope and X-ray images.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Investigation of Antidiabetic Activities of Cu(II) Complex of Anacardium
           occidentale Leaves Crude Extract

    • Authors: Mary Adelaide Oladipo, Folasade Omobolanle Ajao, Adewusi John Adepoju, Kayode Taiwo Ishola, Afolabi Deborah Omowumi
      Pages: 311 - 321
      Abstract: Many synthetic chemical drugs have been widely used for the treatment of diabetes. However, many of these drugs are not locally available, are less effective, and are unaffordable for many diabetic patients in developing and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, in order to search for a locally available, effective, and cost-effective antidiabetic agent, this study synthesized the Cu(II) complex of crude leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale and investigated its antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced albino rats. The leaf crude extract and its metal complex were characterized using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Experimental diabetic animals were induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a single dose of 140 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.), and animals with fasting blood glucose levels (BGL) > 200 mg/dl were considered diabetic. Metformin was used as a standard drug. Fasting blood glucose level (BGL) and body weight were examined in assessing the antidiabetic activities of the crude extract and its complex in the rats. One-way ANOVA was used to determine the antidiabetic activity at a statistical significance level of p < 0.05. The hypsochromic shifts of C=O and O-H bands in the Cu(II) complex and the high concentration of the metal ion in the metal complex established the coordination of the crude extract with the metal ion. A more significant reduction in the blood glucose level and increase in body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats was observed when treated with the leaves crude extract and its Cu(II) complex than when treated with the standard drug metformin. It can be concluded that the Cu(II) complex of Anacardium occidentale leaf extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg wt is more effective without abnormal weight gain and could be considered as a potential antidiabetic drug to replace some of the less effective and expensive conventional antidiabetic drugs.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i2.
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Identifying Factors Contributing to Under-Five Mortality in Nigeria

    • Authors: Olateju Alao Bamigbala, Ayodeji Oluwatobi Ojetunde
      Pages: 322 - 331
      Abstract: The under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) is the probability that a child born in a specified year will die before turning 5 years of age. U5MR is still high in Nigeria. Therefore, this study aimed to identify factors contributing to under-5 mortality in Nigeria. The data used in this study were from the 2018 NDHS, encompassing 2013–2018. The methods of analysis used for this study were frequency, percentage, and Zero Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB) regression. Data were analyzed using R programming v.4.1.2 and p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The result showed 35.4% under-5 mortality out of the 33,924 infant mortality sample data that were collected. The findings revealed maternal age, regions (North East and North West), maternal education (no education), wealth index (poorest households), and size of child at birth (very small birth size) as significant factors associated with under-5 mortality in Nigeria. The results also showed that the odds of under-5 mortality increase as the age of the mother increases. Therefore, the Nigerian government should understand that poverty is not just an economic problem but also a significant factor in health; as a result, the battle against poverty needs to receive the necessary attention.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • The Estimation of Heavy Tails in Non-linear Models

    • Authors: Josephine N. Onyeka-Ubaka, Olaide Abass
      Pages: 332 - 343
      Abstract: A generalized student t distribution technique based on estimation of bilinear generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (BL-GARCH) model is introduced. The paper investigates from empirical perspective, aspects of the model related to the economic and financial risk management and its impacts on volatility forecasting. The purposive sampling technique was applied to select four banks for the study, namely First Bank of Nigeria (FBN), Guaranty Trust Bank (GTB), United Bank for Africa (UBA) and Zenith Bank (ZEB). The four banks are selected, because their daily stock prices are considered to be more susceptible to volatility than those of other banks within the sampled period (January 2007–May 2022). The data collected were analyzed using MATLAB R2008b Software. The results show that the newly introduced generalized student t distribution is the most general of all the useful distributions applied in the BL-GARCH model parameter estimation. It serves as a general distribution for obtaining empirical characteristics such as volatility clustering, leptokurtosis and leverage effects between returns and conditional variances as well as capturing heavier and lighter tails in high frequency financial time series data.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Lipophilic Wood Extractives’ Contamination of Water Bodies in the
           Vicinity of Pulp and Paper Mill, Southern Tanzania

    • Authors: Shija Charles , Kessy F. Kilulya, Julius Mbuna
      Pages: 344 - 355
      Abstract: This paper reports on the levels of fatty acids and selected sterols in effluents and nearby water bodies at Mufindi Paper Mill (MPM), southern Tanzania. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) was used for sample extraction, and analysis was performed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). Fatty acids ranging from C11:0 to C25:0 were detected, with saturated fatty acids (SFA) being more abundant than unsaturated fatty acids (USFA). As for selected sterols, β-sitosterol and stigmastanol were more abundant than campesterol. The mean levels of SFA, USFA, β-sitosterol, stigmastanol, and campesterol (µg/L) were 538.28, 125.94, 1065.44, 1178.01, and 66.76, respectively, for untreated effluents, and 338.10, 139.03, 933.40, 153.92 and 57.82, respectively, for treated effluents. It was further established that the mean levels of SFA, USFA, β-sitosterol, stigmastanol, and campesterol (µg/L) were 321.29, 57.35, 58.37, 50.76, and 49.08, respectively, for effluents at the discharge point and 20.58, 17.72, 8.25, 10.55, and 6.05, respectively, at receiving water. Water bodies are therefore contaminated with lipophilic wood extractives since the mean concentration levels of USFA and sterols were above the lowest concentrations suspected to adversely affect fish (toxic limits (µg/L): USFA (2-8) and sterols (³10)).
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Influence of Urban Land Use Land Cover Changes on Land Surface Temperature
           in Dar es Salaam Metropolitan City, Tanzania: The Use of Geospatial

    • Authors: Olipa Simon, Nestory Yamungu, James Lyimo
      Pages: 356 - 368
      Abstract: Land use land cover (LULC) changes affect the planet's energy balance and region's climate. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a vital indicator of this change. Studies in Dar es Salaam Metropolitan City have investigated LST and its relationships with building heights and densities, urban heat islands, spectral indices, and urban morphological determinants. The present study used cross-sectional profiles, chord diagrams, and simple linear regression models to examine the influence of LULC changes on the LST in Dar es Salaam Metropolitan City (DMC). LST was extracted from Landsat 5 TM and 8 OLI/TIRS images for 1995, 2009, and 2017. LULC was identified via the supervised random forest classification algorithm. Between 1995 and 2017, built-up areas rose by 8%, vegetation fell 7%, and bare soil 3%. As a result, the average LST rose by 3 °C. Built-up areas had the highest temperatures (24–26.5 °C), followed by bare soil (22–25.5 °C). The lowest temperatures (21–25 °C) were on vegetation and water. Built-up area positively correlated with LST, while vegetation, water bodies, and bare soil negatively correlated. The study results can assist local authorities in enforcing urban planning regulations, raising public awareness, and guiding policymakers in creating sustainable planning and management strategies for the future. Keywords:     Dar es Salaam, Land use land cover, simple linear regression model, land surface temperature, chord diagrams
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Prevalence and Burden of Gastrointestinal Parasites among University
           Students at Dar es Salaam University College of Education, Tanzania

    • Authors: Magreth Fulgence, Ummul-Khair Mustafa, Jared S. Bakuza
      Pages: 369 - 378
      Abstract: Gastrointestinal parasites cause major health problems in many tropical and sub-tropical countries including Tanzania. However, information on the status of these infections is often scanty, especially among young adults including students in higher learning institutions.  During December 2020 to June 2021, a total of 272 faecal samples from university students at Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) were examined for parasites using the Kato Katz technique and analysed for infection levels based on standard guidelines. Detected parasites were identified as Schistosoma mansoni (8.1%), hookworms (1.5%), Trichuris trichiura (0.4%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (0.4%), with an overall prevalence of 10.4%. S. mansoni had the highest mean intensity of 792 eggs per gram (epg) of faeces, while H.  diminuta was the least intense parasite (120 epg). While infection levels of most parasites were generally low, S. mansoni intensity was categorized as heavy based on standard criteria.  The findings indicated the public importance of parasitic infections among young adults who are often excluded from most intervention programmes. Thus, further studies to elucidate the magnitude of the infections among young adults in higher learning institutions in Tanzania is warranted alongside regular prescriptions of anthelminthics and sanitation and hygiene education to reduce parasite transmissions.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i2.
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Feeding Habits and Diet Composition of the African Sacred Ibis in Selected
           Water-Logged Sites in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    • Authors: Jared S. Bakuza, Joyce Ndinadyo
      Pages: 379 - 390
      Abstract: The African Sacred Ibises Threskiornis aethiopicus are generalist birds that feed on many invertebrates and some vertebrates. However, the diet composition of local T. aethiopicus populations in wetland areas in Dar es Salaam Tanzania was unknown. Sacred Ibises from eight water-logged areas in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania were studied to determine their feeding habits and diet composition using direct observations and molecular analysis of faecal samples. Snails species identified from sites frequented by T. aethiopicus included Lymnaea natalensis (61.62%), Melanoides tuberculatus (20.64%), Bulinus sp. (17.66%) and Anisus sp. (0.08%), while molecular analysis of the birds’ diet revealed presence of mostly non-native invasive molluscs (Physa acuta, Planorbella trivolvis and Radix natalensis), fungus (Candida parapsilosis) and protozoan ciliate (Vorticella striata). There was no significant association between bird and snail abundance (r = 0.2141, p > 0.05, ns) although snail diversity showed strong negative relationship (r = -0.7904, p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that the African Sacred Ibises do not preferentially feed on snails, but do so as part of their broader diet. The results confirm that the African Sacred Ibis is a generalist feeder and therefore, ecological impacts of its feeding strategies particularly on invasive snails should be further investigated. Keywords:    African Sacred Ibis, feeding, diet, molluscs, generalist
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Leptospira Serovars Circulating Among Human, Cattle and Goats with
           Associated Risk Factors in Ngara and Kibondo Districts, North-Western

    • Authors: Jestina V. Katandukila, Ackrey G. Sissa, Ginethon G. Mhaphi, Yeremia J. Chuhila, Fred D Chibwana
      Pages: 391 - 401
      Abstract: Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonotic disease, prominent in north-western Tanzania where interactions among humans, livestock and wildlife is high. This study therefore, assessed Leptospira seroprevalence and associated risk factors by screening Leptospira serovars from blood sera of cattle, goats and humans in Ngara and Kibondo Districts using Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Blood sera were positive for seven Leptospira serovars in which Sokoine, Sejroe and Grippotyhposa had higher seropositivity of ≥ 20.9%, whereas Leptospira serovars Kenya, Pomona, Lora, and Bataviae had seropositivity of < 10%. Variation of seropositivity and seroprevalence between Ngara and Kibondo Districts was insignificant (p = 0.0718) but varied significantly between humans, goats and cattle (p = 0.0183). Leptospira serovars Sejroe and Grippotyphosa were present in humans, goats and cattle. Sokoine, Pomona and Bataviae were co-positive in humans and goats, while serovars Kenya and Lora were co-positive in humans and cattle, indicating the possibility of dualistic transmission of Leptospira serovars in the ecosystem. Suggested risk factors associated with acquiring Leptospira bacteria were drinking contaminated water, feeding contaminated food and farming in contaminated soils. Prevalence of Leptospira in the current study alerts for health and economic risks in north-western Tanzania, which requires intensive education programs on leptospirosis transmission and avoidance.  
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Efficacy of the Botanical Extracts, Azadirachta indica (Sapindales:
           Meliaceae) and Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) in the Control of
           Cabbage Insect Pests in Iringa District, Tanzania

    • Authors: Levocatus M. Rwegoshora, Vendeline E. Tairo, Moses I. Olotu
      Pages: 402 - 412
      Abstract: Although botanical extracts have been widely studied globally, the efficacy of neem and Mexican marigold against cabbage insect pests is scanty. Field experiments were conducted at Kalenga and Mgera in 2022 using a randomized complete block design. Four treatments (neem, Mexican marigold, a mixture of the two extracts and untreated) were replicated three times. In Kalenga, damage levels for treated plots varied significantly from 3.33 to 9.20% and 5.0 to 18.33%, while for untreated plots varied from 37.70 to 45.85% during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively (F(3, 499) = 111.71, p < 0.05). A similar trend was recorded in Mgera, the damage levels varied significantly between treated (4.44–15.83%) and untreated plots (34.40–46.60%) (F(3, 449) = 94.23, p < 0.05). Treated plots had higher marketable cabbage yields (30.6–43.10 t/ha) than untreated plots (4.78–11.20 t/ha), which differed significantly in Kalenga (F (3, 67) = 141.79, p < 0.05) and Mgera (F (3, 67) = 53.36, p < 0.05). These extracts have shown insecticidal properties, can serve as promising candidates for further studies aimed at isolating active compounds for scaling up ecologically friendly strategies of controlling pests and improve the quality of cabbage products.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Determination of Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) and Antibacterial
           Activities of Commercially Available Tanzanian Green Tea (Camellia

    • Authors: Raphael J Shedafa, Joseph Sempombe, Eliangiringa Kaale, Mary Temu, Peter Imming
      Pages: 413 - 421
      Abstract: This paper presents the results of the antibacterial activity of green tea extract (Camellia sinensis) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 708903). Quantitative and qualitative measurements of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have also been reported. The analysis by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) revealed the presence of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in the green tea extracts ranging from 13.16 to 18.64 mg/g. Crude extracts GT 01–GT 03 inhibited a greater number of microorganisms and presented the lowest values of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus (0.625 mg/mL), Escherichia coli (0.625 mg/mL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.25 mg/mL). Crude extract GT 04 presented the highest values of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus (1.25 mg/mL), Escherichia coli (1.25 mg/mL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.5 mg/mL). This study demonstrates that the popular use of green tea can be an effective and sustainable alternative for the prevention and treatment of various bacterial infections. Keywords: Camellia sinensis, Antibacterial, Epigallocatechin gallate, HPTLC
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Antibiotic Resistance among Escherichia coli
           Isolated from Broiler Chickens Sold at Selected Markets in Dar es Salaam,

    • Authors: Abdilahi H. Kiula, Victor A. Makene
      Pages: 422 - 432
      Abstract: Unwarranted and improper uses of antibiotics in broiler farms contribute to the challenge of antibiotic resistance, making even previously treatable infections, difficult to treat. We conducted a cross sectional study from November 2021 to May 2022 from broiler chicken markets in four districts of Dar es Salaam to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance among E. coli isolates from broiler chickens. A total of 160 E. coli isolates recovered from cloacal swabs were identified by culture and biochemical tests and confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, targeting seven classes of antibiotics, was performed by disk diffusion method and eleven representative antimicrobial resistance markers corresponding to each antibiotic class were screened by PCR. The highest resistance was found against trimethoprim (75%) and erythromycin (74.37%), while the most common resistance gene was dfrA1 (74.37%) and blaTEM (73.75%). The study also found a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant isolates (84.4%) from at least three antibiotic classes. The results highlight the significant contribution of poultry farming to the spread of antibiotic resistance, with potential consequences for both farmers and human health. Prompt measures are necessary to protect human and animal health..
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • In-vitro Antisickling Activity of Pergularia daemia, Canna indica and
           Petiveria alliacea Plants used in the Treatment of Sickle Cell Anaemia in
           Edo State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Osaro Iyekowa, Felix Okieimen, Clifford O Ehisuoria
      Pages: 433 - 445
      Abstract: Sickle cell disease is a genetic blood disorder that affects the shape and transportation of the red blood cells (RBCs) in blood vessels, leading to various clinical complications. Available medicines for treating the disease are insufficiently effective, toxic or expensive. Therefore, there has been a pressing need for effective and inexpensive therapeutic agents from indigenous medicinal plants. Petiveria alliacea, Canna indica and Pergularia daemia, respectively were evaluated for their cationic constituents as a measure for their antisickling activity in sickle cell anaemia disorder. The three medicinal plants were extracted separately with methanol solvent using maceration method for 72 hours. The extracts were concentrated using a rotary evaporator (Model RE, 200, USA). Phytochemical screenings were conducted using standard method, while other portions of the extract were subjected to dry ash digestion for determination of mineral elements by emission flame photometry (EFP) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Evaluation of the antisickling activity of the extracts was done using the sodium metabisulphite (SMBS) test. Eugenol, terpenoids and alkaloids were present in the three plant extracts, while K+ values recorded for Petiveria alliacea, Canna indica and Pergularia daemia were 54.30 mg kg–1, 180.10 mg kg–1 and 28.30 mg kg–1, respectively. Other mineral elements detected in the three plants were Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and Mg2+. The leaves extract of Canna indica and Pergularia daemia at high dose of 300 µg/mL caused significant reductions of sickle red blood cells from 15% to 6% and 15% to 1%, respectively at 90 minutes of the antisickling test. The research confirmed that extracts of both Canna indica and Pergularia daemia used in this study have significant antisickling properties in invitro studies than Petiveria alliacea. Keywords: Antisickling activity, Petiveria alliacea, Canna indica, Pergularia daemia, sickle cell, phytochemicals, minerals
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Plant-Based Ice Cream: Processing, Composition and Meltdown Properties

    • Authors: Victor Vicent Matabura
      Pages: 446 - 455
      Abstract: Plant-based foods have become a popular option for consumers due to their positive impacts on health and resulting changes in lifestyle. To preserve the quality of non-dairy ice cream during distribution and consumption, it is essential to understand its proximate composition and meltdown properties. In this study, cashews, coconut, and bananas were used as raw materials. Cashew milk and coconut cream were prepared separately and mixed at different ratios to make non-dairy ice cream. The proximate composition of the formulated ice cream was measured using the official standard methods. The meltdown properties, including drip-through (%), height (mm), and temperature (°C) were also assessed. The results indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) in the proximate components of the produced ice creams. An increase (p < 0.05) in protein, fibre, fat, and ash content was observed, as the amount of coconut cream increased, while the moisture content decreased, and the carbohydrate content remained unchanged. Furthermore, the meltdown properties of the ice cream changed significantly (p < 0.05) as the amount of coconut cream increased. The quantitative data on proximate composition and meltdown properties presented in this paper are valuable for maintaining ice cream quality and consumer convenience in the frozen food business. They also provide deeper insight into non-dairy desserts. Keywords: Plant-Based Food; Ice Cream; Proximate Composition; Meltdown Properties
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Hehe Views on Death: A Case Study of Kiduo Dance Songs in Iringa, Tanzania

    • Authors: Daines Nicodem Sanga
      Pages: 456 - 467
      Abstract: This paper sets out to respond to the question of how the Hehe people in Iringa view death. Kiduo dance songs are deployed as a window through which their views on death are explored. Kiduo dance is referred to a dance that is performed by dancers stamping their feet on the ground in a rhythmical way while singing. Kiduo songs are tapped as the researcher presumes that in songs is where the history, beliefs and perceptions of people on matters affecting them are processed and archived. Exclusive of songs, a limited number of interviews were administered to gain an esoteric meaning of the songs the researcher could not comprehend by using her own Hehe language. The study was conducted in Iringa, particularly in Iringa municipality. Iringa municipality was spotted for it is where the researcher was born and raised, thus it eased the process of gathering data. Results from this study indicated that the Hehe view death as a means to leaving a legacy, a means to escape from unpleasant aspects of life, fleeing from social responsibilities, not to mention death as personal extinction and reunion with loved ones. Researching how the Hehe view death by drawing from existentialism theory is a little contribution this paper makes to the scholarship of performance arts. Keywords: Kiduo dance, death, life, existentialism, Iringa, Tanzania
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Application of Agile and Simulation Approaches for the Maximal Benefits of
           Reduced Turnaround Time from the Point of Care Testing

    • Authors: Yusta W. Simwita, Berit I. Helgheim
      Pages: 468 - 478
      Abstract: This paper uses simulation to explore improvement opportunities in the orthopaedic care process. Secondly, this study used a combination of simulation and agile strategies to explore agile operational plans that can be adopted  to maximize the benefits of reduced turnaround time. Data used for this study was collected by observing the entire orthopaedic care process. A total of 635 observations were obtained, with 179 out of these observations undergoing the whole care process. The actual collected patient data were compared with the simulation output to validate the developed simulation. Different scenarios were developed to test operational plans for the maximal benefit of reduced turnaround time. Deployment of point-of-care platforms reduced turnaround time for sample tests. Flexibility was introduced as an agile operational plan to ensure the maximal benefit of the reduced turnaround time. The effect of flexibility on the orthopaedic care process was significant. The simulation results showed a significant decrease in patient waiting time by 86%. This study was limited to orthopaedic patients. Studies focusing on other clinical settings are encouraged. This study recommends using agile operations practices to maximize the benefit of reduced turnaround time in healthcare processes. Keywords:  Point of care, Turnaround time, Agile and simulation
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Ethnobotanical Survey, Consumption Pattern and Genetic Conservation of
           Leafy Vegetables in South-West Nigeria

    • Authors: Temitope O Onuminya, Michael I Osundinakin, Oluwatoyin T Ogundipe
      Pages: 479 - 490
      Abstract: Leafy vegetables are important in human nutrition; however, their diversity as seen in the dishes in South western Nigeria appears to be diminishing. Many popular delicacies are no longer available in the markets. Therefore, this research was conducted to identify and document leafy vegetables in South West Nigeria, assess their ethnobotanical uses from questionnaires administered to farmers/sellers, secure their genetic resource base, and improve their value chain in South-West Nigeria. Vegetable samples were collected from different local communities in five South-West states in Nigeria, identified using manual/flora, and authenticated at the University of Lagos Herbarium. One thousand respondents, 200 in each state, participated in the study. Of these, 76.7% were female, while 23.3% were male. A total of twenty-six (26) leafy vegetables were collected. Twenty-one (21) species are indigenous to the study area, while five (5) species are non-indigenous. Ethnobotanical survey on leafy vegetables from farms and markets revealed that Launaea taraxacifolia, Solanum macrocarpon, Solanum nigrum, Solanum aethiopicum, Solanecio biafrae, Crassocephalum crepidioides and Basella alba are of high medicinal value. They can be used solely or as a recipe with other leafy plants in the treatment of various ailments including malaria, typhoid, blood pressure, stomach disorder, heart diseases and gastrointestinal tract infections. These vegetable species have been neglected and underutilized by humans. Generally, a low degree of consumption, extent of consumption, and cash income capacity was recorded, with exception to the commonly cultivated vegetables. Extracted DNA from the leafy vegetables yielded good-quality DNA; this has been deposited in the DNA bank at the University of Lagos. This study has documented indigenous knowledge on leafy vegetables in southwest Nigeria and contributed towards ex-situ conservation of the species in the DNA bank. Keywords: Leafy Vegetables, Ethnobotany, Genetic Conservation, Indigenous knowledge, Underutilized species
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Mixed-Ligand
           Complexes of Some Metal(II) Ions with Barbituric Acid and
           1,10-Phenanthroline Ligands

    • Authors: Kayode Taiwo Ishola, Oluwabiyi James Olaoye, Mary Adelaide Oladipo, Omobola Ajibike Odedokun, Oyebanji Oluseun Aboyeji
      Pages: 491 - 502
      Abstract: Many pathogenic organisms have developed resistance to many antibiotics, which leads to an increase in the spread of many microbial infections. There is an urgent need to find more effective drugs to curb widespread transmission. Hence, this study synthesized and evaluated the antimicrobial activities of mixed-ligand complexes of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) ions with barbituric acid and 1,10 phenanthroline ligands in effort to find more effective antibiotics. The complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, metal analysis, melting points, solubility tests, and spectroscopic analyses (IR and UV-visible). The antimicrobial activities of the complexes were evaluated against two gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), two gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium spp.), and four pathogenic fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The biological activities of the metal complexes were compared to the activities of some conventional antibiotics. The molecular formulas for the complexes in 1:1:1 (L-M-L) were established based on the results of the elemental and metal analyses. The IR spectroscopic data results showed the coordination of 1,10-phenanthroline to the metal ions through the nitrogen donor atom, while barbituric acid coordinated with the metal ions through nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The formation of the complexes was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic data. Many of the mixed-ligand metal complexes demonstrated higher biological activities than the standard drugs and also succeeded where the conventional antibiotics failed. Therefore, the metal complexes could be considered as more efficacious antibiotics that could be added to the arsenal of effective antibiotics for the prevention of the intrinsic problems of multidrug resistance. Keywords:            Bacteria, Fungi, Ligands, Metal complexes, Multidrug resistance, Barbituric acid
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • The Causal Links between Urbanization, Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: A
           Case of SADC Region

    • Authors: Pendo T Kivyiro
      Pages: 503 - 515
      Abstract: The study aimed at examining the causal links between urbanization, energy consumption and carbon emissions in the case of selected SADC countries. The study employed annual time series data spanning from 1988 to 2020 extracted from the World Bank Development indicator Databank. A Pedroni cointegration test was employed to test whether the variables of interest move together in the long run. Granger causality backed with Full Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) was used to detect the direction and the nature of causality among the variables of interest. The results from Pedroni cointegration test revealed that the variables move together in the long run. Granger causality results indicate bidirectional causality among the three variables in the short-run and one way Granger causality running from both energy consumption and urbanization to carbon emission in the long-run. Furthermore, the FMOLS shows the positive contribution of both energy consumption and urbanization to carbon dioxide emissions. The results from the empirical work make some significant contribution to the existing body of knowledge and to the policy makers and urban planners of SADC region. Policies in this region should focus on finding coherent ways of discouraging movements of people from rural areas to urban areas. This can be done by making rural environment conducive enough to motivate people to engage in agricultural activities. Keywords: Urbanization; Energy Consumption; Carbon Emissions, SADC region
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Ameliorative Effects of Vitamins C and E on Haematotoxicity and Spleen
           Histopathology Induced by Dichlorvos Insecticide in Female Wistar Rats

    • Authors: Halima Mfaume, Harishchandra Pratap, Claudius Luziga, Felister Urasa
      Pages: 516 - 527
      Abstract: This research aimed to assess the toxicological effects of dichlorvos insecticide (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate or DDVP) on haematological indices of female Wistar rats and to investigate the antioxidant properties of vitamins C and E in ameliorating haematotoxicity. The rats were divided into 6 groups; control-water, control-oil, dichlorvos group, dichlorvos + vitamin C group, dichlorvos + vitamin E group and dichlorvos + vitamin C + E group. Dichlorvos and vitamins were orally administered to rats with an interval of half an hour between treatments. The control-oil group was given 2 ml corn oil and the control-water group was given water adlib. The treatments were done for 28 consecutive days and blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture. The following haematological parameters were analysed: RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC and THR. Bone marrow smears were prepared on 14th and 28th days for various blood stem cells evaluation and spleen tissues for histopathology. There was a significant decrease (p ˂ 0.01) in RBC counts, PCV, MCV and MCH values, whereas the WBC, THR counts and MCHC values increased significantly (p ˂ 0.01) in dichlorvos treated rats as compared to the controls and dichlorvos + vitamins co-treated groups. There were no significant differences in blood parameter counts between controls and dichlorvos + vitamins co-treated groups. In the bone marrow smear of the dichlorvos treated group, there was increased number of megakaryocytes and mature neutrophils. In conclusion, findings from the current study revealed that, vitamins C and E supplements were capable of mitigating the haematotoxic effects induced by dichlorvos insecticide in Wistar rats.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Optimal Harvesting of Wildebeest-Lion Interactions in Serengeti Ecosystem
           with Prey Refuge

    • Authors: Alfred Kisuda Hugo, Thadei Damas Sagamiko, Isambi Sailon Mbalawata
      Pages: 528 - 545
      Abstract: This paper describes an optimal harvesting policy for a wildebeest-lion prey-predator system in the Serengeti ecosystem with prey refuge. A Holling Type II prey-predator model with a nonlinear harvesting aspect was developed. Theoretical and numerical analyses were performed, and the dynamic behaviour of the system was found to be mathematically well-posed. Data on lion population density from the Serengeti ecosystem were used to fit the model using the maximum-likelihood method. The optimal harvesting policy was numerically determined using Pontryagin’s maximum principle. Furthermore, the impact of prey refuge on the predator population was numerically evaluated. The results of this study highlight the importance of managing the lion population in the ecosystem, specifically in terms of harvesting criteria, to ensure that the threshold for wildebeest-lion coexistence is not exceeded. Based on the findings, this paper argues that the lion population should be given special attention in terms of managerial harvesting criteria so that the threshold for the wildebeest-lion coexistence in the ecosystem is not exceeded. Keywords: Prey-predator System, Wildebeest-Lion Harvesting, Serengeti Ecosystem, Prey Refuge.  
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Effects of Roasting Conditions on the Proximate Composition and Functional
           Properties of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Flours

    • Authors: Rachel Byarugaba, Agnes Nabubuya, John Muyonga , Ali Mwakha
      Pages: 546 - 558
      Abstract: Roasting of dry beans presents the possibility of a value-added product with improved nutritional quality and potential use in different food systems. The effect of roasting on the proximate composition and functional properties of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was determined. Beans were roasted at 140, 170, and 200 °C for 5, 10, and 15 minutes. The moisture, carbohydrate, protein, dietary fibre, total ash and fat contents of the flours ranged from 4.58 to 6.72%, 56.21 to 60.51%, 23.09 to 26.74%, 4.12 to 7.01%, 3.94 to 4.58% and 1.28 to 2.10%, respectively. An increase in roasting temperature and time significantly reduced moisture and carbohydrate contents, but increased fat, fibre and ash contents. Foaming capacity, foam stability, water absorption index, water solubility index and water absorption capacity varied from 6.16 to 45.14%, 2.10 to 30.68%, 4.20 to 5.12 g/g, 10.74 to 17.15 g/g and 1.77 to 2.2 g/g, respectively. Increasing roasting temperature and time impacted functional properties of flours. Pasting properties of bean flour pastes were significantly reduced. Flour from roasted beans (FRBs) can serve as a functional ingredient and nutrient enhancer in the food industry. In order to increase shelf life and nutrient density of bean flours, the beans should be roasted at 200 °C.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
  • Genetic Analysis Reveals Substantial Proportion of Non-targeted Tilapias
           among Farmed Stocks in Kilosa and Kibaha, Tanzania

    • Authors: Winifrida L Mbilinyi, Cyrus Rumisha, Augustine W Mwandya, George M Msalya
      Pages: 559 - 567
      Abstract: Nile tilapia farmers in Tanzania have been complaining about slow growth and low yields. Since some farmers obtain their seeds from unreliable sources, they may potentially be dealing with various non-targeted tilapias that require different environments and treatments to enhance growth and yields. Thus, this study analysed fragments (600 base pairs) of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) from 74 farmed tilapias in Kilosa and Kibaha, Tanzania to determine the presence of non-targeted tilapias. An additional 42 samples from the Magadu Fish Farm, Mindu dam, and Lake Victoria were included for comparison. The findings revealed that non-targeted tilapias accounted for 22.22–31.41% of the farmed stock, supporting the hypothesis that farmers are unknowingly dealing with a variety of non-targeted tilapias. Furthermore, pairwise FST comparison indicated genetic relatedness among the farmed fish, suggesting the sharing of fingerlings from the same broodstock or collection from the same wild locality. Therefore, farmers are advised to ensure they source seeds from certified hatcheries to minimize the risk of stocking non-targeted species. Additionally, due to the observed low genetic diversity in Kilosa samples, it is recommended that the country should establish a national breeding program for tilapia to provide farmers with access to high-quality seeds.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 2 (2023)
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