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Science World Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1597-6343
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Phytochemical, physiocochemical and elemental analyses of some
           antimalarial herbal concoctions prepared in Kaduna Metropolis

    • Authors: M.N. Abdullahi , E. Alonge, S. Muhammad , M.D. Mahmud
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Antimalarial herbal concoctions are mixtures of whole plants or parts of two or more plants species administered as oral decoctions, steam baths or infusions. The phytochemical studies of all the antimalarial herbal concoctions obtained from Gonin-gora (A), Ungwan-mu’azu (B), Central market (C), Tudun-wada (D) and Mando (E) revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates and cardiac glycosides but saponins were only found in Tudun-wada and Ungwan-mua’zu samples while tannins were present in Gonin-gora, Tudun-wada and Mando samples. However, anthraquinones were not detected in all samples. Thus the presence of flavonoids, saponins and tannins in all the samples could be the reason for the antimalarial activity of the concoctions. The elemental analyses of all the samples revealed the presence of Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn. The concentration of Cr in all the samples were found to be within the range of 0.26±0.01 to 5.68±0.07 which was above the W.H.O. maximum permissible limits (0.05mg/L). Pd was only found in Ungwan-mu’azu, Central market and Tudun-wada samples which was found to be within the range of 0.07±0.00 to 0.09±0.00 which was above the W.H.O. permissible limits (0.05mg/L). The pH of all the samples was found to be within the range of 6.23 to 6.77 which indicated them as weakly acidic. The total ash analyses of all the samples revealed that Mando (19.33±0.55%), Ungwan-mu’azu (55.83±0.35%) and Gonin-gora (48.57±0.65%) which indicated high level of contamination probably in the processing steps, while that of Central-market and Tudun-wada samples had the least ash contents (1.04±0.00%). The moisture content of all the samples were found to be within the range of 12.93±0.00% to 44.30±0.01% but that of Ungwan-mu’azu, Central-market and Tudun-wada samples had high moisture contents which indicated that these herbal concoctions can be easily attacked by micro-organisms while those from Gonin-gora (12.99±0.00%) and Mando (12.93±0.00%) were within the permissible limits (14%).
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Determination of elemental concentration of water samples using gamma
           spectroscopy technique: A case study of Tudun Wadan Dankade, Kano State

    • Authors: M.N. Musa, F.S. Koki, S. Ibrahim, S. Badamasi, M.Z. Musa, A. Musa
      Pages: 6 - 10
      Abstract: This research was aimed at investigating the Elemental Analysis of Some Metals composition of twenty (20) water samples from the different sources (Borehole, wells, Irrigation and Tap) within Tudun Wadan Dankade Local Government Area using Gamma Spectroscopy to determine the concentration of the elements present in the water sample using a well-calibrated NaI (TI) detector system. The result of the analysis was compared with the reference permissible limit to ascertain whether or not the water is safe for drinking. The mean radioactivity content obtained for K-40, U-238 and Th-232 were 7.22±0.54 Bq/L, 10.5±1.96 Bq/L and 1.71±0.16 Bq/L from Borehole water, 6.30±0.50, 4.41 ± 0.84 and 1.71 ± 0.16 in Irrigation water, while 7.53±0.62 Bq/L, 2.72±0.62 Bq/L and 3.23±0.22 Bq/L in Tap water and 15.76±1.24 Bq/L, 17.43±3.78 Bq/L in well water respectively. The mean values 5.54nGyh-1, 4.52nGyh-1, 2.59nGyh-1 and 10.08nGyh-1 were obtained for the absorbed dose in water sources samples of Borehole, Irrigation, Tap and well respectively while 0.67mSvy-1, 0.79mSvy-1, 0.60mSvy-1 and 1.93mSvy-1 were obtained for the Annual Effective Doses (AED). Similarly, the radium equivalent (Raq) were 13.50Bq/L, 10.16Bq/L, 5.88Bq/L and 29.59Bq/L in water for all the Borehole, Irrigation, Tap and well water, respectively. The external and internal radiation hazard indices were 0.06, 0.04, 0.02, 0.13 and 0.04, 0.03, 0.01, 0.08 respectively in water sample sources. The values obtained for the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) in (x 10-3) for all the water sources of Borehole, Irrigation, Tap and Well water were 2.35, 2.76, 2.10 and 6.75 respectively. It was found that the values of some exposure rate, radioactivity contents and radiological impact parameters in the study area which were higher than that of the world average values poses a serious health risk to the environment and its inhabitants.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Gastroprotective effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Anogeissus
           leiocarpus against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    • Authors: Hafsat Rufa’i, Humphrey C. Nzelibe, Abarshi. M. Musa
      Pages: 11 - 16
      Abstract: The Gastroprotective effect of Anogeissus leiocarpus aqueous stem bark extract against ethanol induced gastric ulceration in albino rats was investigated. The objective of the present investigation was to assess, in an animal model, the gastroprotective effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus and to screen for possible protective effects of the extract as ulcer remedy. Fifty male and thirty six female albino rats (weighing 160-250g) were used in this study. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones, tannins, cardiac glycosides, steroids and triterpenes. The median lethal dose (LD50) studies of the aqueous stem bark of A. leiocarpus were found to be above 5000mg/kg body weight orally. Pre-treatment by oral administration of aqueous stem bark extract of A. leiocarpus at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg b.w for 14 days, dose dependently significantly decreased the mean ulcer score, ulcer index, percentage ulceration and preventive index (p˂0.05) induced by 70% ethanol. The standard drug (cimetidine 100mg/kg) also decreased the ulcer parameters. The severity of the reaction to ethanol on gastric mucosa and cytoprotection by aqueous A. leiocarpus were apparent by histological assessment of the gastric mucosa. In conclusion these findings shown that aqueous stem bark extract of A. leiocarpus possess a dose-dependent gastroprotection of the gastric mucosa ulcer parameters and cytoprotectection evident by histopathology. These justify the ethno medicinal use of the plant in the treatment and management of gastric ulcer.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Antibiogram and virulence gene detection in Escherichia coli and Vibrio
           species isolated from market dumpsites in Edo South Senatorial District,

    • Authors: Iyekhoetin Matthew Omoruyi, Stephanie Eboseremen Ojubiaja
      Pages: 17 - 25
      Abstract: Dumpsites are reported as a major source of human exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. In the current study, we investigated the prevalence of Vibrio sp. and Escherichia coli from market dumpsites in selected local government areas in Edo-South Senatorial district. Bacterial isolates were isolated using standard microbiological techniques, and further identified by their morphological, biochemical and 16 S rRNA sequence. The antibiotic susceptibility test and multidrug resistance profile were done by the agar disc diffusion method. DNA extraction was done by boiling method and the presence of virulent genes (Ctx, TcpAEl tor, Zot, flicH7, Lt and Stx) in the isolates were detected by polymerase chain reaction as well as agarose gel electrophoresis. Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli were prevalent in soil and leachates from market dumpsites in selected local government areas in Edo-South Senatorial district. All the isolates were multidrug resistant, while a total of 31 isolates (26 Escherichia coli and 5 Vibrio sp.) had at least, one of the virulent genes (Lt, FliCH7, UidA, CtxA and TcpAEl tor) of interest. This study shows that Escherichia coli and Vibrio sp. isolated from market dumpsites are multidrug resistant, and possesses virulent genes, thus, making them a threat to public health.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of fractions of Sida
           acuta against some reference isolates of bacteria

    • Authors: M. Hassan , F.M. Musa , A. Adamu, Gabi Baba
      Pages: 26 - 30
      Abstract: The use of medicinal plants could be an excellent source of drugs to overcome the problem of antibiotic resistance. This study was undertaken to determine the phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activities of Ethanol leaf extract fractions of Sida acuta against Escherichia coli (ATCC 43888), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633). The phytochemical constituents of the fractions of the crude extract were determined using standard methods. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the leaf fractions against the reference isolates of bacteria were determined using agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods, at varied concentrations of the extract and using ciprofloxacin antibiotic as control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, terpenes and phenols. The N-butanol and aqueous fractions of the leaf of S. acuta demonstrated significant antibacterial activities at (P ≤ 0.05) against the isolates of bacteria, while chloroform and ethyl acetate do not. The n-butanol fraction however, exhibited the highest activity against all bacterial isolates with MICs and MBCs of 37.5 mg/mL and 75.0 mg/mL respectively. Therefore, the observed antibacterial activities revealed that Sida acuta could be used for the treatment of infections caused by the test bacterial isolates.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Nature and variation of soil properties under different land management
           practices in southern part of Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    • Authors: B.R. Atiyong , H.Y. Michael
      Pages: 31 - 37
      Abstract: Understanding the nature and variation of soil properties under different land management practices (LMPs) is imperative in determining the types of soil management practices that could be implemented by farmers for improving the soil quality as well as soil productivity. It is also applicable in addressing the issues of agricultural sustainability. This study examined the nature and variability of soil properties under different LMPs. Soil samples were systematically taken at 0-20cm soil depth from three locations on each demarcated hectare cell of the different LMPs in Katugal, Madakiya, Kurmin Sara, Mailafiya and Zankam. This produced a total of 25 composite soil samples. Soil laboratory analysis and Global Positioning System were the instruments employed for data collection. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance were adopted in the analyses of data. The result of the study showed that about 56% of the soils studied were sandy-loam and 44% loamy in nature. Soil particle sizes, organic matter, total nitrogen, Cation Exchangeable Capacity (CEC), phosphorus, micronutrients and micro biomass carbon were heterogeneous (CV>33%), while bulk density, available water holding capacity, soil pH, electrical conductivity, micro biomass nitrogen and basal respiration were homogenous (CV=15 to 32%). There were significance variations within the level of pH and soil basal respiration at 0.05% among the land management practices. The study recommended the use of animal dung, compost, inorganic fertilizers and crop residue as soil conditioners in addition to the adoption of eco-friendly LMPs to ameliorate soil properties in the low to moderate variability farmlands.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Improvement of porcelain physical properties through the substitution of
           quartz element with rice husk ash and palm oil fuel ash

    • Authors: H.U. Jamo, I.D. Umar, S. Abdu, Zainab Ali Tambalo, Sani Abdulkarim, Ibrahim T. Salisu, Aminu Musa Liman, M.B. Abdullahi, M. Izzudden
      Pages: 38 - 44
      Abstract: Rice husk ash (RHA) and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) have a great potential to replace the quartz element in porcelain composition. The Malaysian RHA and POFA were used to substitute quartz in porcelain body from 0 wt% to 25 wt%. The mixed powder was pressed into pellets at pressure of 91 MPa. All the pellets were sintered at a temperatures of 1000 ºC, 1100 ºC, 1200 ºC and 1300 ºC for soaking time 2 hours. The physical analysis results show that the physical properties of the samples increased with increase in substitution and also with the increase in temperature. Moreover, maximum physical properties were obtained on 20 wt% substitution of quartz by RHA and POFA at a temperature of 1200 ºC. The XRD results show that RHA was mainly amorphous form as indicated by a broad peak, while the pattern for POFA indicated the crystalline phase. The SEM shows both RHA and POFA particles consist of irregular particles and have porous cellular It could be concluded therefore, that the RHA and POFA have significant role in the enhancing the physical properties of porcelain body.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Evaluation of groundwater resources and geoelectric properties using
           electrical resistivity method at Barakin Rafin Gora Area, Jos-Plateau,
           Northcentral Nigeria

    • Authors: Shola C. Odewumi, Magdalene S. Ayuba, Charity U. Zang, Alfred E. Misal
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: The evaluation of groundwater resources and geoelectric properties at Barakin Rafin Gora area, Jos-Plateau was carried out using electrical resistivity method. Forty (40) Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were carried out using the Schlumberger electrode array configuration, with half-current electrode separation (AB/2) varying from 1 to 125 m using Allied Ohmega terrameter and its accessories. The resistivity sounding curves obtained from the study area varied from the 3-layer (A and H types) to 4-layer (AK, KH, HK, QH, HA, AA and QK) and 5-layer (HKH and KHK) with the H type being the predominant. The geoelectric sections indicate that the subsurface is characterized into five (5) geologic layers namely: topsoil, weathered layer(laterite, clayey), fractured basement and fresh basement. The thickness of overburden ranges from 0 to 40m and is classified into three zones rating basically as low aquifer potential (0-5m), intermediate aquifer potential (20-30m) and higher aquifer potential (30-40m). The groundwater prospects of the study area are zoned into high (red colour), medium (pink colour) and low potentials (yellow colour). The zones where thickness of the aquifer is greater than 25m are considered zones of high groundwater potentials at VES points, 3, 9, 15, 25, 28 and 38 while the low groundwater potential rating occurs where the aquifer thickness is below 20m at VES points 13, 19, 20, 24, 28, 31, 33 and 34.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Birds of prey of Dagona Waterfowl Sanctuary, Northeastern Nigeria

    • Authors: Bashir Babura Sabo, Salisu Mohammed, Mustapha Zakariya Karkarna
      Pages: 52 - 58
      Abstract: The dramatic increase in human pressure, deforestation and general decrease in tree cover, overgrazing and erosion, pesticide use, over-hunting and fishing, and sometimes direct persecution of predators, all impact negatively on birds of prey population. The aim of this research was to examine species of birds of prey in Dagona Waterfowl Sanctuary in Northeastern Nigeria. Transect line method was used for the bird survey. The survey was carried out for a period of six (6) months using transect line method and each site was surveyed twice every month during the study period. Bird observation was carried out twice daily; morning between 6:00 to 10:00 a.m. and evening between 4:00 to 6:30p.m by walking slowly along the transect line. Birds were counted as birds seen and birds inflight were also counted. Transect line survey method detected a total of 550 individual birds of prey that belong to twenty (20) species of 2 families. Accipitridae with 17 species is the richest family in species number and Falconidae with 3 species. Out of the 20 species recorded 13 are resident, 4 Palearctic migrant and 3 intra-African migrant. Four species of global conservation concern were also recorded; the Vulnerable Tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) ,the Near threatened Red-necked falcon (Falco chicquera) and Pallid harrier (Circus macrourus) and the Endangered Martial eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus ). This survey shows that, the Dagona Waterfowl sanctuary still retained a considerable number of birds of prey species that normally occur in West Africa. The management needs to increase conservation measures that will ensure the protection of the wetlands.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Parametric Reaccelerated Overrelaxation (PROR) method for numerical
           solution of linear systems

    • Authors: I.O. Isah, M.D. Ndanusa, M.D. Shehu, A. Yusuf
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: This paper proposes the Parameterized Reaccelerated Overrelaxation (PROR) method for numerical solution of linear systems arising from the discretization of partial differential equations. The method is a three-parameter generalization of the Reaccelerated overrelaxation (ROR) method. An expression for the eigenvalues of the iteration matrix of the method is obtained in terms of the eigenvalues of the corresponding Jacobi iteration matrix. Functional relations for determining the optimum values of the parameters are established. Numerical examples are presented to validate theoretical results as well as compare with existing methods. Results showed that the method is suitable and compares favourably with AOR, ROR and PAOR methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Effect of addition of titanium oxide nanoparticles on the viscosity of
           olive oil

    • Authors: H.U. Jamoa, E. Tolufase, O.I. Oladunjoyeb, S. Abdu, I.D. Umar, Zainab Ali Tambaloa, Ibrahim T. Salisu, Aminu Musa Limana, M.B. Abdullahia, M. Izzudden
      Pages: 65 - 68
      Abstract: Biodiesel has drawn more and more attention in recent years because it is renewable and has less detrimental effects on environment as compared with conventional diesel derived from petroleum. Biodiesel obtained from renewable olive can be used in diesel engines or blended at various proportions with petroleum diesel as fuel. This work investigates the influence of titanium oxides nanoparticles on the viscosity of olive oil. The crude olive oil was purified, transesterified and titanium oxides nanoparticles were dispersed in the transesterified olive oil with concentration ranging from 0.2% to 1.0% in 0.2% interval. Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR) was used to examine the structures of the samples. The viscosity, of the crude, purified and transesterified olive oil were studied. It was found out among other things that small amount of titanium oxides (0.4%) nanoparticles in the oil could improve the physical properties of the fluid. This is due to the fact that high reactive surface area responsible for more complete combustion due to reduction in ignition delays. It was also found out that the use of nanoparticle not only helps in effective mixing of components, but also provides close contact between them, which facilitates the diffusion of reactants to the surface and increase their reactivity. The nanofluid with 0.4% concentration of titanium oxides appears to have optimum physical property. The measured values of viscosity coincide with the standard values.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Uncertainties classification in cyberspace using ensemble learning model

    • Authors: M.E. Irhebhude, Z.O. Musa, A.O. Kolawole
      Pages: 69 - 76
      Abstract: Studies have shown that different techniques can help classify uncertainties in the cyber space, however, a lot of these studies did not report the false predictions. Ensembled classifier was applied in this paper to curb the uncertainties in cyberspace. Classification learner in MATLAB was used as a tool to train the machine learning model on the publicly available University of New South Wales Network-Based (UNSW-NB15) and locally gathered datasets. A multiclass classification was done on the two datasets which consist of various attack categories. An experiment was performed with the proposed model on the datasets with the use of an ensemble classifier in MATLAB classification learner with 30% held for validation. Performances were measured using accuracy, confusion matrix, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The experiments resulted in excellent classification accuracy of 99.1% and 99.4% on the merged Comma Separated Value (CSV) UNSW-NB15 dataset and self-acquired dataset respectively. Experimental results from the two datasets have shown that ensembled gave a more robust classification accuracy compared to artificial neural network classifier. With the results, the ensemble model help solved the problem of classification of attacks in network environment and uncertainties in cyberspace. Infrastructures in cyberspace and user interaction will be well secured with the adopted solution.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Determination of above ground biomass accumulated in Nimbia Forest Reserve
           of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Kato Hosea Mande, Mercy Richard, Joshua Yusuf
      Pages: 77 - 82
      Abstract: Despite the importance of forests, most forest carbon stocks are poorly defined, and knowledge gaps obstruct efforts to estimate above-ground biomass across Nigeria. Descriptive research design was employed in estimating the amount of above ground biomass stored in the forest. A single hectare plot was sampled and used as a representative of the entire forest due to the homogeneity of the forest. Data were collected using, Diameter at Breast Height (DBH), maximum tree height, number of trees within sampled plot and plot size. Allometric equations was employed to analyze the DBH and trees height to estimate the; weight of stem, weight of branch, weight of leaves and finally the accumulated AGB (Above Ground Biomass) within the sampled plot, which was also treated as AGB density in this study. Estimation of forest area covered by tree was done by analyzing a satellite image of the forest using Arc GIS software and finally the Total Aboveground Biomass (TAGB) of the forest was extrapolated from the estimated values. The finding suggest that Nimbia Forest Reserve covers significantly land area of 1,909.72 hectares and 81.12% (1549.24 hectares) with Teak trees planted three metres apart and an AGB density of 53,279,932.02 tons per hectare. These conclude that the Nimbia Forest Reserve is worth over eight billion tons of accumulated AGB and four billion tons of CO2, furthermore, any tree cutting will release a significant amount of CO2 into the atmosphere, posing a climate change concern.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Assessment of Gardenia erubescens aqueous root crude extract on male
           sexual functions-related biochemical parameters in clonidine-induced
           sexual dysfunction Wistar rats

    • Authors: B.P Omoniwa, I.Y. Longdet, G.C. Okpatu, K.G. Oladele
      Pages: 83 - 97
      Abstract: This study evaluated the phytochemistry, male sexual function (MSF)-enhancing and toxicity potentials of aqueous root extract of G. erubescens (AREGE). For the MSF test, 30 rats were randomly divided into groups A, B, C, D, E and F, each group containing 5 rats. Group A represented the control and received only distilled water. Sexual dysfunction was induced in rats of groups B – F by orally administering clonidine (0.5 mg/kg body weight [BW]). Rats in groups B – F were thereafter treated with distilled water, 13.43 mg/kg BW Kongy [standard drug], AREGE [50 mg/kg BW], AREGE [100 mg/kg BW] and AREGE [200 mg/kg BW] respectively. Rats were treated for 7 days, sacrificed and their blood, penises and testes collected for analysis of selected MSF-associated biochemical parameters. For the toxicity study, 40 rats were randomly divided into groups W, X, Y and Z of 10 rats each and administered distilled water, AREGE [50 mg/kg BW], AREGE [100 mg/kg BW] and AREGE [200 mg/kg BW] respectively. Five rats per group were sacrificed 24 h after treatment for 1 day while the rest were sacrificed 24 h after treatment for 21 days. Their blood, livers and kidneys were collected for liver/kidney function indices determination. Extract contains alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, iron, zinc, selenium, glutamic acid, arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine among others. Clonidine reduced testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), nitric oxide (NO) and prolactin levels. The extract significantly increased (p < 0.05) testosterone, serum LH, DHT, prolactin and penile NO concentrations when compared with the clonidine and distilled water-treated group. Extract also significantly increased (p < 0.05) serum gammaglutamyl transferase (GGT), sodium, phosphate, creatinine, urea, liver/serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) but reduced kidney GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum total protein levels when compared with the control. Available results show that AREGE possesses MSF-enhancing activity but poses a threat to the normal functioning of the liver and kidney.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Challenges of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae as a fast
           developing superbug and the way forward

    • Authors: U.M. Oyedum
      Pages: 98 - 106
      Abstract: Multi drug resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae are strains that can withstand the therapeutic effects of three or more antibiotics, mostly the first line antibiotics, which include Chloramphenicol, Cotrimoxazole, Streptomycin, Tetracycline, Sulfonamides, Trimethoprim and Ampicillin. This review attempts to highlight various antigenic properties such as; capsule, pili, various pnemococcal enzymes and specific pneumococcal proteins responsible for multi-drug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In addition, this review further highlights the challenges of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae among developing countries such as Nigeria such as the influence of drug resistance on patients, the influence of drug resistance on pharmaceutical industries, the influence of drug resistance on antimicrobial therapy, the influence of drug resistance on manpower and the influence of drug resistance on government resources; and how these problems can be prevented through measures such as; the production of new antibiotics and vaccines, the acquisition of modern health facilities and techniques for easy detection of multidrug resistant strains and the development of adequate drug storage facilities.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Assessment of Plasmodium and Schistosoma infection among primary and
           secondary school children (6-21 years) in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    • Authors: I.M Iliyasu, G.J. Sow , J.B. Balogun, S.A. Abdullahi
      Pages: 107 - 116
      Abstract: This research was conducted to determine the intensity of Plasmodium and Schistosoma infection among school-aged children in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 340 school-aged in Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria. The samples were examined for Plasmodium and Schistosoma species. The primary school with high intensity of P. falciparum is C.A.C 21.1, while Al-Ihsan had the lowest intensity of 11.75. The school with high intensity of S. haematobium is Al-Ihsan with 19.00, while Holy Ghost has the lowest intensity of 9.71. The school with high intensity of S. mansoni is L.G.E.A 26.00, while Holy Ghost had the lowest intensity of 12.60. The secondary school with high intensity of P. falciparum is Al-Irshad with 22.36, while Salam Academy had the lowest intensity with 8.17. The school with high intensity of S. mansoni is Salim Progress with 22.00 while Al-Irshad Makurdi had the lowest intensity with 9.00. Based on the findings from the study, it is imperative that: the infected participants be treated with anti-malarial drugs for malaria and praziquantel for Schistosomiasis and monitored continuously via followed up treatment by health authorities to prevent re-infection. Public health awareness and routine investigation should be done often. It is therefore recommended that public health awareness and routine investigation should be intensified within the study population.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as an inoculum carrier for

    • Authors: Felix Adeleke Ikuesan, Mariam Oluwaseun Fajolu
      Pages: 117 - 123
      Abstract: This study evaluates water hyacinth as an inoculum source for biofertilizer. Water hyacinth and harboring river were collected from Alape River in Igbokoda Area, Ondo State. Microbiological analyses of the seaweed were performed using conventional and molecular techniques while physicochemical properties of the water sample were determined using standard techniques. Microbial population of water hyacinth plant parts ranged 1.5 × 107 - 3.4 × 109 (CFU/g, 1. 5 x 103- 8.7 x 106 (CFU/g, 2.0 x103 – 1.02 x 108(CFU/g) and 4.3 x 105 - 4.1 x 106 (SFU/g) for total heterotrophic, phosphate solubilizing, nitrogen –fixing bacteria and heterotrophic fungi respectively. Klebsiella quasipneumoniae strain 07A044, Enterobacter cloacae strain ATCC 23373, Pantoea dispersa (LT 969731.1), Pantoea dispersa strain R 56-3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Azotobacter sp, Azospirillium sp. and Rhizobium sp. Fusarium sp, Alternaria sp, Aspergillus niger, Pythium sp, Trichoderma sp, Rhizocotonia sp, and Pestalotiolopsis sp. were identified. Result revealed a pH of 7.46 and salinity (0.05%), Turbidity (88. 51 mgL-1), DO (5.22 mgL-1) and BOD (6.13mgL-1) with moderate levels of heavy metals. This study concludes that water hyacinth carries diverse types of microbial biofertilizer which can be harvested and prepared into microbial suspension to promote plant growth and increase crop production without jeopardizing environmental and human health.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Impact of COVID-19 on maternal newborn child health services in Federal
           Medical Centre Gusau, Zamfara State

    • Authors: B.A. Mohammed, D. Abubakar, S.A Muhammad, Y. Aremu, S.O. Onazi, F. Akeredolu, A.B Abubakar, M. Yakubu
      Pages: 124 - 129
      Abstract: Background: Infectious diseases have been a constant threat to people’s health and survival, at least thirty re-emerging and emerging diseases (Parks,2009) are known to be of public health importance posing a burden to the health system; in addition, emergence of COVID-19  further tested the resilience of the health system to respond to public health emergencies (NCDC,2020). This study assessed the effect of COVID-19 on use of maternal and child health (MNCH) services with objectives being  the impact on family planning use, antenatal care visits, facility-based delivery and child related services such as immunization, child nutrition and outpatient clinic in FMC Gusau. Data from units offering MNCH services for six months (three months pre-covid-19 index case (January to March) and three months post covid-19 index case (April to June), corresponding to the period of lockdown, in addition same periods in the previous year (2019) was retrieved and entered into Statically package for social sciences (SPSS) now IBM statistic, comparison was made using comparable period of the year as well as a pre and post Covid index case. Over the six-months period, aggregate data shows that hospital visit for all categories of maternal newborn and child health reduced three months (April, May and June) post covid index case in the facility and subsequent proclamation of lockdown in the State, as compared to three-months pre-covid (January, February and first three weeks of March) Despite the additional burden imposed by the emergence of COVID-19 in FMC Gusau and the Attendant stretched on health system, the resilience of the health system was brought to fore,  however with support from Federal ministry of health, National Centre for disease control and other agencies, FMC Gusau was able to use the COVID-19 emergency to strengthen service provision.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold in some major markets and
           farms in Zaria

    • Authors: Ocholi Yahaya, Henry Gabriel Bishop
      Pages: 130 - 133
      Abstract: Vegetables are important sources of dietary nutrients, as well as fiber and photochemicals. Many vegetables are eaten raw or partially cooked. However, vegetables are perishable; as such they are at their best when fresh. In the subtropics, different vegetables are readily available but they are prone to faecal contamination due to application of untreated human wastes on farmlands, or the use of unsafe water body for irrigation. The study was aimed at detecting parasites on seven different vegetable types randomly collected from two major markets and different farms in Zaria. A total of 346 samples were collected. The samples were subjected to sedimentation technique: 25 grams of each sample was washed in 225mL of normal saline, and the wash water was allowed to sediment overnight, followed by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min. Wet mounts of the sediments were examined for parasites on the light microscope using 10x and 40x objectives. Parasitic ova and larvae were identified with help of coloured parasitological atlases. A total of 90(26.0%) out of 346 samples were contaminated with parasites. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most occurring parasite (9.5%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides  (6.9%), Hookworms (6.1%), Trichuris trichiura  (1.7%), whereas Enterobius  vermicularis and  Schistosoma haematobium were 0.9% each. Vegetable samples collected directly from the farms were significantly more contaminated (38.2%, P=0.001) than those from Sabon-Gari Market (32.9%) and Samaru Market (17.5%). Cabbage (42.0%), lettuce (32.0%) and spring onion (32.0%) significantly harboured more parasites (P=0.012) than rest of the vegetables. Also, hookworms significantly occurred in samples from the farms (11.0%), but samples from Sabon-Gari Market (11.4%) and Samaru Market (7.0%) were most contaminated with Strongyloides stercoralis.  The high level of parasitic contamination of vegetables from the farms is a direct indication of use of untreated human wastes and contaminated water for irrigation. The vegetables on reaching the market undergo some level of washing before sale, but this practice alone is not enough to make them safe for human consumption.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Escherichia coli and
           Klebsiella pneumoniae in urine of students of Ahmadu Bello University

    • Authors: J. Barwa, R.K. Obed, H.G. Bishop
      Pages: 134 - 137
      Abstract: When non-resident pathogenic microorganisms invade and multiply in the urinary tract, it leads to urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTIs that are not diagnosed and treated early enough can result into some complications. This research determined the prevalence of Escherichia coli  and Klebsiella pneumoniae in asymptomatic students. Mid-stream urine samples were collected from 151 Microbiology students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Structured questionnaires were administered to ascertain some socio- demographic factors. The samples were inoculated onto sterile plates of MacConkey agar and Eosin Methylene Blue agar, incubated at 37oC for 18-24hr. Pure isolates were identified by Gram staining and biochemical characterization. The isolates were tested against some selected antibiotics. The overall prevalence of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was 3(2.0%) and 1(0.7%) respectively. Both Escherichia coli (3.9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.1%) were isolated only from the female students, and absent in the males. Students within the age group of 16-20 years old had 4.6% Escherichia coli and 1.5% Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, but absent in other age groups. Infections of 2.7% Escherichia coli and 0.9% Klebsiella pneumoniae were found only in students who resided within the school hostels. Only those who used public latrines had infections with Escherichia coli (2.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.8%). Students that used water to clean up after using the toilet had 2.0% Escherichia coli and 0.7% Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, but no infection among those who used toilet roll. All the infections with the two pathogens were found in students who used backward direction for anal cleaning up. The Escherichia coli isolates were equally most susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (10μg), Pefloxacin (10μg) and Tarivid (10μg). But the Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate was susceptible to most of the antibiotics except Septrin (30μg) and Augmentin (30μg).
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Effect of malaria infection on biomarker of lipid peroxidation
           (Malondialdehyde) and lipid profile in pregnant women

    • Authors: Joshua Babalola Balogun, Shamsiyya Sani Muhammad, Musa Mustapha Dogara, Chinedu Bernard Okolugbo, Hafizu Muhammed, Abubakar Sadiq, G.J. Sow
      Pages: 138 - 142
      Abstract: Malaria infection has been found to be associated with lipid peroxidation accompanying reduction in antioxidant capacity of infected patients. This study determined the effects of malaria infection on malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid profile of pregnant women in Dutse, Jigawa State. A total of 103 pregnant women (15-40 years) were enrolled. Blood samples were collected from each consented pregnant women during ante-natal clinic for malaria test, MDA and lipid profile. The mean MDA was significantly higher (p<0.05) in malaria positive primigravidae and secundigravidae than in multigravidae. The mean total cholesterol,  high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride levels were higher in malaria positive than in malaria negative primigravidae and secundigravidae (p>0.05). The mean total cholesterol level was significantly (p<0.05) higher in primigravidae than in malaria positive secundigravidae and multigravidae. Albumin and Total protein were significantly (p<0.05) lowered in the severe than in mild and control groups. The result of this study shows that primigravidae and secungravidae are susceptible to malaria infection and the tendency of having atherosclerosis is higher in malaria positive primigravidae due to increased LDL and total cholesterol. Supplementation of diet with antioxidants along anti-malaria drugs during treatment of malaria pregnant women is recommended.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and fastness properties of monoazo dyes
           derived from substituted arylamines

    • Authors: Juliana Chineze Obi, Ifeanyi Victor Emmanuel, Linus N. Okoro, Agboola O. Bolade, Emeka Friday Onuh, J.C. Ndulaka
      Pages: 143 - 147
      Abstract: Six monoazo dyes derived from arylamines substituted with bromine, chlorine and nitro groups were synthesized via diazo-coupling method and studied. Their functional groups were confirmed by an infra-red spectroscopy. Using solvents of different dielectric constants, the absorption spectra of these dyes showed positive solvatochromism with increasing solvent polarity. They also showed positive halochromism. The molar extinction coefficient of these dyes showed that they were all suitable for textile applications. More so, fastness tests revealed that all the dyes synthesized had better fastness properties on cotton fabric than on nyon 6,6.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Utilization of sweet potato peels for bioethanol generation by Zymomonas
           mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using response methodology

    • Authors: Fatima Umar Adamu, Jonathan Maiangwa, Emmanuel Zakka
      Pages: 148 - 154
      Abstract: Ethanol is one of the bioenergy sources with high efficiency and low environmental impact. In this study, fermentation conditions were optimized based on the central composite design of response surface methodology for maximum ethanol recovery. Under these optimized process conditions, Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used to ferment potato peel waste as a sole carbon source. The test variables in a defined range of inoculum concentration (6 % - 14 %), pH (4.0 – 6.0), sugar concentration (14 – 22oBrix), temperature (24 – 32 oC) and the inoculation time (30 – 54hrs) were modeled using the response surface methodology (RSM). The experimental data indicated that the maximum ethanol production observed by the model was 11.49 mL with optimum inoculum concentration at 10 %, pH of 5, 18°Brix of sugar concentration, 28 °C of temperature at 42 h. All factor variables evaluated had a significant effect on the bioethanol production with probability less than 0.05. The bioethanol has a potential to be used as solid fuel, and furthermore, ethanol yield may have inhibitory impact on the fermentation microorganisms hence lowering product formation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Image denoising based on an improved least-squares generative adversarial

    • Authors: Austin Olom Ogar, Mustapha Aminu Bagiwa, Muhammed Abdullahi
      Pages: 155 - 161
      Abstract: Digital Image Denoising (noise removal) is one of the fundamental steps taken for the restoration of an actual/ true image from its corresponding contaminated version. Image quality and reliability are vital processes that aid investigations, decisions, and judgments across a wide range of disciplines concerning various application domains like a diagnosis in medicine, digital evidence in multimedia forensics, and court of law, among many others. In the last few decades, it is observed that researchers in this field of Image Processing and Computer Vision adapted the traditional methods or approaches to the removal of noise from images. In recent times, advances in artificial intelligence have led to the adoption and popularity of deep learning methods. The Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Network (WGAN), is one of such popular and better approaches that are used. However, the problem with GAN is that after denoising an image, it introduces another variant of noise that was not originally contained in the given (contaminated) image. Against this backdrop, this study, seeking to proffer a solution to image denoising, based on the least squares generative adversarial networks (LSGAN), used a two-step framework to address the problem in WGAN. A Generator model using the srresnet framework was trained to predict the noise distribution over the input noisy images to ease the vanishing gradient and loss saturation. The noise patches were later used to create a paired training dataset which were then used to train a deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) on denoising. The Least Squares Method was adapted as the loss function for the discriminator model. From the results of the study, it was discovered that the proposed model showed improved PSNR values when compared to the model of Zhong et al.; the top three results (from the ten test images for the study) for the proposed model against the existing model gave a PSNR value of 34.40 dB against 32.50dB for the baby image, a PSNR value of 33.73 dB against 31.12dB for the woman image, and a PSNR value of 32.54 dB against 29.10dB for the Zebra image.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • A journey through simplicial complexes

    • Authors: Mari Mohammed, William Obeng-Denteh, Fred Asante-Mensa
      Pages: 162 - 167
      Abstract: This paper reviews some aspects of simplicial complexes. The aspects reviewed in this paper are very key in building undoubtedly strong concept as reviewed on simplicial complexes. The aspects reviewed take into a consideration: how simplices are used to construct simplicial complexes. Key areas covered at the preliminary part of this paper are simplices, face of a simplex, more on facet of a simplex, orientation of simplices, boundary of simplices, interior of a simplex etc. Geometric objects such as points, edges, triangles and tetrahedrons were the materials used in constructing simplicial complexes. We also looked at the geometric realization theorem, skeleton of simplicial complexes, maximal elements and free face, theorems under simplicial complexes and creation of simplicial complexes.  At the results and discussion part, Betti numbers and Euler characteristic of simplicial complexes were computed and chimed in with real life examples. The paper was finalized by chipping in some applications of simplicial complexes. In all, the paper has opened up more and interesting study into simplicial complexes and algebraic topology at large.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Measurements of pour points, flash points, water contents and viscosity of
           some selected automobile oils used as lubricants in Nigeria

    • Authors: Hussain Mansur, Khalifa Aliyu Ibrahim, Abdulaziz Adamu Halidu
      Pages: 168 - 170
      Abstract: The aims of this paper is to determine the viscosity of the automobile lubricating oils at 00 C to 1000C, and some of the lubricant's specifications( flash point and pour point) obtained with a rapid evaluation device and the standardized method using DV-E viscometer. The study material comprised 5 fresh engine oils, all of which are commercially available. ASTM D5949 was the method implored for determining the pour point of the samples. It was found that all the multi-grades oil coincide at 1000C, which is approximately engine operating temperature. That is they have almost the same viscosity at 1000C (43.2cst and 51.2cst (centistokes)).  However, some are desirable than others. Therefore, one has to be careful when choosing these oils. The study fills an important gap in empirical research in the context of the reliability of measurement results using various research techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Topological spaces with an emphasis on the sphere and its applications

    • Authors: Richmond Kwabena Gyan, William Obeng-Denteh, Fred Asante-Mensa
      Pages: 171 - 174
      Abstract: Algebraic topology has grown over the last decades. This paper presents the essentials of topological spaces, continuous functions and homotopy. The human heart is assumed to be topologically equivalent to the one-sphere. When the human heart undergoes a stimulus, the time in the beat cycle is mapped to the time it recovers from the stimulus. This work concluded with the computation of the stereographic projection and its applications.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Groundwater exploration using 2D resistivity imaging within Abuja
           Municipal Area Council, Nigeria

    • Authors: Grace Ozioma Ezeamaka, Abu Mallam, Abel Uyimwen Osagie
      Pages: 175 - 179
      Abstract: The fast-growing population of Abuja, Nigeria has over-stretched the public water supply capacity of the city. Like in many expensive cities, people live mostly in a conurbation of towns within Abuja metropolitan area (like the Kurudu area) where the public water supply is inadequate.  The inhabitants are compelled to explore other sources of water for survival. Groundwater is a readily available source and its exploration becomes a necessity. In this research, a two-dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity imaging survey technique is carried out within the Kurudu area of the Abuja Municipal Area Council in Nigeria. The ABEM terrameter (SAS 1000) with Schlumberger configuration is used to acquire resistivity data from eleven profiles. The RES2DINV is used to interpret the data and to model the subsurface. Three geoelectric layers with varying resistivities are identified beneath the study area. The top layer (top soil) has resistivity range of 5 - 3500 Ohm meters (Ωm) with thickness of 1.5 - 2.55 meters (m). The second layer comprises of the weathered/fractured basement with depths of 1.5 - 15.8 m and ranges in resistivity values between 1 Ωm and 3000 Ωm. The bedrock which makes the third layer at depths of 10 - 15.8 m has resistivity range of 300 Ωm to 3500 Ωm. The result of the inverse resistivity model suggests the presence of an eleven-meter aquifer in the western flank of the study area. The average depth of the subsurface is about 15 meters.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Distributional ecology of Sclerophrys maculata (Northern Flat-Backed Toad)
           and Ptychadena mascareniensis (Mascarene Grass Frog) on the Liberian
           Refugee Camp, Ijebu- Oru, Nigeria

    • Authors: A.B. Onadeko, S.O. Ogoanah
      Pages: 180 - 185
      Abstract: Sclerophrys maculata (toad) and Ptychadena mascareniensis (frog) are widely distributed anuran genera across West Africa to even other regions of Africa. Their distributional ecology and comparative abundance were studied on the Liberian refugee camp in Ijebu-Oru, Ogun State. Applying the visual encounter survey (VES) and acoustical encounter survey (AES) sampling methods, both genera were searched for opportunistically in the study area that was delimitated into four sub study sites (SSA, SSB, SSC  and SSD). The highest number of individuals of both S. maculata and P. mascareniensis were observed in SSB during the dry season while the least observed in SSD. In the wet season, the highest number observed was in SSC while the least in SSD. During the dry season, there was a mean adult population of thirty-two (32) Sclerophrys sp while that of Ptychadena sp was 9.5 which was significantly different (P< 0.05). However during the wet season, greater number of adult Ptychadena sp (76.6) was observed than the Sclerophrys sp (65.4), but not significantly different (P> 0.05). During the wet season, the greatest mean number of adult individuals for Sclerophrys sp (29.9) and Ptychadena sp (31.5) were recorded at site SSC. The lowest; Sclerophrys sp (6.6) and Ptychadena sp (6.5) were recorded at site SSD. During the dry season, the greatest mean number for Seclerophrys sp (11.5) and Ptychadena sp (4.1) were recorded at site SSB and the lowest; Sclerophrys sp (4.4) and Ptychadena sp (1.4) were recorded at site SSD. Higher mean numbers of Sclerophrys sp were recorded within the first ten meters compare to the Ptychadena sp while further towards the swamp (21-30m), greater mean number of Ptychadena sp was observed compared to Sclerophrys sp. Ptychadena sp with its soft moist skin finds it more suitable not dwelling in vicinities far away from aquatic sources of water. Therefore evolutionarily speaking, the development of tough warty skin by the toads have conferred on them better adaptation for terrestrial existence as compared to the frogs that is still relying more on very moist and aquatic environments for their optimal existence.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
  • Effect of electric field flow on nanofluid over stretchable surface

    • Authors: Yahaya Shagaiya Daniel, Aliyu Usman, Umaru Haruna
      Pages: 186 - 190
      Abstract: This work explores numerically the influence of the electric field on nanofluid over a stretching sheet surface. The ordinary differential equation (ODE’s) are obtained from the partial differential equations (PDE’s) employing the transformation technique. Hence the transformed model are computed with the respective conditions using Keller Box method. The functions of the different parameter values on the flow field profiles are graphically presented and analysed. The current result is in good agreement with previous research studied. 
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2022)
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