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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted by number of followers
Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4908)
Scientific American     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 493)
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241)
Journal of the History of Ideas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 163)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 82)
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Science Advances     Free   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Scientometric Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Studies in Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Scienze Regionali : Italian Journal of Regional Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Scientific American Mind     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Royal Society Open Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Scientific Data     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
SINET : Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tanzania Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Східно-Європейський журнал передових технологій : Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nordic Studies in Science Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Ghana Science Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science & Diplomacy     Free   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nuncius     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TECNOSCIENZA: Italian Journal of Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Springer Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rehabilitation Research, Policy, and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
OmniScience : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science Foundation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
National Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fontanus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Образование и наука     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
THEORIA : An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Heliyon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Theoria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MundoFesc     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Científica de la FAREM     Open Access  
Mutis     Open Access  
Ruhuna Journal of Science     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Revista Logos Ciencia & Tecnología     Open Access  
World Scientific Research     Open Access  
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Jurnal Udayana Mengabdi     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access  
Jurnal MIPA     Open Access  
Unnes Science Education Journal     Open Access  
Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies     Open Access  
Selforganizology     Open Access  
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Revista Catarinense da Ciência Contábil     Open Access  
Reviews in Theoretical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Temas y Debates     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Universitas (León)     Open Access  
Seminário de Iniciação Científica e Seminário Integrado de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão     Open Access  
ScienceRise     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
Open Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Revista UNIMAR     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
Revista UniVap     Open Access  
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
Sakarya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access  
Smart Science     Open Access  
Science World Journal     Open Access  
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Población y Desarrollo - Argonautas y caminantes     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
MethodsX     Open Access  
Journal of Unsolved Questions     Open Access  
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Metode & Forskningsdesign     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Sciences du jeu     Open Access  
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access  
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Scientific World     Open Access  
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access  
Uniciencia     Open Access  
SAINSTIS     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science     Open Access  
QScience Connect     Open Access  
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Trilogía     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
BIBECHANA     Open Access  
The Scientific World Journal     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Revista Sociedad y Economía     Open Access  
Revista Cientifica Guillermo de Ockham     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Universitas Scientiarum     Open Access  
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, The     Full-text available via subscription  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
UNED Research Journal / Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access  
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe     Open Access  
TD : The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Open Access  

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Science World Journal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1597-6343
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [260 journals]
  • Heart failure prediction framework using random forest and J48 with
           Adaboost algorithms

    • Authors: Ochim Gold, Agaji Iorshase
      Pages: 165 - 175
      Abstract: Heart failure is a very serious condition in health sector globally. It has proven difficult and expensive to manage over the years even with some pre-existing prediction models that signal its occurrence. The predictive accuracies of the existing models are below impressive hence the need for better heart failure predictive models. This work developed two heart failure predictive models to contribute to the decrease in the mortality rate due to heart failure as well as assist patients and physicians in managing the condition. The models were Random Forest(RF) and J48 model with AdaBoost. The dataset for the work was collected from the Cleveland Hospital database. It has 13 attributes and 303 instances. The dataset was preprocessed before use and was converted to the CSV format usable in the Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) software. The Agile Unified Process (AUP) methodology was adopted in this work the simulator for the work. The Simulator (web-based) was implemented using Python programming language and the Streamlit for python. The result of the models showed a 92.3% accuracy in prediction for the AdaBoosted J48 model and 89.2% for the Random Forest model. The results indicated that J48 with AdaBoost outperformed RF.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.1
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Evaluation of effects of wastewater on socio-economic activities of
           residents in Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Simon Stephen Mshelia, Arhyel Yusuf Mbaya, Lawan Bulama
      Pages: 176 - 183
      Abstract: The paper assessed the effects of wastewater on socio-economic activities of residents in Kano metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria. High population, poor drainage channels and lack of central wastewater sewerage and functional treatment plants have necessitated indiscriminate discharge of wastewater into the environment. Using Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table for determining sample size, a total of 384 population size was sampled and purposefully, systematically and randomly administered questionnaires in Likert Scale Format. Interviews were also conducted with stakeholders and community elders and direct filed observation for elucidation of the socioeconomic effects of wastewater. Results were presented in tables and charts and further expressed in strength of associations using Spearman rho statistics analysis. Findings show that 89.75% of respondents are of the view that wastewater from households and commercial areas is let loose into the environment and affects land-use as well as domestic activities. It also shows that 88.5% reported that wastewater affects the means of livelihood of residents and 92.19% opined that economic cost of construction of drainage channels, embankment and sandbags while 92.5% strongly and agreed that wastewater affects the health of the residents and causes different kinds of diseases. The study further shows that wastewater has effect on businesses and recreations while making some places inaccesible and affectng their economic activities. The study therefore recommends public enlightenment, strong legislations and enforcement of principle of polluter pays, attitudinal change and population decongestion, centralized sewerages system should be implemented among others should strictly be adhered to harness to encourage socio-economic activities.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.2
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Factors and determinants of housing choices in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

    • Authors: Y. Saleh , A.A. Dabo, A.S. Tanko
      Pages: 184 - 188
      Abstract: The study examined the factors and determinants of housing choices in Kaduna metropolis. Respondents were selected using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive techniques. Also, data for the research adopt the use of Key Informant Interview (KII), questionnaire and field observation. The result shows the various types of houses that includes 3 Bedrooms Detached (66.7%), 2 Bedroom Detached (11.4%), 3 Bedrooms Semi Detached (9.8%) as types of housing residence. Also, the findings revealed that aluminum roofing was the major roofing material used for the houses (48%). In addition, the major sources of water supply in the study area were borehole (72.4%). Also, the distance from house to school shows that half of the respondents covered almost less than 10km. The studies revealed that MPH estate was the major housing private partnership provider with 33.3% and preferred choice followed by Tripple A, while the Tapiddac was the least private partnership provider. Despite the preferences of private partnership providers, the respondent preferred affordability of houses (43.1%) rather than housing quality (29.3%), security (15.4) and housing accessibility (12.2%) was the lowest reason for the choice of houses. The result also revealed that too much bureaucratic process as one of the major challenges during acquiring of a house unit followed by a long waiting period. Also, the findings revealed that beneficiary must be an active civil servant with monthly salary or a registered business to serve as one of the criteria to be fulfilled before he/she can own a house.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • The use of Acalypha Wilkesiana plant for phytoremediation of heavy
           metals from landfill soil

    • Authors: Naseer Inuwa Durumin Iya, Binta Hadi Jume, Zaini Assim
      Pages: 189 - 196
      Abstract: The effective elimination of heavy metals from a polluted environment is of utmost significance, particularly in cases where soil contamination is induced by the discharge of landfill leachate. The contamination of landfill soil with heavy metals has been one of the major concerns for decades. Therefore, identifying potential plants for phytoremediation of landfill soil is unavoidable. This research aimed to analyze soil of an abandoned landfill from Matang Malaysia and to conduct phytoremediation of landfill metal-contaminated soil using the Acalypha wilkesiana plant. Analyses shows that Cd, Pb, Cu, As, Mn, Ni, and Cr were higher than the Environmental Quality Standard of Malaysia. While Zn was found less than the standard, Fe was not detected by the plant. The removal of heavy metal by A. wilkesiana was higher compared to unexposed plants. The highest removal occurred on Mn, Cr, Cu, and Ni with concentrations 10.93, 1.50, 1.30, and 1.10 mg/kg, respectively, which was achieved in 6 months harvesting period. The results also revealed that the bio-concentration and translocation factors of Cu, Cd, Ni, and As were above 1, which means the plant has the ability to accumulate and transfer metals to the shoot of the plant. The plant has the capability to be used in the phytoremediation of heavy metals from landfill soil.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.4
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Subsurface investigation for groundwater potential of biu plateau basalt
           north eastern Nigeria, using vertical electrical sounding

    • Authors: S. Bello
      Pages: 197 - 203
      Abstract: Groundwater is a very important component of water resources in nature. Since the demand of groundwater increases with population growth, it is necessary to explore groundwater more intensively. The importance of groundwater cannot be overemphasized. For this reason, the exploration for water is therefore a vital aspect of Geophysics. The resistivity method of surveying was carried out for the study of Groundwater potential in Biu town, Borno State, Nigeria. Data were acquired using the ABEM Terrameter 300C using the Schlumberger array. The data obtained were subjected to interpretation by partial curve matching and then by computer iteration and the results correlated with records from existing wells. A total of four geologic layers namely; top soil, weathered basalt, fractured basalt and fresh basement was delineated in this study. Results showed that the aquifer is located within the second and third layers comprising mainly of weathered and fracture materials. The first aquifer is the weathered basalt with resistivity ranging from 11.5 to 106.8 Ωm and thickness ranges from 2.73 to 31.32 m. while the second aquifer is the fractured basalt with resistivity ranging from 16.5 to 372.2 Ωm with thickness from 2.9 to 11.17 m. Appropriate depths to which potable water can be obtained from the various locations varies from 21.89 m to 38.33 m are recommended in this study. While depths in VES 6 and VES 7 are 10.45 m and 14.97 m are not good for groundwater exploration.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Malware detection and classification using embedded convolutional neural
           network and long short-term memory technique

    • Authors: Theophilus Aniemeka Enem, Olalekan J. Awujoola
      Pages: 204 - 211
      Abstract: The significant growth in the use of the Internet and the rapid development of network technologies are associated with an increased risk of network attacks. As the use of encryption protocols increases, so does the challenge of identifying malware encrypted traffic also increases. Malware is a threat to people in the cyber world, as it steals personal information and harms computer systems. Network attacks refer to all types of unauthorized access to a network, including any attempts to damage and disrupt the network. This often leads to serious consequences. However, various researchers, developers and information security specialists around the globe continuously work on strategies for detecting malware. Recently, deep learning has been successfully applied to network security assessments and intrusion detection systems (IDSs) with various breakthroughs, such as using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) to classify malicious traffic. But, with the diverse nature of malware, it is difficult to extract features from it. Therefore, existing solutions require more computing resources since available resources are not efficient for datasets with large numbers of samples. Also, adopting existing feature extractors for extracting features of images consumes more resources. This paper therefore solved these problems by combining a 1D convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) to adequately detect and classify malicious encrypted traffic. This work was conducted on the malware Analysis benchmark Datasets with API Call Sequences, which contains 42,797 malwares and 1,079 goodware API call sequences. The experimental results show that our proposed system has achieved 99.2% accuracy and outperformed all other state-of-the-art models.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.6
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Assessment of heavy metal contamination in groundwater from motorized
           boreholes in Maitumbi, Tipa Garage Area, Minna, Niger State

    • Authors: S. Umar, A. Muhammad, S. Elijah
      Pages: 212 - 215
      Abstract: Discharged industrial effluent poses a significant threat to groundwater due to potential heavy metal contamination. Elevated levels of heavy metals in drinking water pose serious public health risks. This study aimed to assess the quality of drinking water from motorized boreholes in Maitumbi, Tipa Garage Area, Minna, Niger State, by measuring heavy metal concentrations using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) as the analytical tool. Water samples were collected randomly from ten (10) boreholes, and the concentrations of some environmentally common heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer of PG Instruments Ltd. (Model AA500). The results showed high concentration levels for most of the observed metals, which exceeded the permissible limits by the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Generally, the study suggests that the water samples are not safe for drinking directly and recommends some level of tertiary purification to reduce the heavy metal concentration levels to make them safe for drinking.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.7
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Integrated dual axis solar tracker using a single tracking motor

    • Authors: Percy Okae, Osman Muntaka Raji, Jude Lade
      Pages: 216 - 222
      Abstract: Solar energy is generally available in copious amounts globally and as a renewable energy resource, its importance now and in the future cannot be gainsaid. However, optimizing the rays of the sun by utilizing photovoltaic (PV) systems and aligning solar panels in a particular direction with regards to the sun’s rays always present their own challenges. Solar heating, molten salt power plants, and artificial photosynthesis are all examples of ever-evolving technologies that harness the sun's radiant light and heat for electrical energy. Solar trackers aim solar panels or modules directly at the sun. In this paper, a solar tracking system using Arduino is built. This system captures free solar energy, stores it in a battery, and then transforms it to the appropriate alternating current. It allows the energy to be used as a standalone power source in ordinary households. This system is built to adapt to its surroundings as quickly as possible. The system ensures that any software and hardware issues are minimized or wholly removed. Our system is put through its paces in terms of real-time responsiveness, reliability, stability, and security. Weather, temperature, and mild mechanical stresses are all factors that our system is built to withstand. The solar tracking system is the most effective technology to improve the efficiency of solar panels by tracking and following the sun's movement. With the help of this system, solar panels can improve the way of sunlight detection so that more electricity can be collected as solar panels can maintain a sunny position. Thus, this paper discusses the development of two-axis solar-tracking development using Arduino Uno as the principal controller of the system.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.8
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Indoor radon concentration levels in some selected offices at Ibrahim
           Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria and its attendant annual
           effective dose

    • Authors: M. Bashir, I.K. Suleiman, M.T. Kolo, A. Muhammad
      Pages: 223 - 230
      Abstract: Although radon concentrations in outdoor environments are generally low, the indoor concentrations can become appreciably high thereby affecting the indoor air quality and causing some severe health challenges. Thirty (30) offices from the ground floor and first floor of some buildings within Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida (IBB) University campus, Lapai Nigeria, were randomly selected for indoor radon concentration (CRn) measurement using RAD7 continuous radon monitor. Annual effective dose was also computed to determine the level of public exposure. The results showed that radon concentration values for all the offices on the ground floor ranged between 9.6±2.7 Bqm−3 and 90.7±8.1 Bqm−3, with mean value of 28.5±4.8 Bqm−3 while the range of radon concentration at first floor was 2.5±1.4 Bqm−3 - 80.4±7.5 Bqm−3. All the measured indoor radon concentration levels were less than the 100 Bqm−3 action level proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). Average annual absorbed dose for both ground and first floors were 0.36±0.06 mSvy−1 and 0.24±0.05 mSvy−1 respectively, with corresponding mean annual effective dose of 0.86±0.15 mSvy−1 and 0.58±0.11 mSvy−1 in sequence. These values were below the 1.0 mSvy−1 safety limit set for public. Although the results did not suggest any immediate exposure threat to the public, it is important that the University staffs are adequately informed of indoor radon levels and its attendant health hazards. Improved and adequate ventilation of all the office buildings is highly encouraged in order to keep the radon levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.9
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Spectrophotometric and infra-red analyses of azo reactive dyes derived
           from 2-methyl-3-(2’- methylphenyl)-6-arylazo-4- oxoquinazoline

    • Authors: Adedeji Olumide Adeniyi, D.E.A. Boyro, Istifanus Yarkasuwa Chindo, A.A. Mahmoud
      Pages: 231 - 239
      Abstract: Ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopic techniques were used to determine the possible composition and functional groups present in a series of quinazoline based mono azo reactive dyes (DM1-5) which was prepared by coupling 2-methyl-3-(2’- methylphenyl)-6-arylazo-4-oxoquinazoline diazonium solution with five (5) cyanurated coupling components . The result of visible absorption spectra showed that the λmax obtained for each dye depends on the coupling component used and that the λmax tend to shift to the shorter wavelength (hypsochromic shift) as the auxochromes appear to have influence on the absorption peak of the dyes... The IR spectral showed all the characteristics and representative of azo reactive dyes, with characteristic band in the range of 3400 - 3309 cm-1 indicating the presence of -OH and –NH stretching vibration, 1382 - 1049 cm-1 for the presence of –C-N, 1141-1010 cm-3 for –S=0 and 925 - 56 cm-1 for the presence of - C-Cl . The azo band occurred in the region of 1458 - 1411 cm-1 which is due to stretching vibration of the -N=N- group. A strong band at 1643 - 1604 cm-1 is due to the stretching vibration of -C=O group of the quinazoline compound. However, the IR spectrum did not actually reveal the chemical structure of the reactive dyes being studied. Further studies could be conducted using GCMS and NMR spectroscopy to confirm the structure of the dyes.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • An analysis of the dynamics of land surface temperature on land use/ land
           cover in Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Sylvanus Helda Bernard, Hamza Bilal
      Pages: 240 - 253
      Abstract: The rapid urbanisation and associated land use changes have profound impacts on the local climate and environmental conditions in urban areas. This study aims to analyse the dynamics of land surface temperature (LST) and its relationship with land use/land cover (LULC) patterns in Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria. The research utilizes remote sensing data and geospatial techniques from multiple sensors, such as Landsat MSS, ETM + and OLI/TIRS, spanning a period of 38years (1984 – 2022), to processed, analysed and investigate the spatiotemporal variations in LST and their drivers. Statistical analyses, such as correlation and regression models, are employed to quantify the associations between LST and LULC variables. Findings show that urban area increased from 7% in 1984 to 32% in 2022, while bare land decreased from 82% in 1984 to 49% in 2022. Vegetation also increased slightly from 11% in 1984 to 19% in 2022. The LST increased with a mean value of 16°C in 1984, 25°C in 2003, and 30.5°C in 2022. Results still revealed a negative correlation between vegetation health and land surface temperature, indicating that as vegetation health declines, land surface temperature increases due to the lack of cooling effects from transpiration while a positive correlation exist between the built-up index and land surface temperature, signifying that as urban areas expand, land surface temperature rises due to the urban heat island effect. The research emphasises the significance of implementing land use planning and management strategies to address the adverse effects of urban heat and improve the urban microclimate. The findings offer valuable guidance for policymakers, urban planners, and environmental practitioners, assisting them in making informed decisions for sustainable urban development and enhancing the residents' quality of life in Kano Metropolis.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.11
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Biogas production from poultry waste modified with sawdust

    • Authors: H. Ayedun, A.I. Adeyemo , P.O. Ayadi
      Pages: 254 - 258
      Abstract: The high demand for energy as a result of the increase in population and the need to keep our environments clean makes research on biogas from wastes very necessary. The study was conducted to use poultry wastes mixed with sawdust to generate gases that can be used for cooking. The poultry waste was mixed with saw dust in the ratio 4:0, 4:1, 2:1 and 1:1 over a period of 4 weeks. The gases collected were subjected to laboratory analysis using Gas Chromatography of Perkin Elmer model. Methane yields of 3.45 x 10-3m3, 3.05 x 10-3m3, 2.03 x 10-3m3 and 1.00 x 10-3m3 were generated respectively. The more saw dust added the less gas of interest produced. Analysis of residue showed concentrations of N, P, and K in the residue are 0.847 %, 0.28 %, and 2.09 % respectively which implies materials that can be incorporated in soil amendment. Removing saw dust from the environment to generate gas reduces environmental pollution caused by burning.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.12
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sample size simulation for unit root, structural break and regime shifts

    • Authors: V.A. Micheal , M.O. Adenomon , N.O. Nweze
      Pages: 259 - 266
      Abstract: Unit root test is an important means to determine the integration order of a variable which has involved different methods of testing for stationarity. Simulation method is adopted in this study to verify whether unit root, structural breaks and regime shifts exist in the sample considered. For sample sizes of 20 and 50 as small, 100 and 250 as medium, and 2500 and 5000 as large, the enhanced Dickey-Fuller test and Zivot-Andrews test were used. The experiment was conducted 5000 times for each sample size, and the results demonstrated that there is presence of unit root at level for all sample sizes taken into consideration, but they were integrated of order 1. This implies that they are stationary at first difference. The results also showed that there are structural breaks at various levels depending on sample size, but it was noted that the breaks remained stable regardless of size when the sample size was large. The MSVAR results demonstrated that regime 1 is more resilient than regime 2, and that regime 1 is projected to last longer than regime 2. As a result, we draw the conclusion that simulation can be utilized to verify a real-world situation.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Synthesis and photocatalytic degradation of an acid dye using factorial

    • Authors: Etafiemor Jacob, Umar Salami Ameuru, Abdulraheem Giwa
      Pages: 267 - 271
      Abstract: A new acid dye was synthesised from the reaction of 6-amno-2-(5-chloro-1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2yl)-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3(2H)-dione with J-acid. The synthesised dye was characterised by melting point, UV-visible absorption, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The synthesised dye was stimulated and subjected to photodegradation using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as photocatalyst in the presence of ultraviolet light in a photo reactor. The rate of degradation of the dye solution was determined on the basis of absorbance measurement. Four factors such as dye concentration, pH of the solution, time of irradiation and catalyst loading were used as the operational parameters for the photo-degradation studies. The Minitab 17 software was used to determine the optimized conditions for the experiment. The main effects and interactions between factors were investigated and results analysed. The results for the optimization parameters in the photocatalytic degradation revealed the following conditions for the percentage degradation: Maximum degradation at 67.9 % with the desirability of 0.96462, dye concentration of 10 mg/L, catalyst loading of 2 mL, with the time of irradiation of 90 minutes at pH of 3.9 for the dye. This showed that (UV/H2O2) photocatalytic degradation of acid dyes using factorial design were effective and efficient technology which can be used in treatment of tannery and textile effluents.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.14
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Effect of processing methods on the proximate and phytochemical
           constituents of Moringa Oleifera (Lamarck, 1785) leaves

    • Authors: A. Saidu , A. Abdulrahman , Z.I. Imam
      Pages: 272 - 275
      Abstract: Due to the presence of active phytochemical metabolites, Moringa oleifera a fast-growing deciduous plant provides protein, vitamins, and amino acids that enhance growth and treat illnesses. The aim of the study was to compare the proximate and phytochemical composition of Moringa oleifera leaves after air and sun drying. The leaves were sourced from Millennium City, Kaduna, Nigeria and sent to Kaduna State University's Biological Sciences Department for identification and authentication. A specimen number; KASU/BSH/754, was assigned and recorded. The leaves were divided into two groups and treated to air drying and sun drying after being cleaned in water to remove dust. The leaves were kept in a well-ventilated room at a temperature of 25±2oC for six days. Leaves were also exposed to direct sunshine for 3days. With a mortar and pestle, the treated leaves were pulverized before being analyzed for proximate and phytochemical components using standard techniques. The proximate analysis was evaluated using a method developed by the Association of Analytical Chemist. The proximate analysis of air dried leaves recorded 6.58±0.32 moisture content, 12.09±0.44 ash content, 24.5±0.62 crude protein, 8.70±0.35 crude lipid, 12.5±0.60 crude fibre and 35.7±2.45 carbohydrate. While sundried leaves produced 7.59±0.33 moisture content, 13.76±0.86 ash content, 24.4±0.13 crude protein, 8.98±0.18 crude lipid, 10.7±0.49 crude fibre and 34.6±0.65 carbohydrate. The qualitative analysis of the phytochemical constituents shows that there is high concentration of phytosterol, alkaloid and saponin, moderate concentration of flavonoid and low concentration of tannin for air dried leaves. While sundried leaves produced high concentration of only alkaloid and flavonoid. And low concentration of phytosterol, saponin and tannin. Statistical analysis shows that air drying is the most suitable method of processing Moringa oleifera leaves.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.15
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Assessment of the potentials of Azotobacter spp. as bioinoculants on the
           growth of potted maize plants

    • Authors: I.O Sule , T.O. Agbabiaka , B.K. Saliu , K.A. Ajijolakewu , R.F. Zakariyah
      Pages: 276 - 282
      Abstract: The use of chemical fertilizers in crop production has detrimental effects such as soil acidity and eutrophication. There is need for environmentally friendly approach in improving soil nutrients and agricultural productivity. This study aimed at the isolation of Azotobacter spp from the rhizosphere of crops and the use of these isolates as biofertilizer for the growth of potted maize plants under 5 treatments. These treatments were maize plant only (control), plant with once application of NPK fertilizer, plants with once, weekly and fortnights application of Azotobacter spp. as bio-inoculants. The counts of Azotobacter obtained from the rhizosphere of the crops ranged from 4.0 × 104 – 1.0 × 106 CFU/g. The three high ranking in-vitro biological nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilization isolates were identified A. chroococcum, A. vinelandii and A. beijerinckii. At the 7th weeks of growth, 83.3 and 100% of the plants that received different levels of bio-inoculants had the perimeter of their girths greater than and significantly different from the controls when cultivated in 8.1 and 12.0 litre pots respectively. At least 91.7% of the plants that received bio-inoculants had higher heights than the controls. It is concluded that the application of Azotobacter bio-inoculants enhanced the growth of maize plants compared to the contro
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.16
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sub-acute toxicity effects of Garcinia kola on serum electrolytes,
           haematological, visceral organ weights and histopathological profiles in
           Wistar rats

    • Authors: A.O. Ojatula , K.C. Ezenwa
      Pages: 283 - 289
      Abstract: This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity effects of root extract of G. kola on serum electrolyte, haematological and histological parameters of rats. Rats of both sexes were randomized into groups and orally administered daily with determined doses of G. kola extract using distilled water as a control for 21 days. On the 22nd day, all the animals were sacrificed and dissected to collect blood and selected organs. The serum and whole blood were assayed for serum electrolytes and haematological parameters respectively while selected organs were examined for their weight and histopathological lesions. The extract of G. kola did not cause significant alteration in majority of the serum electrolytes and hematological indices. However, the extract significantly elevated the mean corpuscular heamoglobin concentration. On the other hand, the extract reduced mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit (150 and 600 mg/kg), mean platelet volume (150 and 600 mg/kg) and procalcitonin (150 mg/kg). In the vital organs, there were no significant lesions observed except at the highest dose. The root extract of G. kola is relatively safe in rats when repetitively administered orally in small doses for a prolonged period of time to ensure that its use is free of toxicity to humans.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.17
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • The impact of global climate change on biodiversity and public health: A

    • Authors: T.M. Momoh-Salami , A.W Zakka , A.E. Omotayo, O.M. Buraimoh
      Pages: 290 - 295
      Abstract: Previously, pressures on the climate system are influential on the earth's surface. These are not limited to only increased superficial temperatures but also more frequent floods and droughts, including variations in normal environments such as early flowering of plants and fluctuations in the spreading of many species. The health of humans and the biodiversity of other creatures are significantly impacted by these changes. The change in climate affects both biodiversity and human health directly and indirectly through physical effects of climatic extremes (directly) and impacts on the stages of air contamination, agricultural, marine, and freshwater classifications which make available food and water, and vectors and pathogens which result in transmittable disease species. The concentration of energy-trapping gases in the atmosphere, raised by anthropogenic climate change is progressively viewed as a drive for biodiversity loss besides being a threat to the sustainability of the ecosystem and human health. Drought, fire, floods, and outbreaks of certain pests and illnesses that impact both wildlife and humans have occurred recently and are projected to grow more common in the next decades. This mini-review summarizes the connections between biodiversity (ecosystem health), human/public health, and climate change, and provides insight into recent events that have shaped the world consequent on global change in climate. It similarly discusses ways to protect the most vulnerable, as climate change is now an important and emerging danger to both public health and the ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.18
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Assessment of wildlife monitoring efforts of Kainji Lake National Park,
           Nigeria (2010 - 2019)

    • Authors: D.A. Joshua, S.M. Ayeni , H.L. Mohammed , R.O. Olatunbosun
      Pages: 296 - 300
      Abstract: Protected areas are the cornerstones of wildlife conservation efforts; hence it’s monitoring and protection is fundamental to halting biodiversity declines. This work then assess the effectiveness of wildlife monitoring efforts such as anti-poaching patrol in Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria to evaluate the level of success of protective operations for the improvement of anti-poaching programmes for sustainable wildlife management. Secondary data were sourced from the official records of anti-poaching activities including arrests and prosecutions were obtained from the management information unit of the park. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis using table, figure and graph. The results show that arrest and prosecution made for grazing of livestock and poaching were the major offences committed in the ten (10) years appraised. Highest offenders (206) were arrest and prosecuted for grazing of livestock in 2018. The year 2016 had the lowest arrested offenders in Kainji Lake National Park in the last decade (123 offenders) while 2018 had the highest with 287 offenders. The total number of arrest and prosecution made within the ten year period was 1,849. The highest revenue generated in Park in a year was ₦9,010,108.22 in 2018 while the lowest revenue generated in the last ten years was ₦6,466,223.60 in 2016. The total revenue generated in the study area from 2010 to 2019 was ₦74, 355,351.24. There appears to be relationship between arrests of offenders and revenue generation across the years (direct proportion). Evaluation of records of arrests and prosecution between 2010 and 2019 show that high number of offenders arrested and prosecuted for grazing of livestock and poaching for the period evaluated could heighten conflict in the study area. Therefore, local participation of communities surrounding the park is also important to the effectiveness of protective practices.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.19
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • PV module single–diode model, parameter extraction of polycrystalline
           and amorphous solar panel

    • Authors: Chabiya Denis Terrang, Bashiru Kayode Sodipo, Muhammad Sani Abubakar
      Pages: 301 - 307
      Abstract: Solar energy is a good option to replace the fossil driven energy market. Research is still ongoing to make solar technologies more efficient and affordable. Modeling is key in this area. Parameter extraction of PV modules enables easier simulation and accurate modeling of various PV cells/modules. The parameters are namely: (I) the photo generated current, ''''''''ℎ, (II) the reverse saturation current, '''''''', (III) ideality factor, n, (IV) the series resistance, '''''''' and (V) the shunt resistance, ''''''''ℎ. This research work extracted the equivalent circuit parameters of polycrystalline and amorphous solar panels. An 11 V polycrystalline and 6 V amorphous solar panels were illuminated with a 500 W halogen lamp to generate I-V characteristics with the aid of a data capture device. A Matlab/Simulink model was modified using the single diode equation to model the two test solar panels. The Orthogonal Distance Regression (ODR) method from the origin lab was adopted to solve the nonlinear/transcendental equation of the solar cell/module with the single diode model to determine the parameters of a polycrystalline and amorphous solar panel. The results show a variation in the parameters of the two test solar panels. The polycrystalline indicates a higher ''''''''ℎ and ''''''''ℎ with low '''''''' and n values, which result to high efficiency. The amorphous panel shows higher n and '''''''' values, which makes it have low efficiency. The polycrystalline solar panel has smaller residual sum of square (RSS) which makes it a better retrieval while the amorphous solar panel has a higher residual sum of square (RSS), the ODR method for polycrystalline was more accurate than the amorphous solar panel as observed from the validation results of the two test panels.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.20
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Assessment of ginger production value chain information needs for
           sustainable livelihood in Kachia Local Government Area, Kaduna State,

    • Authors: M.R.O. Onwunali , G.O. Oparandudu , S.I. Bamali
      Pages: 308 - 314
      Abstract: Ginger production is dominated by small holder low-income farmers, though experienced, yield remained consistently and relatively low. Hence the study investigated information needs of farmers using closed structured questionnaires, randomly but purposefully distributed to 120 farmers in Agunu, Gidan Tagwai, Gumel, Kurmin Musa, Kwaturu and Sabon Sarki wards in Kachia. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics, mathematical techniques(Confrontation indexes), correlation and regression analyses at p ≤ 0.05. Results showed that 80.83 % married male (66.67 %) within the ages of 31-40 years (46.67 %) dominated production with average farm size of 1-2 ha and farming experience of 6-7 years. Of the 14 identified information needs, six were needed with pest management (3.85), fertilizer (3.84), marketing information (3.59) and source of credit ranking high while seven were rarely needed but irrigation and water management were not needed. Evidently, ginger farming is basically on traditional technology as major source of information is from parents and friends (39.86 %) coupled with problems like irregular power (3.63), inadequate funds for digital information (3.44) and inadequate information dissemination (3.43). Positive and significant correlation and regression coefficient between demographic data and information needs (sex (R2 = 0.847), farm size (R2 = 0.728) and family size (R2 = 0.707)) indicated strong influence. Therefore, inter alia emphasis on the use of digital knowledge, women involvement, funding, functional extension services, training and retraining of farmers are imperative to improve production and livelihood of farmers.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.21
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Determination of physicochemical parameters and heavy metals content of
           water samples from domestic and Kaduna River in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna

    • Authors: J.U. Ukwenya, P.A. Vantsawa, K.B. Dikwa, T.E. Effiong, S. Bitrus, O. Bello, R. Abdullahi, J. Abdulkadir
      Pages: 315 - 319
      Abstract: Water is very essential for the survival of all living things both plants and animals depend on the availability of water. The aim of this work is to determine the physicochemical parameters and heavy metals content of water samples from domestic and Kaduna River in Kaduna metropolis. Standard method were used for physicochemical parameters and atomic absorption spectrophotometer were used for heavy metals of the water samples. The range of temperature (25.1±0.78°C and 27.6±0.21°C), pH value (6.30±0.29 and 8.46±0.06), turbidity (5.05±0.07m and 9.94±0.08m), the respective water conductivity were 5.95±0.49μS/cm and 98.0±2.82μS/cm, the TDS (4.15±0.35mg/l and 0.71±0.01mg/l), DO content recorded (1.18±0.01mg/l and 8.55±0.12mg/l), COD value were 1.08±0.11mg/l and 6.81±0.11mg/l and BOD (1.08±0.11mg/l and 6.81±0.11 mg/l) domestic and Kaduna River. In heavy metals, copper and cobalt concentrations were higher in domestic and Kaduna River water. The concentration of Zinc in domestic water (0.090±0.044ppm) was higher than that observed in Kaduna River (0.027±0.004ppm). Lead were 0.264±0.011ppm and 0.129±0.07ppm, Cadmium were 0.331±0.013ppm and 0.329±0.019ppm, respectively. The results showed that the water analyzed from domestic and Kaduna River water were within limit except chemical oxygen demand which was below, lead, cadmium and cobalt were above.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.22
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
  • Biogas production from poultry waste modified with sawdust

    • Authors: H. Ayedun , A.I. Adeyemo , P.O. Ayadi
      Pages: 320 - 324
      Abstract: The high demand for energy as a result of the increase in population and the need to keep our environments clean makes research on biogas from wastes very necessary. The study was conducted to use poultry wastes mixed with sawdust to generate gases that can be used for cooking. The poultry waste was mixed with saw dust in the ratio 4:0, 4:1, 2:1 and 1:1 over a period of 4 weeks. The gases collected were subjected to laboratory analysis using Gas Chromatography of Perkin Elmer model. Methane yields of 3.45 x 10-3m3, 3.05 x 10-3m3, 2.03 x 10-3m3 and 1.00 x 10-3m3 were generated respectively. The more saw dust added the less gas of interest produced. Analysis of residue showed concentrations of N, P, and K in the residue are 0.847 %, 0.28 %, and 2.09 % respectively which implies materials that can be incorporated in soil amendment. Removing saw dust from the environment to generate gas reduces environmental pollution caused by burning.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.4314/swj.v18i2.23
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 2 (2023)
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