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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 201 - 265 of 265 Journals sorted by number of followers
Revista Científica de la Universidad Nacional del Este     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Orbis Cógnita : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Research Policy : X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
MUST : Journal of Mathematics Education, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Indian Institute of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Patterns     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
People and Nature     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Uluslararası Bilimsel Araştırmalar Dergisi (IBAD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Vivências em Ensino de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientonomy : Journal for the Science of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Saber Digital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
BJHS Themes     Open Access  
South American Sciences     Open Access  
Middle European Scientific Bulletin     Open Access  
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access  
Research Integrity and Peer Review     Open Access  
Natural Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal  
RAC: Revista Angolana de Ciências     Open Access  
The Innovation     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access  
Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Revista de la Sociedad Científica del Paraguay     Open Access  
Rekayasa     Open Access  
Rihan Journal for Scientific Publishing     Open Access  
Türk Bilim ve Mühendislik Dergisi     Open Access  
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
Vilnius University Proceedings     Open Access  
Sciential     Open Access  
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access  
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access  
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access  
Rafidain Journal of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access  
Revista Tecnológica     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access  
Universidad, Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista Politécnica     Open Access  
Reportes Científicos de la FaCEN     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Terapan Universitas Jambi : JIITUJ     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica Ludus Scientiae     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access  
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
Advances in Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Revista Binacional Brasil - Argentina: Diálogo entre as ciências     Open Access  
Revista Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
WikiJournal of Science     Open Access  
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
PENDIPA : Journal of Science Education     Open Access  
Open Conference Proceedings Journal     Open Access  
Naturen     Full-text available via subscription  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Sci     Open Access  
Maskana     Open Access  
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences     Open Access  
Facets     Open Access  
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Iniciação Científica     Open Access  
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Scientific African     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Middle East Journal of Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Technology and Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Uni-pluriversidad     Open Access  
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Bases de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
Science Heritage Journal     Open Access  
Avrasya Terim Dergisi     Open Access  
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access  
TÜBAV Bilim Dergisi     Open Access  
LOGIKA Jurnal Ilmiah Lemlit Unswagati Cirebon     Open Access  
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Respuestas     Open Access  
Science Diliman     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Revista Científica y Tecnológica UPSE     Open Access  
HardwareX     Open Access  
Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Sainstek : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Revista de Información Científica     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Jurnal Natural     Open Access  
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Revista Ciência, Tecnologia & Ambiente     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Revista Conhecimento Online     Open Access  
Nova     Open Access  
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Makara Journal of Science     Open Access  
Jurnal Sains Dasar     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Jurnal Matematika, Sains, Dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access  
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access  
The Winnower     Open Access  

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Science World Journal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1597-6343
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Influence of egg shell as heterogeneous catalyst in the production of
           biodiesel via transesterification of Jatropha oil

    • Authors: U.I. Ismail, H.U. Jamo, A. Usman, A.A. Magama, K.Y. Baban, I. Nura, S. Turaki, F.U. Musa, S.H. Gwadabe
      Pages: 191 - 195
      Abstract: The increase in energy demand together with the negative global environmental impacts of using fossil fuel for energy generations brings a question on dependability on it for sustainable economic growth. The way out is the use of renewable sources of energy such as biodiesel which has significant advantages over its counterpart (fossil fuel). Biodiesel can be produced through various methods such as transesterification, micro emulsion and pyrolysis. The influence of egg shell as heterogeneous catalysts in the production of biodiesel via transesterification of Jatropha oil was investigated. The physical and chemical properties of the catalyst were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Xray fluoroscopy (XRF) characterizations. The crude Jatropha oil was transesterified and 0.1 wt%, 0.2 wt%, 0.3wt%, 0.5wt% and 0.5wt% of egg shell were used as heterogeneous catalyst during transesterification process. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to determine the functional group of the samples. SEM and FTIR characterizations indicate the presence of dispersed particles on the catalyst and ester (biodiesel) on the samples respectively. The maximum percentage of biodiesel yield is 94.3% at the application of 0.2wt% egg shell as catalyst using 1:6 oil to methanol ratio in 1hr at 60-65℃. This indicated that the egg shell has high potential to be used as catalyst in the production of biodiesel via transesterification of Jatropha oil.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Stagnation point flow with thermal and magnetic field over a stretching
           sheet

    • Authors: Shagaiya Daniel Yahaya , Usman Aliyu, Haruna Umaru
      Pages: 191 - 199
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to examine effects of thermal radiation and magnetic field on 2D stagnation point flow toward a stretching sheet. The governing equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by similarities transformation method and then, solved, numerically using implicit finite difference scheme. The Velocity profile increase for higher values of stagnation point parameter, opposite occurred with magnetic field. The temperature profile is an increasing function of radiative energy.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Awareness of BVN, SIM swap and clone frauds: Methods and controls

    • Authors: G.E. Ekeh, Y.I. Afolabi , E.O. Uche-Nwachi , L.K. Ekeh , E. Eze-Udu
      Pages: 200 - 206
      Abstract: Bank Verification Number (BVN), SIM swap and SIM clone fraud have become an issue of great concern in Nigeria. It has left banking and telecommunications offices trudging with complaints and many bank customers in pains. The Federal Government and the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) introduced the BVN to prevent corruption, provide a transparent system of payment and effective account monitoring, and to uniquely identify bank customers in order to eliminate any incidence of fraud. Even as banks unilaterally implement this measure, fraudsters are continually devising means of defrauding bank customers of their possessions and evade detection. In this paper, the authors created an awareness on how bank customers are deceived into disclosing their financial details, the methods used in obtaining data for SIM swap and SIM clone, and to sensitize the public on how to prevent unauthorized access to their treasured details.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of temperature and pressure surge distribution for single phase
           gas flow during wellbore shut-in and start-up

    • Authors: Jibrin H. Mbaya, Ibrahim Mustapha
      Pages: 207 - 213
      Abstract: Analysis of temperature and pressure surge distribution for single phase gas flow during wellbore start-up and shut-in is a complex phenomenon for gas producing industries. Its occurrence forced the flowing gas to stop abruptly creating a pressure surge and high temperature within the wellbore system. This situation has to be studied for proper characterization, and protection of the producing wells from damage and premature closure. Many authors studies this phenomena in order to have a permanent solution but yet the problem still remain due to differences in environment. In this work, a one-dimensional transient governing equation based on depth and time dependent for start-up and shut-in has been developed. It is solved by finite difference scheme of Steger Warming Flux Vector Splitting Method (FSM). The method is fully transient and unconditionally stable. Surge pressure were analysed and wellbore temperature is predicted using the unsteady state heat transfer model. The results shows that if shut-in time is short, the sound wave propagation speed is faster than that of its longer time period. The result of this work provides a technical reliance to gas producing industries and can serve as guidance in field operations to avoid gas leakages or wellbore damage.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Poiseuille flow of an arrheniusly reactive power law fluid incorporated
           within parallel plates using regular perturbation method and direct
           integration

    • Authors: Aliyu Ibrahim, Zainab A. Ishaq , Maimuna A. Ishaq
      Pages: 214 - 220
      Abstract: This paper presents an approximate analytical solution capable of analyzing the velocity, temperature and concentration distribution in the  poiseuille flow of an arrheniusly reactive power law fluid incorporated within parallel plates. The equations governing the phenomenon are solved  analytically using regular perturbation  method and direct integration, to show the influence of the parameter involved on the system. The effect of  change in parameters such as the power law index, the pressure gradient coefficient, the viscous heating parameter, the Arrhenius chemical  reaction rate and the Frank-Kamenetskii number are presented graphically and discussed. The result obtained revealed that the power law index, the pressure gradient coefficient, the viscous heating parameter, the Frank-Kamenetskii number and the Arrhenius chemical reaction rate enhanced  the fluid flow, average   temperature and species concentration.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of concentration and spatial variation of air pollution in
           Zaria metropolis, Nigeria

    • Authors: Maiwada Jibril Ahmed, Bala Dogo, Saadatu Umaru Baba, Abdulkadir Yahaya Muhammed, Muhammad Abdulqadir
      Pages: 221 - 226
      Abstract: The emission of air pollutants has led to numerous air quality issues in cities and a major factor in this is increasing population and growth in road traffic. This study assessed concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and Sulfur dioxide (SO2) in relation to traffic density on ambient air quality in Zaria metropolis. The Gray Wolf sensing solutions with the model number (203) 402-0477 was used for monitoring the concentration of the three (3) gases at the selected motorways in Zaria metropolis, and a vehicle count was conducted in the morning, afternoon, and evening time. The results indicated that the concentration levels of CO, NO2, and SO2 detected varied in space and time. The concentration were generally high and above the National Ambient Air Quality (NAAQ) permissible limits during traffic peak periods, especially during the evening period. The level of pollutants across all the sampling points also increases with traffic volume. The study established strong statistical evidence that traffic volume influences the pollutants concentrations at all sampling points. The study recommended development of road networks and construction of modern roundabouts and bridges in Zaria Metropolis to ease traffic flow and reduce the concentration of air pollutants to acceptable limits.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Modelling the signature of human influence on vegetation dynamic in Kamuku
           National Park, Nigeria

    • Authors: Bashariya Mustapha Baba, Zaharaddeen Isa, Auwal Faruq Abdussalam, Babati Abu-Hanifa
      Pages: 234 - 247
      Abstract: The sustainable development goal (SDG 15) recognizes the necessity to investigate important biodiversity because of human disturbance. This research models the signature of human influence on vegetation dynamics in the protected area. The Vegetation Index 16-Day from MODIS was used. A novel method for computing the vegetation deficit index (standardized vegetation deficit index: SVDI) on a 3 to 24 month scale was proposed. In addition, NDVI and VCI were used to assess the vegetation condition. Time series decomposition, Mann-Kendall, coefficient of variance, landscape fragmentation matrix, correlation, and wavelet analysis were used. Key informant interviews were conducted to assess the socioeconomic and driving factors of vegetation changes. The findings revealed that across all five period scales of SVDI, and the wavelet result in the last decade, human activities have had a tremendous footprint on the vegetation dynamics. It was also revealed that because of the insecurity that happened in the area, there was vegetation regeneration (from 2015 to 2021), which was revealed in the result of vegetation indices and their spectrum. The changes in vegetation revealed by this studies were justified by the changes perceived by the communities around the national park. The community's livelihood activities were hampered because of the occurrence of insecurity in and around the national park.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • An improved half life variable quantum time with mean time slice round
           robin CPU scheduling (IMHLVQTRR)

    • Authors: Ashiru Simon, Gabriel Lazarus Dams, Salome Danjuma
      Pages: 248 - 253
      Abstract: Round Robin (RR) CPU scheduling is a scheduling technique that allocate equal time slice known as quantum time (QT) to processes wanting to use the CPU. Processes are allocated the CPU in a circular manner in such a way that if QT is greater than or equal to a process’ burst time, the process will run to completion otherwise the process will be interrupted and return to the tail of the ready queue for next round of execution. The average waiting time and turnaround time in a classical RR is higher when compared with First Come First Serve and Shortest Job First CPU scheduling algorithms. The existing technique Half Life Variable Quantum Time Round Robin (HLVQTRR) further increases the average waiting time and average turnaround time for the system. Researchers proposed a dynamic QT in order to improve the classical RR which has a static QT. In dynamic RR, there are more than one QT used for allocating time slot to processes as opposed to classical RR where a fix QT is used for the allocation. This research work is a proposal that modified HLVQTRR to be ‘An Improved Half Life Variable Quantum Time with Mean Time Slice Round Robin CPU Scheduling (ImHLVQTRR)’. In the proposed technique, two quantum time (QT1 and QT2) is calculated. QT1 is the average of all the processes in the ready queue and it is constant while QT2 is the half of each process burst and it changes depending on which process is in execution. The proposed approach was developed and simulated using python programming language. Using python programing language, the proposed approach was developed and the system was simulated and compared against the classical RR and HLVQTRR. The result showed that the proposed technique (ImHLVQTRR) minimized average waiting time, average turnaround time and number of context switching by 1292.087, 1292.089 and 27.40 time units respectively against the existing technique (HLVQTRR) and the classical RR.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Generalization of formulas for partition functions

    • Authors: M.S. Ladan, A.J. Alkali, A.T. Imam, Y. Tella
      Pages: 254 - 276
      Abstract: The idea of formulas for partition functions dates back to Cayley and Macmahon to obtain traceable power series expressions, after which several extensions were made. In this paper, further extension was provided together with a generalized method of finding formulars for some partition functions. We also relate the technical results with their graphical interpretations through a novel use of Bar Charts and Scatter diagrams. We generalized a method of finding formulas for some partition functions.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Modelling quality as a cooperative advertising coordination mechanism in a
           decentralised channel using game theory

    • Authors: Peter Emeke Ezimadu, Nicholas Oluwole Ogini
      Pages: 277 - 233
      Abstract: Considering the scarcity of cooperative advertising models on the interaction between product quality and market variables such as price, advertising effort and subsidy, this paper considers the effect of quality in cooperative advertising in a manufacturer-retailer supply channel in which the channel members engage in a Stackelberg game. The manufacturer is the channel leader, while the retailer is the follower. The research adopts the incorporation of product quality into the traditional cooperative advertising model setting through the multiplicative impact of price, advertising and product quality on demand. It considers two channel structures: an unsubsidised channel structure in which the manufacturer does not provide advertising subsidy to the retailer, and a subsidised channel structure in which the manufacturer provides advertising subsidy for retail advertising. It obtains the prices, the advertising effort, the retailer’s payoff and the manufacturer’s payoff for both channel structures. The results reveal that for both subsidised and unsubsidised advertising, increase in retail advertising and retailer’s payoff resulting from quality improvement is limited due to diminishing marginal returns. Also, quality improvement negatively affects the manufacturer’s payoff after a certain quality level. Further, it shows that quality can be substituted for subsidy, and can be used to coordinate the channel.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The anthropogenic impact of railway operation on the flora diversity on
           rail embankment in two stations, Delta State, Nigeria

    • Authors: A.H. Erhenhi , E.P. Michael, A.F. Ugboh
      Pages: 277 - 280
      Abstract: This study was carried out with the aim of anticipating the effects of anthropogenic activities on the plant species flora on railway embankment in Urhuovie-Abraka and Ujevwu-Warri train stations in Delta State, Nigeria. Quadrat sampling method using line transect was adopted for the collection of plant species along the designated embankment of the rail track. Twelve (12) plant species were encountered and documented within the designated rail track at Ujevwu train station, Warri. The species of plant encountered in the railway station cut across six (6) different families including Poaceae as the most dominant family with four (4) representative species, followed by Fabaceae which had three (3) species. Asteraceae family was represented by two (2) species while Cyperaceae, Malvaceae and Plantaginaceae families were represented by single species whereas in Urhuovie-Abraka train station, A total of ten (10) plant species were encountered which cut across five (5) different families including Asteraceae (2), Convolvulaceae (1), Fabaceae (4), Malvaceae (1) and Poaceae (2). Ujevwu-Warri rail track had more plant species (12) than that of Urhuovie-Abraka station (10). Activities around these rail tracks included open cattle grazing, emerging human communities and periodic cutting of plant species to prevent the plant species encroaching into the rail track which could hinder the smooth operation of the railway system.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effects of curing methods on quality of hot smoked fish (Sardina
           pilchardus)

    • Authors: J. Ndife, S.C. Onyeiwu, S.C. Ubbor, I.C. Ukor
      Pages: 281 - 285
      Abstract: Fish are often prone to spoilage because of its high nutrient content which supports the growth of pathogens. Processing methods could influence the quality of smoked fish. This study examined the effect of using different pretreatments on the quality of smoked sardine fish. Fish samples were cured with Brine (A), salt (B), natural spices of nutmeg (C), Clove (D) and commercial yaji (E) prior to hot smoking. The nutrient composition, chemical properties, microbial and sensory qualities were evaluated. Results of proximate composition showed a moisture range of 10.46-13.20%, ash (13.81-17.57%), fat (5.81-9.24%), protein (37.61-46.31%) and carbohydrate (17.81-29.57%). Highest potassium value (14.55 mg/100 g) was recorded in dry salted sample (B) while A had the lowest sodium (10.29 mg/100 g). All fish samples were significantly different (p<0.05) from each other in mineral content. The low pH (5.15-5.40) and TBA values (2.44-2.53 mg MDA/Kg) obtained are indication that rancidity will not easily occur during storage. Bacteria and fungi count were absent in sample B and very low in other fish samples (2.4×103 and 1.8×101 CFU/g) respectively. The fish treated with Yaji and Brine (E) was most preferred in all the sensory attributes. Curing combined with smoke drying improved the quality and acceptance of fish samples.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Ascaris lumbricoides: The risk factors and effects on growth of
           schoolchildren within Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria

    • Authors: H.G. Bishop , Z. Azeez , A.O. Ujah, S.J. Momoh , J. Barwa
      Pages: 286 - 290
      Abstract: Intestinal helminthiasis affects children’s health and physical growth. Finding the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, risk factors and effects on growth of children in Samaru, Zaria were the foci of this study. Fresh faecal samples were collected from 203 consented children in seven selected schools. Weight and height data were measured and body mass index was calculated for each child. Samples were processed by formol-ether concentration technique and examined for ova of Ascaris lumbricoides with light microscope. Data were analyzed by statistical tools. Overall prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 2.0%. The infection was absent in children from private schools, but those from public schools were significantly infected (P=0.042, OR >1). Male children were more infected (2.1%) than females (1.9%). Children below 10 years old had no ascariasis, while children of 10-11 and 12-13 years old had 2.5% and 2.9% infections respectively. Children who eat raw vegetables (OR =1.021) or work on farms (OR =2.636) were more at risk of ascariasis. No sign/symptom was associated with ascariasis. Ascaris lumbricoides was present only in children whose body weights were ≤38.0kg with significantly low body mass index of <18.50 (OR >1). Ascariasis is preventable given proper environmental sanitation, safe water and adequate sanitary facilities.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Risk factors and effects of hookworm infections on anthropometric indices
           of school children in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria

    • Authors: H.G. Bishop, Z. Azeez, S.J. Momoh , B. Abdullahi , A.O. Ujah, J. Barwa, A.R. Babalola,
      Pages: 291 - 294
      Abstract: Rural communities in Nigeria suffer a great deal of parasitic infections. The effect is severe on children. Parasitic infections affect the health of schoolchildren by causing malnutrition, anaemia, reduced cognitive ability and poor performance in school. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of hookworm infections, associated risk factors and their effects on anthropometric indices of schoolchildren in Samaru, Zaria. Children across public and private schools were enlightened about the disease. Fresh morning faecal samples were collected from each of 203 consented pupils. The samples were examined for hookworm eggs by formol-ether concentration technique. Prevalence of hookworms was 4.9%. Children in four out of seven schools were found with hookworm infections (P=0.000). Children from public schools were significantly more infected with hookworms (7.9%, P=0.050) than those in the private schools. Male schoolchildren had higher hookworm infections (5.8%) than the females (4.7%, P>0.05). The youngest children of age 6-7 years old were the most infected (9.1%); followed by those of 10-11 years old who had 5.8% infections. Children who walked barefooted (6.5%), consumed raw vegetables (5.1%) or engaged in farming (5.3%) were more infected with hookworms than those who did not, but the relationship was not significant (P>0.00). Only fever (3.0%) was found among infected children (P=0.582), other symptoms did not occur among those infected with the hookworms. Children with weight of 39-48kg had the highest infection of 8.0%. Weight, height and BMI were not statistically associated with hookworm infections among the children. However, most of the children (87.2%) had underweight BMI.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Gum exudates of Acacia senegal linn is an alternative binding agent in
           Drosophila melanogaster culture for laboratory maintenance of stocks

    • Authors: Zainab Kasim Mohammed, Mohammed Sani Jaafaru, Jibril Ibrahim, Aisha S. Usman, Ali Jafaru, Rabiat Idrees Abubakar
      Pages: 294 - 302
      Abstract: The gum exudates of Acacia senegal Linn was utilized as a single agent or in combination with agar-agar in the formulation of Drosophila diet. Eight (8) corn-meal diets were formulated in two sets consisting of 15 – 40 % (w/w) A. senegal as a single binding agent or a mixture of A. senegal in the ratios of 1:5, 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 to agar-agar per 100 g corn-meal diet. Biochemical markers of toxicity were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Standard methods of AOAC were employed to determine the physicochemical and proximate compositions of the formulated corn-meal diets. The results from this study showed high level of safety of the gum on adult Drosophila melanogaster (Harwich strain) of both sexes and of the same lineage. LC50 > 100 mg/g with insignificant mortality in all groups at varying concentration (1 – 100 mg/g) of the gum exudate was observed after 7 days of treatment. Significant increases in eclosion in the A. senegal – exposed flies at concentrations of 2, 4 and 5 mg/g diet was also observed after the treatment. A normal trend in locomotor activity was observed in all groups when flies were subjected to negative geotaxic assay, however, at concentrations of 50 mg/g there was an impairment in locomotion. The formulated A. Senegal containing diets have shown varying differences in physicochemical properties, even though no significant changes in the biochemical parameters including SOD1, Catalase and GST in all groups were seen. The collective findings of the present study revealed that the gum exudates of A. senegal L. may be a cost-effective alternative of agar-agar in corn-meal diet for laboratory maintenance of Drosophila melanogaster stocks.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • An investigation into homotopy of continuous functions

    • Authors: William Obeng-Denteh, Nicholas Tetteh Ofoe
      Pages: 303 - 307
      Abstract: A homotopy is a continuous one-parameter family of continuous functions. This enquiry sought to find out how the various forms ranging from paths, inverses, reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity and other instances could be given in descriptive survey.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Stimulated bioremediation of soil contaminated with spent engine oil using
           organic wastes

    • Authors: R.G. Muhammad , J.N. Mohammed, I.L. Muhammad , A. Hamzat
      Pages: 308 - 314
      Abstract: In this study, the role of some organic wastes in stimulating the removal of petroleum hydrocarbon from contaminated soil was assessed. The concentration of hydrocarbon in soil before, during and after bioremediation and volume of carbon dioxide released from soil were investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with chicken droppings (CD), cow dung (CDU), and rice husk (RH) for sixty (60) days under laboratory conditions. The soil was mixed thoroughly every ten (10) days to enhance aeration, and 60% water holding capacity (WHC) of the soil was maintained to supply bacteria with adequate moisture. The initial pH value of soil was 4.7, while CD, CDU and RH had values of 6.9, 7.1 and 7.6 respectively. Water holding capacity (WHC) of contaminated soil was 15%, CD showed 31%, CDU (43%) while RH had 40.7%.The percentage of nitrogen in soil was very low (0.92%) compared to Organic carbon (10.5%), and Phosphorous (19.2mg/kg).CD showed the highest value of nitrogen (2.4%) and phosphorous (17.6mg/kg) followed by CDU with 1.7%;17.1mg/kg and 0.89%;15.21mg/kg in RH. Highest concentration of organic carbon (11.4%) was recorded in RH; CDU had 10.9% while CD was with 10.1%. Concentration of spent engine oil in soil before bioremediation was 7.525mg/g. The initial count of Hydrocarbon degrading Bacteria (HDB) in contaminated soil was 5.7x105CFU/g, and species of HDB isolated from soil were Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Flavobacterium, and Pseudomonas. Total petroleum hydrocarbon in soil amended with CD was reduced by 86.7%, CDU and RH treated soils showed 80.05% and 66.75% reduction respectively, while untreated soil recorded lowest reduction (46.8%) at the end of 60days period. Largest volume of carbon dioxide was evolved from soil amended with CD (15.77cm-3).Soil treated with CDU produced 14.02cm-3, and RH soil had 11.72cm-3. Lowest volume (3.78cm-3) of carbon dioxide was produced from untreated soil. This result demonstrated that these organic wastes could stimulate biodegradation of spent engine oil in the order CD>CDU>RH.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Development and comparative evaluation of juices from selected functional
           ingredients

    • Authors: J. Ndife , S.C. Onyeiwu, S.C. Ubbor, I.C. Ukor
      Pages: 315 - 320
      Abstract: Immune boosting foods will ensure protection from diseases by reducing risk of infection and ensuring fast healing. The research was aimed at development and comparative evaluation of juices from extracts of functional ingredients. Samples were labeled according to preponderant ingredient as GG (ginger), GL (garlic), TM (turmeric) and LM (lemon). Sample AC with equal amount of ingredients served as control. The juices were subjected to biochemical, antioxidant and sensory evaluation. The result showed physicochemical properties differed significantly (p<0.05) among the juices. LM had the lowest pH (3.30) while GL had the highest (3.70). Vitamin A was lowest in LM (6.25 μg/100 mL) followed by AC (7.85 μg/100 mL). Vitamin B-complex ranged from 0.78 to 1.08 mg/100 mL for vitamin B1, 0.65-0.93 (B2), and 2.61-3.45 mg/100 mL in B3. The juices were high in antioxidant activities from the TPC (48.71-60.45 mgGAE/100 mL), DPPH (53.70-63.32%) and FRAP (51.80-65.30%) values. The flavonoids (6.15-10.85 μg/mL) were higher than tannins (4.34-9.56 μg/mL) and alkaloids (3.03-4.94 μg/mL) in the juices. Bacteria counts in the juices were low (1.1-1.5×102 CFU/100 mL) and no coliform and fungi growth were observed. There was positive response (6.90-7.75) in the sensory perception of the juices. The juices have high phyto-nutrients and antioxidant potentials necessary for boosting body immunity that need to be optimized for specific health use.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Studies on the physicochemical characteristics and bioremediation
           potentials of surface water and effluent in Kaduna refinery environment

    • Authors: S.C. Onyeiwu , V.J. Umoh , J.B. Ameh
      Pages: 321 - 326
      Abstract: Petroleum operations are potential sources of environmental pollution capable of contaminating rivers which pass through the industrial areas and consequently affect human health. Hence there is need for bioremediation interventions. The aim of this study was to provide data on the physical and chemical characteristics of surface water and effluent in the study area which could be used for bioremediation strategy in the area. Surface water and effluent samples were analysed for physicochemical parameters using standard methods. The surface water and effluent were acidic. Temperature was found to be within the range favourable for bioremediation. The dissolved oxygen (DO) is not limiting for bioremediation. Electrical conductivity and chloride were high. Low levels of nitrate nitrogen (0.30 – 2.42mg/L) observed are limiting for bioremediation. The effluent and Romi River downstream had BOD greater than the allowable limit (10mg/L). Biostimulation is recommended as bioremediation strategy in the site.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Screening of fungi isolated from Kaduna refinery area for petroleum
           hydrocarbon bioremediation potentials

    • Authors: S.C. Onyeiwu, V.J. Umoh , J.B. Ameh
      Pages: 327 - 331
      Abstract: Bioremediation relies upon microbial enzymatic activities to degrade the offending contaminants. The aim of this study was to isolate and screen fungi from a Petroleum refinery environment for oxidase enzyme. Soil, effluent, surface water, sediment and ground water samples were analysed for hydrocarbon utilizing fungi (HUF). The HUF were isolated by the standard plate count method and the hydrocarbon vapour phase transfer technique. Oxidase enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically with acetaldehyde as substrate. Sixty fungi were isolated. Out of the 60 fungal isolates 52 (87%) were positive for oxidase enzyme. The colonial and microscopic characteristics indicated that the probable fungi from the sites were Penicillium, Fusarium, Aspergillus flavus Monilia, Cephalosporium, Verticillium, Phytophora, and yeast. Penicillium and Fusarium were the dominant fungi. The results of the oxidase enzyme activity indicated that majority of fungi in the study site possessed the ability to transform or degrade, contaminants.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Wastewater quality and unhygienic practices in Minna Abattoir, North
           Central Nigeria

    • Authors: U.J.J. Ijah, I.O. Musa, F. Amao, A.M. Maude, M.O. Victor-Ekwebelem
      Pages: 332 - 337
      Abstract: Wastewater collected from Minna abattoir was analyzed for its microbiological and physicochemical properties using standard methods. The results revealed that the wastewater harboured aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (1.1 x 108 - 4.6 x 108cfu/ml), coliforms (6.3 x 105 – 3.9 x 106cfu/ml), Salmonella species (1.8 x 103 – 2.1 x 104cfu/ml), and fungi (1.4 x 104 – 4.0 x 104cfu/ml). The microorganisms were identified as species of Bacillus, Streptococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Mucor, Aspergillus, and Penicillium. Escherichia coli was more consistently isolated and constituted 23.23% of the total bacterial isolates while Aspergillus flavus had the highest frequency of occurrence (28.86%) among the fungal isolates. Ova of parasites Taenia saginata, Ascaris sp., and hookworm as well as cysts of Giardia ovis were also detected in the wastewater. The wastewater had a pH of 6.03-7.60, suspended solids (8.76-3960 mg/L), ammonia (760-1140mg/L), COD (81555-8200mg/L), BOD (28-836mg/L) and sulphide (1315.2-2333.6mg/L). These values, with the exception of pH are higher than the permissible limits set by the Federal Ministry of Environment (Nigeria). The sanitary condition of Minna abattoir was poor due to indiscriminate dumping of solid wastes, discharge of untreated wastewater, and poor handling and transportation of meat to sales points. The abattoir lacked necessary gadgets for its operations. Besides, there was no potable water supply in the abattoir and therefore, it depended on commercial water vendors for its water supply. The unhygienic conditions of the abattoir and discharge of untreated wastewater into the environment posed serious threats to the environment and human health. There is the need to provide facilities in the abattoir and enlighten the users on the implications of unhygienic practices in the abattoir.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Modified Frechet distributions and their generalized families

    • Authors: Ifeyinwa V. Omekam, Olakitan I. Adeniyi, Adebowale O. Adejumo
      Pages: 338 - 245
      Abstract: The Frechet distribution is used for modeling extreme events. There are different approaches to developing statistical distributions which include  the use of translation methods, system of differential equations, quantile methods among others. Existing statistical distributions are also modified  or generalized to accommodate other different types of data and improve goodness of fit to data. Addition of extra parameter(s) is one approach  used for generalizing existing distributions such that the base distributions are embedded in the new generalized distributions. Some methods of  parameter induction were used to obtained families of generalized distributions. Parameter(s) were also introduced into the probability  distributions of the Frechet distribution to derive functions of its modified versions belonging to each of the generalized families derived. Further  study is recommended on some of the modified Frechet distributions and their generalized families.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Application of electrical resistivity tomography to investigating
           geological causes of road failure in Taraba State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Weltime O. Medjor, Kanu Maxwell Obia, Simon Solomon
      Pages: 346 - 355
      Abstract: The adverse effect of road failure in many parts of Nigeria has led to intense research on the possible causes of the persistent widespread road failures. In contribution to these investigations, a study was conducted in some failed portions of the Jalingo – Zing roads, located in Taraba State, Nigeria. The main purpose was to investigate the cause (s) of the perennial road failures on this road. The 2D electrical resistivity method, utilizing Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) technique was adopted for the investigation. The ERT measurements were carried out on eleven profiles (two control and nine failed segments) of the roads using SSR-MP-ATS resistivity meter (IGIS, India). Results obtained revealed that the resistivity values in the top layers of all the eleven profiles were between 0 and 61.6 Ωm (i.e. < 100 Ωm). This clearly indicated the abundance of clay/shale materials on the top segments of the road, revealing the incompetence of top soils for road construction. It is recommended that the clay/shale deposits that exist below the pavement must be dug out to about four metres depth and replaced with more competent materials such as sandstone, granite and laterite before asphalt is laid. Geotechnical study is also recommended for a comprehensive result to be achieved.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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