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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted by number of followers
Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4908)
Scientific American     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 493)
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 163)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 82)
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Science Advances     Free   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Scientometric Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Studies in Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Scienze Regionali : Italian Journal of Regional Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Scientific American Mind     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Royal Society Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Scientific Data     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
SINET : Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tanzania Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Східно-Європейський журнал передових технологій : Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nordic Studies in Science Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science & Diplomacy     Free   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nuncius     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TECNOSCIENZA: Italian Journal of Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Springer Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
OmniScience : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
National Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fontanus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Образование и наука     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
THEORIA : An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Heliyon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MundoFesc     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Científica de la FAREM     Open Access  
Mutis     Open Access  
Ruhuna Journal of Science     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Revista Logos Ciencia & Tecnología     Open Access  
World Scientific Research     Open Access  
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Jurnal MIPA     Open Access  
Unnes Science Education Journal     Open Access  
Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies     Open Access  
Selforganizology     Open Access  
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Revista Catarinense da Ciência Contábil     Open Access  
Reviews in Theoretical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Temas y Debates     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Universitas (León)     Open Access  
Seminário de Iniciação Científica e Seminário Integrado de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão     Open Access  
ScienceRise     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
Open Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Revista UNIMAR     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
Revista UniVap     Open Access  
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
Sakarya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Smart Science     Open Access  
Science World Journal     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Población y Desarrollo - Argonautas y caminantes     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
MethodsX     Open Access  
Journal of Unsolved Questions     Open Access  
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Metode & Forskningsdesign     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Sciences du jeu     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Scientific World     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
SAINSTIS     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science     Open Access  
QScience Connect     Open Access  
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Trilogía     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
The Scientific World Journal     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Revista Sociedad y Economía     Open Access  
Revista Cientifica Guillermo de Ockham     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Universitas Scientiarum     Open Access  
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, The     Full-text available via subscription  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe     Open Access  
TD : The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Open Access  

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Tanzania Journal of Science
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0856-1761
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [260 journals]
  • Antidiabetic Potential of Vitex mombassae Fruits Extract in
           Streptozocin-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Wistar Rat Model

    • Authors: Mussa B. Mbegeze, Joan J.E. Munissi, Flora Stephano, Ramadhani S.O. Nondo, Stephen S. Nyandoro
      Pages: 776 - 787
      Abstract: Besides changes in life styles and improper dietary patterns, the rapidly increasing burden of diabetes mellitus type 2 is correlated with antidiabetic agents currently in clinical use, which are costly, less effective, and present undesirable side effects. Natural products from plants are promising alternative sources for developing more effective and cost friendly antidiabetic agents. This study therefore investigated the antidiabetic potential of Vitex mombassae fruits extract (VMFE) in streptozocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic Wistar rat model. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted in male Wistar rat using up and down method by following OECD Guideline 423 (2002). No clinical signs of toxicity were observed at 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) doses used in the assays. The LD50 value was estimated to be ˃ 2000 mg/kg b.w. In evaluation of antidiabetic activity, diabetic Wistar rats were administered with 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w. of VMFE. VMFE resulting into significant lowering of the levels of fasting blood glucose (p < 0.05) and increased of level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were reduced significantly (p < 0.05). Therefore, this study provides scientific evidence for antidiabetic activities of V. mombassae fruits extracts, and validates its traditional use in the management of diabetes mellitus type 2.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.1
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
  • Activated Carbon Based on Borassus aethiopum Shells, Hulls, Kernels and
           Fruits for Removal of Phenol and 2-Chlorophenol from Water

    • Authors: Ndatiye W. Ndatiye, Lupituko L. Mkayula , Grace A. Kinunda
      Pages: 788 - 808
      Abstract: This study aimed at developing activated carbons from Borassus aethiopum shells (BaS), hulls (BaH), kernels (BaK) and fruits (BaF) for removing phenol (Ph) and 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) from aqueous solution. The preparation of the activated carbons involved carbonization of the starting materials at 500 ºC followed by chemical activation at 600 ºC using 0.5 M H3PO4 acid. The prepared activated carbons were found to be mesoporous having pore sizes and surface areas in the range of 3.2 to 3.5 nm and 644 to 740 m2/g, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) thermograms showed that the prepared activated carbons can be applied in the batch solution with a temperature not greater than 500 ºC as above this temperature, the materials decompose. Adsorption experiments showed that the uptake of 100 mg/L of Ph and 2-CP from water is favourable using an adsorbent dose of 0.5 g and a contact time of 6 hours. On the other hand, the batch solution of pH 8 and 6 favoured the adsorption of Ph and 2-CP, respectively. Moreover, the adsorption of the aforementioned adsorbates strongly depended on their initial concentrations and temperature of the batch solution. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms fitted into both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, but the Freundlich adsorption model was found to have the highest regression value, hence the best fit.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.2
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
  • Impact of Zn and W Doping Levels on Properties of Thermochromic VO2-Based
           Thin Films

    • Authors: Haji F. Haji, Margaret E. Samiji, Nuru R. Mlyuka
      Pages: 809 - 818
      Abstract: DC magnetron sputtering at a substrate temperature of 425 °C was used to successfully deposit W/Zn-doped VO2 thin films on soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. The aim was to investigate the influence of Zn doping levels on the transition temperature ( ), luminous transmittance (Tlum) and solar transmittance modulation (ΔTsol) of VO2-based thin films. UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) were used to characterise the thin films. It was revealed that W/Zn co-doped VO2 thin films with ~ 10.8 at.% Zn showed a luminous transmittance of ~ 40.4%, with excellent solar transmittance modulation of 10.2%. Furthermore, the transition temperature obtained for the Zn and W co-doped VO2 films with ~ 10.8 at.% Zn was lower at 23.1 °C compared to 25.6 °C and 26.8 °C for thin films with ~ 3.9 at.% Zn and ~ 2.8 at.% Zn, respectively. It was not possible to deposit the films with Zn doping level above 10.8 at.% due to some technical limitations. These findings indicate that thin films with a controlled proportion of Zn in the W/Zn co-doped VO2-based thin films have the potential to be employed for applications such as smart windows.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.3
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
  • Assessment of Viability of Coal Mines in Tanzania for Extraction of Rare
           Earth Elements

    • Authors: Juma Sija, Mohamed Mazunga
      Pages: 819 - 830
      Abstract: This study aimed at determining the concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in coal and coal fly ash (CFA) from three coal mines in Tanzania: Kiwira, Ngaka and Rukwa. The goal was to assess if these resources could be commercially viable for extracting REEs. Coal and CFA samples were analysed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The total concentrations of REEs in the coal samples ranged from 89.48 parts per million (ppm) to 196.30 ppm, while in CFA samples, ranged from 362.55 ppm to 475.77 ppm. Computed percentage of critical REEs (REYdef, rel%) and outlook coefficient (Coutl) values ranged from 27.41% to 50.74% and 0.62 to 2.00, respectively. Based on the evaluation criteria proposed for assessing coal and coal ash as sources of REEs, the results suggest that the studied coal and CFA samples have the potential to be used as sources of REEs for economic development. These findings have important implications for the Tanzanian government and other relevant authorities, as they provide valuable insights into the feasibility of investing in the coal and coal ash as promising sources of REEs. This is particularly significant considering the high global demands for REEs.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.4
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
  • A Computational Study on the Impact of Anchoring Groups on the Optical and
           Electronic Properties of Triphenylamine-Based Dyes for Dye-Sensitized
           Solar Cell Applications

    • Authors: Geradius Deogratias, Grace A. Kinunda
      Pages: 831 - 841
      Abstract: Anchoring groups are crucial for enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For instance, cyanoacrylic acid serves as the primary anchoring group in DSSC due to its crucial elements required for effective electron transport. However, it suffers from degradation. To address this limitation, this study proposes alternative cyano-based anchoring groups for sensitizers. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT were used to investigate the optical and electronic properties of the dyes. The studied dyes (excluding the dye containing OH group) displayed three absorption bands within the visible and NIR regions. Low-energy peaks ranged from 498 to 576 nm, corresponding to excitation from ground state to first excited state. Moderate intensity bands appeared at 376 to 418 nm, with the highest energy bands falling within 351 to 384 nm. Ground state oxidation potential values for the dyes were lower than the redox potential of the iodide/triiodide pair. Similarly, excited state oxidation potential values were higher than or equal to the conduction band of TiO2, except for NO2 and CHO containing dyes. Ionization potential values ranged from 6.24 eV to 6.40 eV, while electron affinity values were within 1.21 eV to 2.74 eV. Chemical potential values ranged from 3.75 to 4.57 eV, and chemical hardness of the dyes fell between 1.83 to 2.54 eV. The proposed cyano-based anchoring groups show promising potential for enhancing DSSC performance.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.5
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
  • Scientific Landscape on Phthalates Biodegradation Research: A Bibliometric
           and Scientometric Study

    • Authors: Sai Ngassa, Cyprian Mpinda, Kessy F. Kilulya, Rose Masalu
      Pages: 842 - 858
      Abstract: This study investigated the scientific landscape of research on phthalate esters biodegradation using the Web of Science database up to 2022. The collected data were analysed using bibliometric and scientometric tools. A total of 863 scholarly documents published between 1975 and 2022 in 266 journals were selected for analysis. The analysis revealed a growth rate of 6.9% in the research field, with an average document age of 10.8 years. The trend in phthalate biodegradation research showed a steady increase in citations until 1997, followed by a slight decrease until 2005, but experienced renewed interest in 2006 and significant growth in 2016. Chemosphere was identified as the prominent journal, and China had the most publications (417) followed by India (78), while Africa had the least productivity, with South Africa contributing the highest number of publications (9). Thematic evolution in the field focused on understanding the mechanisms of phthalate breakdown through microbial enzymes like hydrolases, while revealing changing patterns with the current research focus being "microbial community" and "metabolism" as indicated by strongest burstiness strengths. The study sheds light on the scientific landscape of phthalate biodegradation research, highlighting research gaps and suggesting potential research policy improvements such as enhancing funding and capacity building in biodegradation research in Africa.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.6
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
  • Ecological Correlates for Endemic and Threatened Amphibians in the Uluguru
           Nature Forest Reserve, Tanzania

    • Authors: Joseph M. Christopher, Wilirk Ngalason, John V. Lyakurwa
      Pages: 859 - 870
      Abstract: Information on habitat characteristics for endemic and threatened amphibians along the altitudinal gradient in the Uluguru Nature Forest Reserve (UNFR) is limited. We assessed habitat characteristics associated with the occurrence of endemic and threatened amphibians in the Uluguru Nature Forest Reserve between April and June 2022. Bucket pitfall traps, time-constrained audio-visual surveys, plots and opportunistic searching were used to study amphibians in 6 sites along elevational gradient from 600 m to 2100 m a.s.l. Eighteen amphibian species were recorded, thirteen of them being endemic to the Eastern Arc Mountains, two near-endemic and three widely distributed. Among the species recorded, seven are categorized as threatened as per IUCN Red List. We observed more endemic and threatened amphibians in the submontane forests (1200–1800 m) than in other sites. Negative correlations existed between temperature, canopy cover, leaf litter cover and leaf litter depth and species richness, whereas positive correlations existed between humidity and species richness. No single factor was responsible for the occurrence of endemic and threatened amphibians in the Uluguru Nature Forest Reserve. This is only a snapshot survey on the occurrence of threatened and endemic amphibians and their associated habitat features in the northern part of the Uluguru Nature Forest Reserve. A long-term monitoring of these amphibian species is recommended especially at this era of unprecedented forest loss and degradation.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.7
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
  • Phytochemical Constituents of Cissus oliveri growing in Pwani Region,

    • Authors: Fadhili S. Estomini, Stephen I. Nnungu, Amelia S. Buriyo
      Pages: 871 - 879
      Abstract: Cissus oliveri (Engl.) Gilg ex Engl. is among the plant species of the family Vitaceae widely used in traditional medicine for management of different ailments. This study aimed at assessing the phytochemicals of C. oliveri parts in order to provide scientific validation for its use as a therapeutic agent. Qualitative analysis of water and ethanolic extracts was conducted by using standard methods and the results revealed that all the parts possess alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins. Similarly, glycosides and saponins were only present in leaf and root. Quantitative analysis performed by gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods showed that all parts contain alkaloids, phenol, and tannins in large quantities. The largest amount was found in leaf for alkaloids (6.47 ± 0.41 mg/g DW) and phenols (4.85 ± 0.90 mg/g DW) compared to stem and root. Alkaloid content was higher in root than in stem (P < 0.01), whereas phenol content was the same in root and stem (p > 0.05). Further, there was no significant difference in tannins content among all the plant parts assessed. The presence and quantities of active phytochemicals in C. oliveri call for further investigations on the bioactivities of the extracts and isolated chemical constituents for potential pharmacological applications.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.8
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
  • Habitat Use and Diet Composition of the Common Eland (Tragelaphus oryx) in
           Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania

    • Authors: Gregory A. Mtega, Cuthbert L. Nahonyo, Steven Temu, George Sangu, John Bukombe
      Pages: 880 - 890
      Abstract: Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) is renowned worldwide for its multiple land use where pastoralism and wildlife conservation co-exist. Thus, the NCA must meet a delicate balance of competing needs between livestock and wildlife. Currently the NCA is conducting resettlement program to facilitate pastoralists who are willing to move and resettle outside of the conservation area in order to reduce the number of people and livestocks in NCA. The common eland (Tragelaphus oryx) are among the large herbivore species found in the NCA that might be affected by possible competition between livestock and wildlife. The information on this species including habitat utilization and feeding ecology is limited. This study therefore, investigated the factors influencing habitat use and diet composition of the common eland (Tragelaphus oryx) in NCA. Data were collected along 82 pre-established transects using direct field survey. The study therefore assessed habitat use, distribution patterns, diet composition and conservation threats facing the common eland in NCA, The results indicated that the grassland habitat was mainly used by elands (> 85% in both dry and wet seasons), while other habitats were least used (< 15%). Eland diet composition varied significantly among plant species, with the animals most frequently feeding on Themeda triandra but rarely on Vachellia tortilis and Hibiscus aponeurus. The study concludes with recommendations for enhancement of grassland habitat management and reduced anthropogenic activities to enhance eland conservation in NCA.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.9
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
  • Association of Residual Feed Intake to Metrics of Tanganyika Shorthorn
           Zebu Cattle in Maswa and Misungwi Districts, Tanzania

    • Authors: Godfrey L. Chasama, Fred D. Chibwana, Aloyce S. Hepelwa, Jestina V. Katandukila
      Pages: 891 - 900
      Abstract: Increasing competition for feed resources and greenhouse gases pollution have been compelling beef production systems to operate at higher feed utilization. These challenges imply the need to breed cattle for Residual Feed Intake (RFI) to lower feeding costs and enteric methane production per output. To explore relevant indicator traits of RFI, this study investigated the association of RFI to Tanganyika Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle metrics from the Misungwi and Maswa Districts of Tanzania, where Tarime and Sukuma ecotypes are common. A correlation study involving the fattening of twenty-eight TSZ bulls was conducted at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute -Mabuki. From the animals' body weight and feeding data, regression of daily feed intake on average daily gain and metabolic body weight was analyzed to estimate the animals' RFI. Subsequently, the correlation of RFI to metrics of belly, horn, hip, dewlap and body length was investigated. Residual Feed Intake and Belly Length (BeL) were highly positively correlated, while RFI and Dewlap Depth (DD) were moderately positively correlated. The results indicated prospects for using BeL and DD as indicator traits for RFI. Extensive studies are recommended to analyze the correlation of RFI to hump depth, ear length, muzzle circumference and kidney fat.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.10
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
  • Anticancer Potential of the Leaf Extracts from the Selected Croton Species

    • Authors: Peter V. Fayyu, Joan J.E. Munissi, Stephen S. Nyandoro, Flora Stephano
      Pages: 901 - 910
      Abstract: The reported investigations were aimed at establishing anticancer potential of the leaf extracts from Croton dictyophlebodes (CDE), C. kilwae (CKE) and C. longipedicellatus ssp austrotanzanicus (CLE). In vitro cytotoxicity assays of the extracts were performed against human laryngeal cancer cell line (HEp-2) and human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), while in vivo toxicological studies were done using Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guideline number 423 of 2001. Results for in vitro assays revealed that CDE and CLE induced cytotoxicity to MCF-7 and HEp-2 cell lines at EC50 values of 86 and 63 µg/mL, respectively, while CKE was inactive to HEp-2 cells at 100 µg/mL. For in vivo studies, mice were given calculated doses based on globally harmonized standards and monitored for 14 days to observe signs of toxicity. Haematological analysis was also carried out to obtain information on changes in blood conditions. The findings showed that LD50 for CKE and CDE were > 2000 mg/kg, while for CLE was 175 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The oral administration of CDE and CKE did not reveal significant changes in haematological parameters of treated mice, while CLE provoked some. Thus, the studied extracts may be considered potential cancer remedies with safety pre-cautions that warrant further investigations.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.11
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
  • Modelling and Forecasting Claim Payments of Tanzania National Health
           Insurance Fund

    • Authors: Imani Kapungu, Emmanuel Evarest, Nyimvua Shaban , Andongwisye J. Mwakisisile
      Pages: 911 - 920
      Abstract: The expenses of medical services are increasing across the globe. As a result, pressure is placed on government and insurance companies’ budgets. The amounts of money collected are not enough to cover the claim payments. Therefore, it threatens the sustainability of the health insurance companies due to the mismatch of income and expenditures. This study aimed to model and forecast claim payments for the national health insurance fund (NHIF) in Tanzania. The claim payment data for the period of 2001–2021 from NHIF were used in building the ARIMA model. It was proven that ARIMA (0, 2, 2) is the most accurate model for forecasting the claim payments from 2022 to 2031. Furthermore, numerical results show that the claim payments for NHIF will grow by 68% by 2031.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.12
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
  • Digitisation of Classical Exercise Practices with STACK: Management of
           Large Mathematics Classes in Higher Education Institutions

    • Authors: Idrissa S. Amour, Fatuma Simba, Septimi Kitta, Abdi T. Abdalla
      Pages: 921 - 929
      Abstract: Management of large classes’ tutorials is a known problem in Mathematics. Engineering mathematics classes enrol around 1000 students at the University of Dar es Salaam. For effective learning, each tutorial session should register not more than 40 students. This requires at least 25 sessions of tutorials per week, which may not be feasible due to both scarce human resources and venues. In this work, we developed online Mathematics exercises based on the System for Teaching and Assessment using Computer Algebra Kernel (STACK). About 300 STACK questions in linear algebra, calculus, complex numbers, and numerical analysis were constructed for weekly tutorials and quizzes. Students were given an unlimited number of attempts in tutorials and only one attempt for quizzes. The quality of the questions was analysed by examining their facility indices and discriminative efficiencies. Majority of the questions (87%) were within acceptable region. The questions, therefore, provided reasonable insight as appropriate alternative to classical practice. Competent authoring of STACK questions can improve the quality of teaching and learning of Mathematics and save scarce human and material resources required to serve large classes. This can also address the issue of running online programmes in Mathematics and computational subjects to support distance learning.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.4314/tjs.v49i4.13
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 4 (2023)
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