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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
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SINET : Ethiopian Journal of Science
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0379-2897
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [263 journals]
  • Effect of phosphate solubilizing bio-inoculants and vermicompost
           application on mineral uptake and growth of coffee (Coffea arbica L.)
           seedlings under greenhouse condition

    • Authors: Reshid Abafita Abawari, Fassil Assefa, Diriba Muleta
      Pages: 135 - 150
      Abstract: Arabica coffee (Coffea Arabica L.) is an economically important crop with the highest export revenue in Ethiopia. This study was designed to evaluate the bacterial and fungal phosphate solublization efficacy and to determine yield attributes of coffee seedlings under glasshouse conditions. The study was conducted at Jimma Agricultural Research Center.  The experiment was done with completely randomized design (crd) in three (3) replications. Three potent bacterial isolates viz., rchvcb1, RScB1.19 and RMaB2.11 and three potent fungal isolates viz., rscf1.19 rlvcf2 and rchvcf2 were obtained from Jimma University, Veterinary Medicine, Microbiology Laboratory. The three bacterial isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance pattern and for their potential to serve as bio-control agents. All the bacterial isolates showed 100% resistance to all the six antimicrobials tested. The growth of pathogenic Fusarium xyloriodes was slightly inhibited by rscf1.19. Single inoculation of rscf1.19+Phosphate  fertilizer and dual inoculation of rscf1.19 and rchvcb1 with P fertilizer significantly (p<0.05)  increased plant height, root length, stem girth, leaf number, leaf area, fresh and dry weights of coffee seedlings. However, all the treatments combined with vermicompost showed suppressive characteristics with no   seedlings emergency at all. rscf1.19 and rchvcb1 can be recommended as bio-fertilizers after conducting necessary field trials in order to    reduce the cost required for chemical fertilizers.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes for tolerance to
           Frost in controlled environment

    • Authors: Sintayehu Admas, Teklehaimanot Haileselassie, Kassahun Tesfaye, Eleni Shiferaw , K. Colton Flynn
      Pages: 151 - 160
      Abstract: The study aimed to evaluate the frost tolerance variability of Ethiopian chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasm under controlled environment using growth chamber. A total of 72 genotypes were screened for frost tolerance using complete randomized design with two replications. The analysis of variance result indicated that there was a significant (P<0.01) difference amongst genotypes for plant height, number of foliage, number of primary branch, growth rate, and fresh biomass weight. Based on plant survival rate (SR), 31 (43.1%) genotypes scored above 0.8 values. Based on Freezing tolerance rate (FTR), 37(51.4%) and 31(43.1%) genotypes were rated at a score of 1 to 3 in freezing test 1 (T1) and freezing test 2 (T2), respectively. There was a strong negative correlation between fresh biomass yields with SR (-0.75** for T1 and -0.71** for T2 at p<0.01), while a strong positive correlation with FTR value (0.74** at p<0.01). Based on the combined result of FTR and SR scores, 26 genotypes were found to be frost-tolerant genotypes at a temperature level as low as -5oC at seedling stage. Based on our findings, Ethiopian chickpea germplasm has a genetic potential for frost-tolerance traits for use in breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Child nutritional status, mothers’ nutritional knowledge and practice
           and Household food security status in Tehuledere Woreda, South Wollo,
           Ethiopia

    • Authors: Ahmed Indris, Dilu Shaleka, Mogessie Ashenafi
      Pages: 161 - 171
      Abstract: Child under nutrition due to household food insecurity remains critical issues in many households in Ethiopia. Literature in nutrition knowledge and practice of mothers and the nutritional status of their infants is scanty. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of six to 23-month-oldchildren, mothers’ knowledge, attitude and practice of child nutrition and household food security status in a semi-urban and a rural kebeles. A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken in semi-urban and rural kebeles in Tehuledere Woreda (district) to assess household food security and nutritional status of six to 23-month children. A total of 245 mother-child pairs were selected randomly from the two kebeles. Anthropometric indices were used to determine the nutritional status of under-two children. Child age, weight and height were measured and used to calculate weight-for-age, weight-for-height and height-for-age Z-scores. Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (ciaf) was calculated to determine total malnutrition. Household food insecurity access scale (hfias) was used to assess food security status. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on mothers’ knowledge, attitude and practice in child nutrition, food diversity and child feeding. Data were statistically analyzed. Stunting was noted in 7.5% and 17% of under-two children in the urban and rural kebeles, respectively. Similar levels of thinness (6%) were observed in both kebeles. There were more under-weight children in the semi-urban (5.2%) than in the rural (3.6%) kebeles. Chronic energy deficiency was noted in 20% and 15% of the children in semi-urban and rural kebeles, respectively. ciaf was higher in children in the semi-urban kebele (48%) than in the rural kebele (31%). A small proportion of study households were food secure (17.9%). The rest were either mildly (54.4%) or moderately (27.8%) food insecure. Average knowledge of child nutrition among mothers in the semi-urban and rural kebeles was very low (about 34% and 37%, respectively).The low anthropometric measurements of the children in this study could be due to poor food diversity, insufficient food intake, and poor nutritional knowledge and practice of mothers. Creating awareness in child feeding practices and diet diversity is recommended.  
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Seasonal variation of non-volant small mammals in Gibe Sheleko national
           park, Southwestern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Seyoum Kiros , Afework Bekele
      Pages: 172 - 181
      Abstract: The species composition and abundance of small mammals can vary within space and time. The main objective of this study was to assess seasonal variation of non-volant small mammals from randomly selected Acacia woodland, bushland, farmland, grassland, riverine forest and wooded grassland habitats in Gibe Sheleko National Park, southwestern Ethiopia. Data were collected using 49 Sharman live traps in 70 x 70 m sized square girds from December, 2018 to August, 2020. Capture mark recapture technique was applied to estimate population size of the existing small mammals and the data were analyzed using a chi-square test. A total of 1160 individual small mammals belonging to 10 species and 2 families were recorded. Three non-captured species: Hystrix cristata, Xerus rutilus and Tachyoryctes splendens were also identified. There was a significant (χ2= 31.12, df = 1, P < 0.05) difference in the total abundance of small mammals between seasons. Of the total individuals captured, 675(58.19%) were trapped during the wet season while 485(41.81%) individuals were during the dry season. Significant seasonal variation was also observed in the total abundance of both sexes, i e. males (χ2= 11.99, df = 1, P < 0.05) and females (χ2= 20.24, df = 1, P < 0.05). Among age groups, significant statistical seasonal variation was shown in adults (χ2=15.14, df = 1, P < 0.05) and young (χ2=44.61, df = 1, P < 0.05) but not significant in sub-adults (χ2=0.75, df = 1, P >0.05). The identified small mammals exhibited seasonal changes in their abundance associated with changes in climatic and environmental conditions. However, a long-term and annual based study is required to see the overall dynamics of existing small mammals. 
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Diurnal activity patterns, habitat use and foraging habits of Egyptian
           goose (Alopochena egyptiacus Linnaeus, 1766) in the Boyo wetland, southern
           Ethiopia

    • Authors: Mulugeta Kassa, M. Balakrishnan , Bezawork Afework
      Pages: 182 - 192
      Abstract: Egyptian goose (Alopochena egyptiacus) is a resident bird species in Africa South of the Sahara occurring throughout the entire Nile Valley. Despite the wide distribution, the available information on its behavioral ecology is limited in Ethiopia. A study on the activity patterns, habitat use and foraging  habits  of Egyptian goose was carried out in and around Boyo wetland, Ethiopia, during the dry and wet seasons. Scan sampling method was used to study the activity patterns and habitat use of Egyptian goose in  grassland, mudflat and shallow water habitats of the wetland. The feeding behavior of Egyptian goose was also observed in the surrounding farmland habitats using scan sampling method.  Generally,  Egyptian geese spent most of their time resting (39.81%) followed by foraging (32.64%). They spent 10.43% of their time in comfort movement preening or stretching. The rest of their time was allocated for locomotion (6.63%), vigilance (5.75%), and social behavior (1.59%), and other activities (2.86%). Most of the birds were engaged in foraging activity in the morning (07:00-9:00 h) and afternoon (16:00 - 18:00 h) hours both during the wet and dry seasons.  About 39% of Egyptian geese were scanned in mudflat, 31.5% in grassland, and 30.05% in shallow water habitats engaged in different activities. Most individuals  used the grassland habitat for foraging during the dry (59.5%) and wet (74%) seasons, while they used shallow water and mudflat habitats for resting both during the wet and dry seasons seasons. The birds were observed foraging  mainly  grass during the dry (93.62%) and wet (59.52%) seasons. The Egyptian geese show diurnal activity pattern with feeding peaks in early morning and late afternoon hours as is observed in many other avian taxa. The Boyo wetland is also as an important foraging ground for this species and other birds in the area. Further ecological studies on the species and impact of human activities on the Boyo wetland should be conducted for the conservation of the avifauna.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Survey and identification of termites (Insecta, Isoptera) using
           morphological and molecular methods from eastern, central and western
           Ethiopia.

    • Authors: Ashenafi Kassaye , Emana Getu Emana Getu , Mulatu Wakgari , Muluken Goftishu , Awol Seid Awol Seid , Samantha J. Montoya , Gillian H. Gile
      Pages: 193 - 204
      Abstract: The subfamily Macrotermitinae are the largest members among the Family Termitidae which are the fungus growing sub-family and Odontotermes are the most abundant genus from the subfamily.  The taxonomy of termites is poorly described in Ethiopia. In the present study 168 termite samples were collected from eight locations of Eastern, Western and Central Ethiopia. The collected samples were identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. Molecular identification was done based on the dna sequence of a portion of the mitochondrial 16S rrna gene. A phylogenetic analysis of the collected samples and the outgroup resulted in a consensus tree with four distinct groups. Geographical distribution of the samples also supported the resulting clades. Odontotermes were the most widely distributed termites from the collected samples. The genetic distance between the sample showed that Odontotermes zambesiensis, Babile 33 is more distantly related with the rest of the samples.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Determination of selected major and trace metals in lemongrass (Cymbopogon
           citratus) by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    • Authors: Nitsuh Birhanu, Weldegebriel Yohannes, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi
      Pages: 205 - 214
      Abstract: Cymbopogon citratus is very important and of great interest due to its commercially valuable essential oils, its common use in food and beverage industries as well as in traditional folk medicine. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of selected major (K, Mg, Ca) and trace (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) metals in lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) samples collected from Addis Ababa, Ankober, Finote Selam (Gojjam), and Wondogenet by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The optimized wet acid digestion method for the analysis of lemongrass was found efficient for all the metals and it was evaluated through the recovery test and good percentage recovery of 86.9 to 106% was obtained for all the metals identified. The metals K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb were with a concentration of 743.8-1020, 123.1-129.3, 23.9-36.3, 10.35-22.3, 10.0-12.7, 1.48-2.53, 0.59-1.07, 0.13-0.20 mg/kg, respectively. The results of the Pearson correlation showed that there was a weak and strong positive correlation between the concentrations of the metals analyzed. Statistical analysis by using one-way anova indicated that there were significant differences in the mean concentrations of all the metals (except Ca and Mn) across each sampling points. The results also showed that Cymbopogon citratus are beneficial sources of essential metals. The levels of the metals in the analyzed samples were within the who maximum permissible limits and thus safe for human consumption.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • An integrated knowledge-based system for early detection of eye refractive
           error using data mining

    • Authors: Teklay Birhane, Dereje Teferi, Tariku Mohammed
      Pages: 223 - 233
      Abstract: Refractive error is one of optical defect in the human visual system. Refractive error is a very common disease these days in all populations and in all age groups. Uncorrected and undetected refractive error contributes to visual impairment, blindness and places a considerable burden on a person in the world. The long use of technological devices such as smart phones also poses a new burden on the human eye. The intensity and brightness of these digital devices open a new door for high prevalence of eye refractive errors. Early medical diagnosis of the disease may help in avoiding complications and blindness. Data mining algorithms can be applied to help in ophthalmology and detection of an eye disease at an early stage. So mining the ophthalmology data in efficient manner is a critical issue. This research work deals with development of an integrated knowledge-based system that helps to detect eye refractive error early and provides appropriate advice for the patients. In this study, the hybrid knowledge discovery process model of data mining that was developed for academic research is used. About 9000 ophthalmology data from selected eye health centers are used to build the model. The sample data was preprocessed for missing values, outliers, and noise. Then the model is built using decision tree (J48 and REPTree) and rule induction (JRip and part) algorithms. The part algorithm has registered better predictive performance with accuracy of 60% and 96.45% for subjective and objective based model evaluation, respectively as compared to J48, REPTree, and JRip. Finally, the knowledge discovered with this algorithm is further used to build the knowledge-based systems. The Java programing language is used to integrate data mining results to knowledge-based system. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated by preparing test cases. Overall, the knowledge based system resulted in 89.2% accuracy.  Finally the study concludes that discovering knowledge using data mining techniques could be used as a functional eye refractive error detection system.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Effects of plyometric and strength trainings on selected physical fitness
           variables in Ethiopia youth sport academy female soccer players

    • Authors: Chalachew Lemecha, Aschenaki Taddese
      Pages: 234 - 241
      Abstract: Plyometric is an exercise in which muscles exert force in short intervals of time. Back then, it was only employed in track and field events and was known as “jump training.” The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of plyometric and strength trainings on selected physical fitness variables in Ethiopia Youth Sport Academy female soccer players. The study used quasi-experimental design. Random sampling technique was used to group the participants into plyometric and strength training groups. Both groups performed selected exercises for consecutive twelve weeks, implemented two days per week and two hours in each session. Paired sample t-test and independent t-test were conducted to analyze the change scores from pre and posttest for all subjects and from separated groups. The paired sample t-test results revealed that players in the plyometric group significantly improved their agility (p<0.05) and explosive power performance (p<0.05) from baseline to the end of the intervention. Whereas, female soccer players in the strength group only improved their explosive power (p<0.05) following twelve-week of strength training intervention. As the independent sample t-test result identified no significant performance difference in agility (p>0.05) and explosive power (p>0.05) performances between the groups. In general, following twelve-week of continuous plyometric and strength trainings the study identified that both training interventions improved the agility and explosive power ability of female soccer players and no significant performance differences had been identified between the two groups.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Early hunters and herders of northern Ethiopia: The fauna from Danei
           Kawlos

    • Authors: Agazi Negash , Fiona Marshall
      Pages: 251 - 222
      Abstract: It is generally agreed that Ethiopia is one of the world’s primary centers of prehistoric plant domestication. It is also known that domestic fauna (cattle and domestic caprines) were brought in from outside. Unfortunately, very few Holocene archaeological sequences have been excavated in the Horn. Even fewer sites have yielded domestic fauna dating to > 3000 years ago. The excavations at the site Danei Kawlos in northern Ethiopia provide new Holocene archaeological sequences for Northern Ethiopia and document the presence of cattle, sheep and goat with a direct date of 3358 ± 47 BP on a Bos molar. We discuss here the zooarchaeological data from the site.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 2 (2021)
       
 
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