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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Science World Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1597-6343
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • An appraisal of social and health impact of cement production at Obajana
           communities in Lokoja Local Government Area of Kogi State

    • Authors: Collins Olalekan Charles, Yahaya Ishaya Kuku, Dogara Tah Sanda
      Pages: 346 - 351
      Abstract: Mining is a major economic activity in many developing countries including Nigeria. This paper examines the social and health challenges of Cement production on Obajana communities. This was necessitated to providing a sustainable safe environment to the people and communities where industrial activities take place. The study involved empirical observation and interview of residents of the study area. A total of four hundred respondents were randomly selected from four communities, to appraise the social and health impacts of cement production on human populations in the study area. Descriptive statistics and one sample T- Test were used to analyze the data. The result of the test statistic of P-value 0.00 shows that there is significant relationship between cement production and its associated social and health impact on the people in Obajana communities. Obajana community recorded the highest socio and health impact of cement production (43.3%). A significant proportion of the sampled population and clinic records revealed increasing cases of malaria within the study area. Malaria alone account for 37.4% of the incidence of disease in the study area. Additionally, there are health related problems at the host communities that were not properly documented, let alone attempting a resolution process.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Geospatial method of siting sustainable sanitary landfill in Johor
           Malaysia

    • Authors: H.I. Mohammed, Z. Majid, Y.B. Yamusa
      Pages: 352 - 360
      Abstract: To obtain an accurate and precise result in any sanitary landfill siting study, one must be able to identify important criteria which are very crucial and challenging in geoinformatics. The level of importance of each criterion varies from one region or country to another. In this research, intensive literature review was carried out to extract the most important criteria to be used in siting sanitary landfill sites in the study area in accordance with local and international guidelines. Three main criteria were identified: environmental, social, and economic. They were divided into thirteen sub-criteria; water bodies, geology, soils, elevation, slope, residential areas, archeological sites, airports, population, roads, railways, infrastructures, and land use and land cover which were used to produce the map of the best potential sites. Ranking and weighing of each criterion was done using AHP pair-wise comparison matrix and normalization of the matrix to get the weight of each criteria. The study revealed that, 54% of the study area were unsuitable areas for sanitary landfill site, 12% less suitable, 21% suitable and 13% most suitable. Three most suitable potential sites were identified among the various sites from the class of most suitable sites in the final map and were validated using the satellite imagery of the study area via Google Earth PRO and field survey. This method can be an advanced alternative to the existing methodologies for selecting relevant criteria in siting sanitary landfill and for long-term planning of solid waste management.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Ambient air quality assessment for three criteria air pollutants (NO2,
           SO2, and PM10) under various land uses in Gwagwalada, FCT

    • Authors: Hadiza Amanabo , Saadatu Umaru Baba
      Pages: 361 - 367
      Abstract: Air pollution and its detrimental health impacts have become a major global environmental and health concern. The aim of this study is to assess air quality under different land uses and determine the variation in air quality between urban and rural areas of Gwagwalada Area Council, Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The concentrations of three criteria pollutants - nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10) were measured across four identified land uses - market, motor parks, residential and roadside in both urban and rural areas. The average concentration of ambient air pollutants from these different land uses were compared to the standard limits for outdoor concentration established by World Health Organization (WHO), United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv). Among the criteria pollutants, NO2 was not detected across the entire land use types in both urban and rural areas except for urban markets. Average SO2 concentration across the different land uses for urban areas exceeded the limits of WHO and FMEnv. PM10 concentrations varied across land use types but were within the FMEnv and USEPA limits. PM10, and SO2 were the main pollutants in both urban and rural areas. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) result showed that there was no substantial difference in the average concentration of pollutants across urban and rural areas of Gwagwalada Area Council. The study concludes that air quality monitoring should be considered a priority for both urban and rural areas.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Haematophagous flies, haemoparasites and ecological variables impinging
           livestock health in three private farms within southern parts of Kano
           State, Nigeria

    • Authors: H.O. Osue , K.E. Okoh , M.A. Abdullahi , D. Ahmed
      Pages: 368 - 374
      Abstract: A spot check for animal trypanosomosis was conducted in three farms; two from Kiru and one from Bunkure Local Government Areas of Kano State, within the Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zone in North West of Nigeria. The study was sequel to suspected outbreak of trypanosomosis and biting flies menace in the farms. Severe emaciation and low grade mortalities (often sudden) among the herds were reported. Blood samples were collected from emaciated cattle (n=70) from the study population (n=241) and examined for presence of trypanosomes using the buffy coat technique. Babesia and Anaplasma were analyzed by microscopic examination of thin blood smear fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution. Twenty two samples (30%) were found to have different species of haemoparasites; Trypanosoma theileri (n=2), Anaplasma marginale (n=13) and Babesia bovis (n=7). The mean packed cell volume (PCV) was 25±% with a range between 16-41%; Farm-1 in Kiru and Farm-3 in Bunkure had the lowest and highest values, respectively. It was obvious that ticks infestation posed health and livestock production challenges to the study farms. The likelihood that mechanical transmission of trypanosomosis can be facilitated stemmed from migrating nomadic herds interaction with farm cattle during grazing and presence of biting fly population. The huge negative economic impact of haemoparasites; babesiosis and anaplasmosis to livestock within tsetse free area remains a big challenge. Combining vector (biting flies), haemoparasites and ectoparasites (ticks) control strategy using berenil and chlortetracycline appeared to be highly cost effective and efficient when administered to all animals.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Aframomum melegueta: a stimulator of liver function enzymes and a
           down-regulator of cyanide-mediated oxidative injuries in rats

    • Authors: Helen Ejiro Kadiri, Augustine Apiamu
      Pages: 375 - 379
      Abstract: Despite the risk of cyanide poisoning a suitable antidote that can be administered at a reasonable quantity to a large number of individuals is not yet available. This study was carried out to determine the possible hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Aframomum melegueta seed against cyanide-induced liver injury and its possible antidote effect. Thirty male rats divided into five groups were used for this study. Group 1, received neither cyanide nor the seed extract (Normal control), Groups 2-5 were administered cyanide orally by gavage in form of KCN at a concentration of 4 mg/kg body weight according to body weights as follows; Group 2, received cyanide only (positive control). Group 3 received cyanide and sodium thiosulphate (500 mg/kg body weight) a standard cyanide antidote. (Standard control). Group 4 and 5 were co-treated with cyanide and different doses of the extract three times weekly for the duration of the experiment. Co-treatment with A. melegueta restored the weight loss and the activities of AST, ALT. ALP to levels compared to that obtained in the normal control. In addition co-treatment with A. melegueta modulated the cyanide mediated depletion of the antioxidant capacities of the rats that were exposed to cyanide and the increasing lipid peroxidation profile. The results indicated that ethanolic extract of A.melegueta seed ameliorated cyanide-induced hepatoxicity in rats through their free radical- scavenging mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Influence of Nimbia forest biomass on soil properties in Southern Kaduna

    • Authors: Kato Hosea Mande , Barnabas W. Qurix, Akeem O. Olaniyia, Mercy Richard
      Pages: 380 - 385
      Abstract: Changes in Forest biomass frequently influence the physicochemical composition of soil. In the Nimbia Forest Reserve, Southern Kaduna, certain physical and chemical soil parameters were investigated across changes in the forest biomass sequence. The objective was to ascertain how changes in forest biomass will impact on soil properties. In order to represent changes in forest biomass stages. Soil samples (0–20 cm depth) were taken from three different forest plots: (Plot A, Plot B, and Plot C). Between 2021 and 2022, soil samples were examined for the following soil properties: soil organic matter (SOM), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), pH, NH4 +-N, available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P), and microelements (available copper (Cu), available zinc (Zn), available iron (Fe), and available boron (B)). The findings demonstrated that the changes in forest biomass had higher amounts of SOM, SMBC, Cu, Zn, Fe, and B. (Plot B). In contrast, P and pH were higher in the Plot A but lower in the Plot B. While SOM, Zn, Cu, Fe, and B increased with increasing forest biomass, pH, NH4 +-N, P, and K decreased. In the three different forest plots, the soil pH was less than 4.5, which showed that Nimbia's surface soil was acidic, a consistent tendency.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on viscosity of transesterified neem
           oil

    • Authors: F.U. Musa, H.U. Jamo, D.H. Muhammad, S. H. Gwadabe, U.I. Ismail, S. Turaki, S.A. Aliyu, E. Tolufase, Olaseni M. Bello, I. Nura
      Pages: 386 - 389
      Abstract: Efforts have been made worldwide to find alternative fluids for industrial applications. Vegetable oil appears to be a perfect alternative, but using most of the vegetable oil as a feedstock made its use for industrial purposes challenging. The recent trend is to develop coolants/lubricants from non-edible seed oil. This work investigates the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on viscosity of transesterified neem oil. The crude neem oil was purified, transesterified and nanoparticles were dispersed in the transesterified oil at concentrations ranging from 0.0% to 1.0% at 0.2% intervals. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra were used to examine the structures of the samples and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses were used to examine the surface morphology of the samples. Viscosity were examined. Among other things, it was found that a small amount of ZnO (0.6%) nanoparticles in the oil could improve the viscosity of the fluid. The nanoliquid with a ZnO concentration of 0.6% appears to have optimal properties.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Toxicity study and effect of the leaf extract of Acacia nilotica on some
           biochemical parameters of Wistar albino rats

    • Authors: Baba Gabi , Hauwa B. Sharif, Hauwa Umar, Isyaku Umar
      Pages: 390 - 397
      Abstract: Plants are the primary source of human medications and knowledge on its toxicity is vital; this work evaluates the acute toxicity and effect of Acacia nilotica leaf crude extract on the liver and kidney functions. The mean lethal dose (LD50) was determined by Lorke’s method, while the crude extract effect was evaluated by biochemical and histo-pathological assessments. The LD50 value was 3807.89 mg/kg for both oral and intra-peritoneal route of administrations. An elevated serum urea above the normal reference value in both control and treated group upon administration of 1000 mg/kg of the extract with mean values of 7.92 ± 1.19 and 7.86 ± 1.14 mmol/l respectively was observed. The results of ALAT, ASAT, ALP, T.protein, Albumin, and bilirubin in all cases were within the normal values. The kidney and liver function parameters at higher extract concentrations of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day and relative organ weight were statistically significant (p< 0.05) and correlates with mild effect indicted on the histopathology of the organs. This study showed that administration of A. nilotica extract at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day for an extended period could prompt hepatic and nephron toxicity.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Comparative quality assessment of wine produced from green and purple
           grapes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from fermented milk

    • Authors: S.S.D. Mohammed , U.S. Kwabo , J. Maiangwa , Z.J. Nasir , M.I. Ibrahim
      Pages: 398 - 405
      Abstract: This research aimed at the comparative quality assessment of wine produced from green and purple grapes using saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from fermented milk. The yeast was isolated using the pour plate technique and identified using cultural morphology, microscopic appearance, the carbohydrate utilization (sugar) test and ethanol tolerance test. Green and purple grapes were placed in different conical flask. The flask were designated as GGW and PGW for each sample respectively. Each sample (1000 ml) in the flask was inoculated with 2 ml 1.0 x 106 CFU of S. cerevisiae / mL , mixed with 0.2 ml 10% sodium metabisulfite, fermented for 5 days at room temperature, degassed and stirred daily, pasteurized at 60°C to stop the fermentation process and evaporated in a rotary evaporator at 60°C to remove the alcohol. Changes in temperature, pH, titratable acidity, volatile acidity, alcohol content, specific gravity (physicochemical parameters) were determined at intervals using standard methods. The must and the produced wines were subjected to several analysis. The produced wines were subjected to a proximate analysis, microbial analysis (total bacteria, coliform and total yeast counts) and sensory evaluated using nine-point hedonic scale by 10 experts (employees and students) and a shelf life of the produced wine were also determined. The yeast isolate was microscopically suspected to have the same colony morphology as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As it was observed that glucose, maltose, fructose, galactose and sucrose were used up by the yeast isolates: The yeast isolate had an ethanol tolerance of up to 14%. The physicochemical parameters were relatively stable throughout the wine production process. The temperature ranged from 27°C - 28°C. The pH rose after fermentation. The specific weight decreased in all produced wines. Results of the proximate composition of green and purple grape wines showed varied percentages. The microbial analysis showed that bacterial isolates were dominated by yeast isolates. The sensory evaluation showed that both green and purple grape wine had an overall acceptance. The shelf life results showed that purple wine got spoilt faster than green wines. This study has shown that locally isolated yeast strains can be used to produce wines from locally available fruits which can yield good nutritional and microbiological quality.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Time series modelling of diabetes disease in Taraba State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Pascalis Kadaro Matthew, Kurutsi Nuhu Timothy, Rita Ajia, Solomon Antyev
      Pages: 406 - 412
      Abstract: In this study, we applied an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model to predict the spread of Diabetes disease infection in Taraba State, Nigeria. The monthly recorded cases of Diabetes between January 2010 and December 2020 in Federal Medical Centre, Jalingo was used to fit and validate the ARIMA model. A seasonal fluctuation and a slightly increasing pattern of a long-term trend were revealed in the time series of Diabetes disease. ARIMA (0,1,1) was selected as the best optimal model which has the lowest value of AIC/BIC. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used to assessed the predictive capability of the optimal model. The twenty-four (24) months forecast of Diabetes disease infection in Taraba State, Nigeria was also presented. The ARIMA model could be applied to effectively predict the short-term Diabetes disease infections in Taraba State, Nigeria and provide support for the development of interventions for disease control and prevention.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Production and quality evaluation of cake from wheat and red banana flour
           blends

    • Authors: S.C. Ubbor , V.C. Ezeocha , D.C. Arukwe , J.I. Ekeh , B.N. Iguh , A.S. Jackson
      Pages: 413 - 420
      Abstract: Cakes are convenient food products prepared from flour basically wheat and other principal ingredients and often baked. This study investigated the quality of cake produced from flour blends of wheat and red banana. Cakes were produced from eight formulations of flour blends of wheat and red banana at 10-80% ratios. Cakes from 100% wheat flour served as the control. The flour blends were analysed for functional properties while the cakes were subjected to proximate, physical and sensory evaluation. Results of the functional properties of the flour blends significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased proportion of banana flour in all the parameters evaluated. The same trend was observed in the proximate composition of the cakes in the ash, fibre and carbohydrate contents. Amongst the physical properties (weight, height, volume) of the cakes evaluated the weights were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the flour blends than the control sample (100% wheat flour). The sensory evaluation showed high scores of preference and acceptance in cakes containing up to 30% banana flour and were comparable to the control (100% wheat) in all the parameters analysed. The study revealed that cake produced from wheat/banana flour blends possesses good nutrient quality comparable to the control (100% wheat flour).
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • The intelligent waste container

    • Authors: Percy Okae
      Pages: 421 - 427
      Abstract: This work involved the design of an intelligent waste container that is capable of notifying the waste disposal company immediately they are filled to capacity so that they may be emptied. The central container collection system of waste disposal which is the main form of waste collection and disposal in most developing countries has rather led to filthy surroundings. This is because the waste containers provided in the communities are never emptied immediately, they get filled to capacity. To counter this problem, this system was designed to use short messaging service (SMS) technique to alert the waste disposal company of a container that is full. The system makes use of a sensor, microcontroller and a global system for mobile (GSM) module in order to function. An application that uses a SMS server is deployed at the offices of the waste management company to complete the system. The sensor detects whether the skip is full or not. The microcontroller controls when the text message is sent the moment the skip is full. The message that is sent is received on a console at the offices of the waste management company through the SMS server. The driver assigned to that skip is then dispatched to empty the skip.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Enhancement of complex permittivity and attenuation properties of
           activated carbon derived from oil palm fruit fiber for microwave
           application

    • Authors: Ismail Ibrahim Lakin, Asiya Hassan, Tafida Rabi’u Abubakar, Nicodemus Kure, Gyuk Philibus Musa, Ibrahim Garba Shitu
      Pages: 428 - 434
      Abstract: This study aimed to synthesize activated carbon (AC) from empty oil palm fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber to enhance its complex permittivity properties by modifying the particle size and surface area via physical activation. Sample characterizations of complex permittivity were conducted using open-ended coaxial technique and a vector network analyzer. The absorption properties were analyzed using the finite element method (FEM) simulations of the transmission coefficients and the distribution of electric fields via the microstrip models. Simulations and measurements were all carried out within the range 8–12 GHz. The initial surface area of the unactivated sample was 4.02, after 700, 750, and 800 °C activation, 730.40, 814.00, and 927.01 m2/g was obtained respectively. With increased surface area, the dielectric constant and loss factor values increased and attained maximum values of 6.13 and 0.83 at 8 GHz, respectively from initial values of 3.63 and 0.52, as the surface area increased from 4.02 to 927.01 m2/g. The improved absorption properties displayed by the AC in the simulations demonstrated their capacity to attenuate X-band microwaves.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Correlates of dermis thickness in mouse models with a range of obesity,
           insulin resistance and diabetic states

    • Authors: Edward Taynton Wargent, Amgad Al-Habian, Mohamed Sghaier Zaibi, Joanne Louise Selway, Claire Joanne Stocker, Kenneth Langlands
      Pages: 435 - 443
      Abstract: Diabetic complications of the skin regarding skin structure have been well documented and researched, notably in relation to wound healing. Recently it has also been discovered that dermis thickness may also be reduced in type 2 diabetic patients. Peripheral damage in diabetes has been attributed to inflammation, as well as hyperglycaemia resulting from insulin resistance. However, this has not been investigated specifically in relation to dermis thickness. This study used mouse models with a range of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetic states to investigate the extent of reduction in dermis thickness that results from these conditions and to elucidate the correlation of dermis thickness with both biomarkers of insulin resistance and whole-body and local proinflammatory cytokine levels, which can both directly damage tissues and be the causative factor of the insulin resistance. The results suggest that the reduced dermis thickness observed in type 2 diabetes is likely a result of hyperglycaemia resulting from insulin resistance rather than the increased proinflammatory milieu resulting from insulin resistance and obesity.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 3 (2022)
       
 
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