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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2073-073X - ISSN (Online) 2220-184X
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [260 journals]
  • Impacts of Fines at Morupule Coal Mine, Botswana

    • Authors: Onalethata Saubi, Raymond S Suglo , Bheemalingeswara Konka
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Morupule Coal Mine (MCM) classifies fines as coal particles that are less than 3.35 mm in size. Fines are one of the problems MCM is facing and have occasionally led to penalties from some customers. This paper quantifies the fines generated in MCM from the working face to the run-of-mine stockpile and its economic and environmental impacts. Data about the wash plant's production losses were collected through an examination of missed deadlines, stoppages due to tail-end blockages, and conveyor belt breakdowns using company reports. Data on coal dust concentrations were obtained from the mine. It was found that the overall haulage system generates about 27% of the fines of the coal produced monthly. The total monetary loss per shift from production and the wash plant is BWP 418,285. Coal dust concentration underground is kept within acceptable limits due to strict engineering control measures while it exceeds the required levels on the surface and is difficult to control as it is exposed to the atmosphere. As a result, the vegetation around the mining concession is affected by coal dust.   Fine generation; Dust production; Coal degeneration; Economic impact; environmental impact.
      PubDate: 2023-05-21
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v15i1.1
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Detection of total fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc)
           isolates from maize kernels in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Hadush Tsehaye, Leif Sundheim, Arne Tronsmo, May Bente Brurberg, Dereje Assefa, Anne Marte Tronsmo
      Pages: 17 - 31
      Abstract: Fusarium verticillioides is the most common fungal pathogen of maize in Ethiopia. Many strains of this pathogen produce fumonisin myotoxins that are harmful to human and animal health. This study was conducted to determine the fumonisin-producing ability of isolates of F. verticillioides isolated from maize kernels collected from different maize- growing areas of the country. Eighty F. verticillioides isolates were grown on autoclaved maize cultures for one month, and the fumonisin content was quantified using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). All the 80 isolates evaluated were able to produce detectable levels of total fumonisins in the maize culture with values ranging from 0.25 to 38.01 mg of the toxin per kg of culture material (fungal biomass and maize kernels). The mean levels of total fumonisins produced by the F. verticillioides isolates were not significantly (p>0.05) different among maize growing areas, however, the total fumonisins levels produced by isolates obtained from the same area as well as agroecological zones were wide-ranging. The results indicate that the majority (57.5%) of the F. verticillioides isolates associated with maize grains in Ethiopia produced total fumonisins >4 mg/kg, while 35% of the isolates produced total fumonisins <2 mg/kg. The widespread occurrence of higher fumonisin-producing strains across all maize-growing areas in Ethiopia indicates a possible food safety risk. Thus, efforts should be made to prevent the spread of this fungus with good agronomic practices and to implore all possible ways to avoid maize contamination with fumonisin both in the field and in storage.
      PubDate: 2023-05-21
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v15i1.2
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Synthesis, Physicochemical, and Antimicrobial Activity of Copper and Zinc
           Complexes with N, O - Bidentate Schiff Base

    • Authors: Elias Assayehegn, Abraha Tadese, Goitom G/Yohannes, Samuel Alemayehu, Tesfamariam Teklu
      Pages: 32 - 47
      Abstract: This paper is intended to prepare new antimicrobial complexes with proven efficiency. The Schiff base, through the condensation process of salicylaldehyde and p-toludine, and its Cu and Zn complexes were successfully synthesized. The Schiff base and its complexes were characterized using molar conductivity, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. Accordingly, these characterizations not only confirmed that the synthesized Schiff base acted as N,O bidentate ligand (through azomethine nitrogen and phenoxide oxygen) and chelated with Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the metal-to-ligand ratio of 1:2 but also revealed the characteristic electronic-transition of π→π*/n→π* of the ligand, and ligand-metal charge transfer and d-d of the metal complexes. Moreover, both Cu and Zn complexes recorded weak molar conductance of 54.12 and 51.41 S cm2 mol-1, respectively. Further, their antibacterial activities were evaluated by disc diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive), Escherichia coli (gram-negative), and Bacillus cereus (gram-negative) bacteria. For all microbial, the metal complexes recorded higher activities than the parent ligand; such increased activity of the complexes may be due to the chelation of the metal ion in the complexes, which enhances the lipophylic character favoring its permeation through the lipid layer of the cell membrane. Such metal complexes can therefore be explored in the future as an option for decreasing the pathogenic potential of infecting bacteria.
      PubDate: 2023-05-21
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v15i1.3
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Willingness to Pay for Community-based Health Insurance and its Correlates
           among Households in Wukro and Setit-humera Towns, northern Ethiopia: A
           Cross-sectional Study

    • Authors: Goitom Gigar, Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs, Estifanos Gebremeskel, Atakilti Abrha, Berihu Mesfin
      Pages: 48 - 61
      Abstract: The study aimed to assess willingness to pay for community-based health insurance and its correlates among households in Wukro and Setit-humera towns, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia for the year 2016. A community-based survey was conducted in Wukro and Setit-humera towns of the Tigray region from August 30 to October 05, 2016. A total of 823 households were enrolled using a two-stage sampling. A structured, pre-tested, and interviewer-administered questionnaire was used.  Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Frequencies, mean, and median were calculated. Bivariate and multiple variable logistic regressions were fitted. Odds Ratio with 95% CI was used to see the associations between selected independent variables and the outcome variable. Willingness to pay for community-based health insurance (CBHI) in the two towns was 93.4% with a 95% CI (91.6-95.0). The median amount of money that households are willingness-to-pay (WTP) was 11.1 USD. The mean amount of money an individual household is willing to pay was significantly higher in Setit-humera than in Wukro town. Participants who knew their monthly income were two times more likely to be willing to pay for CBHI [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =2.6, 95% CI; 1.1, 8.1]; and willingness was higher among households who perceived that the cost of care is affordable in health facilities [AOR=2.6, 95% CI; 1.02, 7.1]. The study has shown a high level of willingness to pay for health insurance. Perceived affordability and knowledge of monthly income were significant factors that affect willingness to pay for community-based health insurance. Therefore, it can be operationalized in urban settings provided that the community is aware and sensitized focusing on the benefits of health insurance. Besides, the premium needs to be carefully set to consider the community’s ability to pay.
      PubDate: 2023-05-21
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v15i1.4
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • The Effect of Anethum Graveolens on Male Fertility: Systematic Review and

    • Authors: Seid Mohammed, Birhane Alem Berihu, Tekleberhan Beyene
      Pages: 62 - 77
      Abstract:   The literature survey has reported that Anethum graveolens extract is inescapably linked with fertility. Recent studies showed that the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens extract has an adverse effect on male fertility by affecting serum testosterone level, sperm concentration as well as sperm motility. However, its evidence has not been established. The present paper tries to determine the level of evidence for the effect of dill (Anethum graveolens) on male fertility. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORT Discus, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to retrieve the literature used for this review. Keywords utilized across the database search were dill, Anethum graveolens, mice, male fertility, randomized control trial, and experimental. The search was limited to studies in animals; published in the English language. Meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effect of Anethum graveolens (dill) extract administration on male fertility. The overall methodological quality of evidence was assessed using the Pedro scale. Out of 25 studies, four trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. All the studies were included in the meta-analysis. Of these, four studies were included for the analysis of sperm concentration, three studies for sperm motility, and two studies for serum testosterone hormone levels. The meta-analysis results suggested there were no significant differences between male fertility and other interventions in the effects of inducing male infertility. The number of studies regarding the current topic is scarce. The overall quality of evidence was very low. Therefore, it is difficult to conclude whether the aqueous extract of dill seed has or has no adverse effect on male fertility. Considering our meta-analysis, we recommended that there is a need for further investigation to provide adequate evidence for the effect of dill (Anethum graveolens) on male fertility.
      PubDate: 2023-05-21
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v15i1.5
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Implication of Mathematical tools to Teachers’ Method of Teaching High
           School Mathematics: The case of Mekelle Zone, Tigray, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Tsegay Tesfay, Abreha Tesfay, Tsge Bayrau
      Pages: 78 - 88
      Abstract: Education with science and mathematics as its major components determines the level of welfare of people and a nation. Nowadays, great attention is given to technological advancements and mathematics education. Hence, this paper explicitly discusses the use of mathematics laboratories and their implication for teaching mathematics, finding out the practices and impact on teaching mathematics and teachers’ frequency of using teaching aids (manipulatives) in high schools of Mekelle zone. Manipulatives are valuable aid to teachers that can be used by analyzing students’ concrete representations of mathematical concepts. In addition to this, topics like geometry and measurement are topics that are frequently taught using tools. On the contrary, solving equations, relations, and functions is rarely taught using these manipulatives. This study indicates that there is no direct correlation between teachers’ teaching experience years and the use of manipulatives in their classrooms. It is, therefore, recommended that mathematics teachers should get training and workshops on the use of teaching aids (manipulatives), useful software like (geogebra, sketchpad, and other timely used technologies) and other methods of teaching mathematics in mathematics laboratories.  
      PubDate: 2023-05-21
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v15i1.6
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Design and Analysis of Urban Land Lease Price Predicting Model Using Batch
           Gradient Descent Algorithm

    • Authors: Kifle Berhane Niguse
      Pages: 89 - 104
      Abstract: Standard and econometric models are appropriate for causal relationships and interpretations among facets of the economy. But with prediction, they tend to over-fit samples and simplify poorly to new, undetected data. This paper presents a batch gradient algorithm for predicting the rice of land with large datasets. This paper uses a batch gradient descent algorithm to minimize the cost function,  iteratively with possible combinations of the number of iterations i=1500 and learning rates, of 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 for the linear regression case and i = 100, 0.3, 0.2, and 0.1 for the multiple regression case. The paper uses Octave-4.0.3(GUI) for implementing 129 samples of the lease bid price of Mekelle City as training sets and feature inputs of two and three for linear regression and multiple regressions. Using  = 0.01, the best fitting parameters found by training the dataset are with a cost of J=67.82. The model predicts with an accuracy of 92.6% using LR and 91.15% using MLR for a 315 m2 land size. As the learning rate increases, the fitting parameters increase and decrease respectively with an equal cost but the model’s prediction error increments slowly. With multiple regression, as the learning rate lowers, the model under fits prediction drastically (with an accuracy of 60%) with gradient descent and predicts with an accuracy of 91.5% with ordinary equations. So, prediction with ordinary equations provides the best fit for multiple regressions.
      PubDate: 2023-05-21
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v15i1.7
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
  • Psychological Characteristics of Professional Soccer Players and their
           Comparison with Amateur Players

    • Authors: Murad Sultanov
      Pages: 105 - 115
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the association between personality traits and competitive anxiety among professional soccer players and amateur soccer players (n=78), whose ages ranged from 17 to 21 years.  Personality traits were defined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (translated and adapted version). Participants completed the Sport Competition Anxiety Test by Martens to assess their state of anxiety. The study revealed the dominance of sanguine and choleric temperament, corresponding to extraversion in the representatives of both groups. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.03) between the competitive anxieties of the two groups. The results of the stepwise linear regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant relationship (p ≤ 0.0001) between competitive anxiety and both psychoticism and neuroticism among professional soccer players. According to the results, psychoticism and neuroticism predict the formation of competitive anxiety in professional soccer players. In soccer, the level of competition causes personality differences by psychoticism and neuroticism, however, extraversion is the factor of pre-existing differences, which draw any players into a team sport. Coaches should spend more time on competitive games among youth players because it can help to adapt the autonomic nervous system and reduce excessive levels of anxiety.
      PubDate: 2023-05-21
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v15i1.8
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2023)
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