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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2073-073X - ISSN (Online) 2220-184X
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [260 journals]
  • Kafta-Sheraro National Park in Northwest Ethiopia: Exceptional Resource
           Values, Principal Ecosystem Components and Human-induced Threats

    • Authors: Addisu Asefa, Gebremeskel Gizaw, Teshale Atsibah, Rezenom Almaw, Abiy Getahun, Shimelis Tekletsadik, Kinfe Welay
      Pages: 1 - 29
      Abstract: Globally, protected areas such as national parks are mainly established to protect the rapidly declining populations of conservation concern wildlife species, as well as ecologically and economically important areas. In addition, more recently, establishing and maintaining protected areas has become an essential part of the global response of governments to combat climate change and its impacts. However, most of these protected areas are facing an unprecedented rate of biodiversity and ecosystem degradation due to human-induced actions. Mitigation of threats and their impacts on biodiversity in these protected areas is very critical. But limited information, needed to develop strategies for mitigation of the ever-growing threats, is available on the biophysical resources and threats to them. This paper presents for the first time, detailed information on the Exceptional Resource Values (ERVs), Principal Ecosystem Components (PECs; or conservation targets), and human-induced threats in the Kafta-Sheraro National Park (KSNP). Standard ecological and social science methods were used to collect and analyze the data. Overall, 14 key ERVs were identified in the park, including several conservation concerns and/or flagship mammal species (e.g. African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)), biome-restricted and migratory bird species (e.g., Demoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo)), three distinct habitat types, and a hydrological system. Six PECs that were assumed to represent the whole ecosystem components of the park were identified in KSNP: the three habitat types, hydrological system, Elephant, and Roan antelope (Hippotragus equines). The top human-induced threats to these PECs appeared to be fire, cultivation, grazing, settlement, poaching, and mining. In general, KSNP contains outstanding biodiversity and other natural resources that could play a vital role in the socio-economic development of local and regional communities. To ensure the long-term persistence of the ERVs and PECs and the appropriate functioning of the park ecosystems the development and implementation of threat mitigation strategies are required.
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v16i1.1
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Avian species diversity in the southern Gulf of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Dessalegn Ejigu, Belaynesh Abebaw, Ayalew Wonde , Tilahun Kefyale
      Pages: 30 - 50
      Abstract: Avian study in the southern Gulf of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, was conducted from June 2018 to April 2019 during the wet and dry seasons to explore species composition, relative abundance, and habitat association of birds. The study area was classified based on its vegetation cover and composition and thus three habitat types namely, swampy, open wetlands, and forest habitats were identified for data collection. The point count method was used to gather information about the diversity and abundance of birds. A total of 131 avian species belonging to 15 orders and 53 families were identified. The avian species recorded in the study area showed 122 and 108 species during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Black-winged love birds (Agaporinis taranta) and the Abyssinian oriole (Oriolus monachal) were endemic avian species to both Ethiopia and Eritrea recorded in the area. Moreover, two resident species; the African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) and the black kite (Milves migrans), and two Palearctic migrants; common house martin (Delichon urbicum) and yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava) were also identified in the area. The highest avian diversity was recorded in the open wetland habitat (H’=3.96), while the lowest was in the swampy habitat which is located all the way adjacent to the southern Gulf of Lake Tana (H’=3.22). The abundance score showed that 54.8% of the avian species were uncommon and there is a significant difference in the abundance of birds between the wet and dry seasons (p<0.05). Anthropogenic activities and urbanization are the main threats to birds in the area. Therefore, appropriate management actions should be designed and implemented to ensure the conservation of birds in the southern Gulf of Lake Tana and its surrounding habitats.
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v16i1.2
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Defining the reproductive period of the European pilchard (Sardina
           pilchardus Walbaum, 1792) in Saros Bay (North Aegean Sea, Turkey)

    • Authors: Özgür Cengiz, Uğur Özekinci, Alkan Öztakın
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: The European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792) is one of the main target species of commercial fishery along the Aegean coasts. This work was carried out between July 2014 and June 2015 off Saros Bay (North Aegean Sea, Turkey). The study focuses on determining the reproductive period of the species. The elevated GSI values suggested the spawning period occurred mainly between September and May with a peak in February.
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v16i1.3
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Isolation and Characterization of Pasteurella spps from Pneumonic Cases of
           Livestock in Three Regional States of Ethiopia: Evidence of Differences
           between Field and Vaccine Biotypes

    • Authors: Birhanu Hadush, Adehanom Baraki, Dessie Abera, Fufa Dawo Bari, Mussa Mohamed, Yohannes Maru, Berihun Afera, Gobena Ameni, Nesibu Awol, Getachew Gugsa, Shewit Kalayou, Habtamu Taddele Menghistu
      Pages: 60 - 75
      Abstract: Pneumonic pasteurellosis is the leading cause of recurrent morbidity and mortality in ruminant livestock in Ethiopia. Its control is mainly done using an annual vaccination with a monovalent whole broth culture of Pasteurella (P.) multocida. However, the multiplicity of the serotypes circulating in the field and the lack of cross-protective immunity hinder the effectiveness of the vaccination program warranting the development of a vaccine with better efficacy. To this effect, the identification, and characterization of the strains from different regions of the country is necessary. In this paper, Pasteurella organisms collected from camels, cattle, goats, and sheep with respiratory signs suggestive of pasteurellosis in the Afar, Tigray, and Benishangul Gumuz regional states were isolated, and characterized. From clinically pneumonic cases, 793 nasal swabs (286 goats, 276 sheep, 168 camels, and 63 cattle) were collected aseptically and cultured on Blood Agar. Bacteria pathogens were identified at the species level by biochemical tests. Culture positivity was 29.3% (243/793). The isolation frequencies of B. trehalosi, M. haemolytica, and P.multocida were 47.7% (116/243), 43.2% (105/243), and 9.1% (22/243), respectively. A higher isolation rate was observed in sheep (37.4%), and the lowest in cattle (6.2%). Mixed infection with B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica was observed in sheep, goats, and camels. Despite the higher frequencies of isolation of B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica from all host species, the vaccine currently being used in Ethiopia consists of only P. multocida biotypes A for sheep and goats and biotype B for cattle. Moreover, camels are not considered in the pasteurellosis vaccination program in the country. Therefore, the result of the study suggests the need to include B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica in the vaccine preparation as well as underlines the relevance of considering camels in the vaccination program.    
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v16i1.4
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Performance Comparison of Sorghum Varieties Treated with NP and NPSZn
           Fertilizers in the Raya Valley, Northern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Yemane G. Egziabher, Gebremeskel Gebrekorkos, Yemane Tsehaye, Kidane Giday, Dejene K. Mengistu
      Pages: 76 - 94
      Abstract: The productivity of sorghum, an important staple food crop in Ethiopia, has been constrained by environmental stresses and declining soil fertility, and addressing these constraints improves the productivity of sorghum. A field experiment was conducted in Raya Valley to evaluate the responses of eight sorghum varieties to NPSZn and NP fertilizers and to select the varieties that combine desirable traits. The field experiment was laid out in RCBD in three replications. The varieties showed significant (p<0.001) variations for phenological, agronomic, and physiological traits. Meko and Melkam were the early maturing varieties with different yielding potential. Melkam was the second highest (4808 kg ha-1) yielding variety after Dagnew. Melkam has combined desirable traits, earliness, and high yield, for production in semi-arid drought-prone areas like the Raya valley. The local sorghum varieties outperformed Meko in most traits, which shows their potential use in breeding and production systems. NPSZn and NP fertilizers did not affect the studied traits differently but differed significantly from the zero treatment. The variety × fertilizer interaction effect was significant on most traits except PW, TGW, and GY. NPSZn treatment has increased biomass yield by 18.4% and 8.6% over NP in Gombilu and Dagnew, respectively. High LA and LAI were recorded from the high-yielding varieties, Dagnew and Melkam, and vice versa for low-yielding varieties. It can be concluded that working for varietal selection could be more rewarding than switching the application of NP to NPSZn fertilizer type in the Raya Valley to enhance sorghum production and productivity. The 100 kg ha-1 NPSZn blend recommendation, however, makes a 50% fertilizer price discount. Hence, Melkam from improved and Dagnew from the local varieties had better performance and can be preferably cultivated by farming communities.
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v16i1.5
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Socio-ecological Benefit of Homegarden Agroforestry and Their Indigenous
           

    • Authors: Kasim Edo, Leul Kidane, Tadesse Beyene
      Pages: 95 - 126
      Abstract: Home gardens (HGs) are thriving traditional food systems safeguarding a rich agrobiodiversity. They supply basic needs as well as ceremonial and religious benefits to households (HHs). However, documentation of HGs in Ethiopia is inadequate and patchy. This ethnobotanical study was carried out in Digelu Tijo District Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia to identify and document plant species diversity in HGs and the associated indigenous ecological knowledge of the local people. Four kebeles were selected based on their worthy traditional HG practice and detailed indigenous knowledge of the community. From these sites, 130 respondents (HG owners) were selected based on their good HG practice and management. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, guided garden tours, group discussions, and market surveys. Data were analyzed by preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, descriptive and inferential statistics, Sørensen’s similarity index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and Pearson correlation coefficients. HG areas range from 0.04 ha to 0.25 ha with a mean of 0.12 ha. A total of 72 useful plant species were documented. Fabaceae was the most frequently observed family containing ten species, followed by Solanaceae. The plant species comprised, 33% trees, 23% shrubs, 42% herbs, and 3% climbers. Eight social use categories were identified: edible plants (26%), medicinal plants (24%), forage plants (11%), plants for construction (10%), for income generation (9%), ornamentals (8%), spices (7%) and for shading (5%). The Shannon-Wiener indices of plant diversity (H’) ranged between sites from 2.53 to 3.33. Ecological values of the HGs in the study area include maintenance of soil fertility, habitat provision to many organisms, enhancement of water quality, prevention of soil erosion, carbon sequestration, and improving soil moisture by providing shade. HGs are important for food security and restoring ecosystem services, particularly in ruined regions. The HGs are highly diversified with different plant species providing multiple uses and several ecological goods and services, but their potential is beyond this. They are threatened by various factors like lack of water, lack of access to quality seed/seedlings, disease and pests, poor access to markets, and insufficient technical support by agricultural experts. Therefore, for enhanced and integrated conservation of these rich resources and to ensure food security, joint efforts by all concerned stakeholders are required.  
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v16i1.6
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Nutrients Management and Till with Assorted Raised Seedbeds Affecting
           Pedocals Soil Traits

    • Authors: Inam Ul Haq, Dilara R Maslennikova, Mansoor Khan Khattak, Muhammad Hanif, Masood Ahmad
      Pages: 127 - 143
      Abstract: A field experiment was performed to study the effects of integrated nutrient management (INM) and soil till with assorted raised seedbeds in a wheat-maize cultivation system for two years (2019-2021) in Pedocals soil. Tillage implements were kept as the main factor; Mould board (M.B) plough + cultivator + rotavator (T2), and rotavator sole (T3) were compared with cultivator + rotavator (T1) as control treatment. The assorted raised seedbeds were kept as the second main factor; no seedbed height (P1), 0.1 m high seedbed (P2), and 0.2 m high seedbed (P3). The sub-factor was INM with four levels, including compost (C2), urea (50%) + compost (50%), blend (C3), and urea (C4) as well as control i.e., no fertilizers (C1) in RCB design. The experiment’s outcomes were: T2 resulted in lower soil bulk density (1.30-1.38 g/cm3), soil strengths (208-291 N/cm2) and higher soil moisture content (15.9%). P1 provided optimum soil strengths (239-328 N/cm2). C2 reduced the soil bulk density (1.39-1.48 g/cm3) and soil strengths (229-314 N/cm2) with the highest soil moisture content (15.94%). Deep tillage decreases soil bulk density and strength which leads to better plant growth. Compost incorporation increases the water and nutrient-holding capacity of the soil. It is concluded that M.B. plough + cultivator + rotavator as tillage implements and compost incorporation were found effective in enhancing soil environment and eco-system with an average yield of 9.1 and 4.1 T/ha of wheat and maize respectively. Enhancing soil traits, deep tillage and compost incorporation have a significant role but the effect of the dimension of the raised seed bed and its interaction with tillage and INM is not specified for optimum soil traits. Therefore, their effect should be found on soil traits. 
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v16i1.7
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Evaluation of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation Purposes and Impact of
           Irrigation on Water in Golina River Basin, Northern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Hindeya Gebru, Tesfamichael Gebreyohannes, Ermias Hagos
      Pages: 144 - 166
      Abstract: Groundwater is a natural freshwater resource and very important for multipurpose use in the Golina River basin. The determination of groundwater resource sustainability depends on the groundwater quality evaluation for specific uses. The objectives of this research work are: (1) to evaluate the groundwater quality and suitability for irrigation purposes and (2) to study the impact of irrigation activities on groundwater quality in the Golina River Basin. Alluvial deposits, basalts, granite, and rhyolite are the main stratigraphic units in the area. 34 groundwater and 3 river water samples were collected from the study area for water quality analysis purposes. Parameters of pH and EC were measured using WTW Multi 3430 and HCO3- was measured using Hach digital titrator in the field while parameters of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, PO4, and F-, were analyzed in the lab using Ion Chromatography (IC) in the Technical University of Darmstadt. Besides these, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazards (MH), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP)(Na%), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Permeability Index (PI) and Kelly´s index (KI) were calculated and interpreted. Based on the result of the analysis, the abundance of cations in groundwater in the study area is arranged as Ca > Na > Mg > K, and the anions are arranged as HCO3- > SO42- > Cl- > NO3- > PO43-. Similarly, the result also showed that the common water types in the area are Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3-. TDS, TH, EC, SAR, MH, SSP, RSC, PI and KI have respective mean values of 530.45 mg/l, 279 mg/l CaCO3, 657 µS/cm, 1.24, 48%, 26%, 0.23 meq/l, 61% and 0.57. The suitability of the dominant water points in the Golina River Basin for irrigation is moderate in terms of TDS, hard to very hard water for irrigation in terms of hardness, medium salinity for irrigation in terms of salinity hazard and low sodium hazards, suitable for irrigation in terms of magnesium hazards, good and excellent water for irrigation in terms of soluble sodium percentage, safe for irrigation in terms of residual sodium carbonate, good for irrigation in terms of the permeable index, and suitable water for irrigation in terms of Kelly ratio. Few water samples in the Golina River Basin show slight contamination of nitrate from the irrigation activities which needs special attention.
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v16i1.8
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Groundwater Chemistry, Achibo-Sombo Underground Coal Mine, Southwestern
           Ethiopia

    • Authors: Mulata Haftu Medhin, Bheemalingeswara Konka
      Pages: 167 - 184
      Abstract: Achibo-Sombo mine is the first underground coal mine in Ethiopia and is in operation for more than a decade. It is a small-scale, semi-mechanized, and mined using room and pillar method. Most of the mining operations are being carried out manually. The coal deposit is inter-trappean, sandwiched between basaltic flows. Seepage is a common problem in the mine. Its intensity varies in three openings and is being drained out by gravity. A preliminary study was conducted to assess the quality of water in the mine. Ten water samples collected randomly from three openings were analysed for major anions using standard colorimetric methods and elemental concentrations using ICP-MS. The results indicate that the concentrations for sulphur, manganese, and iron is relatively higher. The concentration of toxic elements like Cd, As, Hg, and Se is relatively low except Zn. Increased amounts of sulphate in water indicate the sulfides as the source and their chemical breakdown. The relatively higher amount of dissolved sulfur is expected to produce acid mine drainage with time.
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v16i1.9
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Antimicrobial Activities of Stem Bark and Fruit Extracts of Rhamnus
           prinoidesL’Herit against Selected Multiple Drug Resistance Human
           Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens

    • Authors: Hayelom Debalkew, Berihu Tekluu
      Pages: 185 - 203
      Abstract: Rhamnus prinoides has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. It is considered a natural product and environmentally friendly material. The objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanolic and aqueous stem bark and fruit extracts against human bacterial and fungal pathogens. The result showed that the qualitative phytochemical analysis of the stem bark of R. Prinoides revealed the presence of a maximum number of secondary metabolites. UV and FTIR analysis showed the presence of different organic constituents with functional groups of hydroxyl group, C=O, and C-O. The presence of these groups is responsible for the broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Antibacterial activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of R. prinoides (stem bark) against B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, E. coli, S. flexneri, and S. typhi, revealed inhibition zone diameter ranging from 22.17-24.67 mm and 14-28 mm, respectively at 200 µg/ml concentration, compared to a positive control Cipro (25µg) ranged from 22.67-27.80 mm. Similarly, it was reported that the methanol and aqueous extracts of R. prinoides (fruit)showed at the range of 20-22 mm and 10-16, respectively at 200 µg/ml concentration, compared to a positive control Cipro (25µg) ranged from 22.17-24.17 mm. The antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of R. prinoides (stem bark) against A. flavus and C. Albicans revealed inhibition zone ranging from 14-19 mm and 13-15 mm, respectively at 200 µg/ml concentration, compared to a positive control Nystatin ranged from 18.3-21 mm. antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of R. prinoides (stem bark) against A. flavus and C. Albicans, revealed inhibition zone ranging from 14-19 mm and 13-15 mm, respectively at 200 µg/ml concentration, compared to a positive control Nystatin ranged from 18.3-21 mm. Therefore, ethanol extract of R. prinoides have the most active antibacterial components than antifungal.  
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.4314/mejs.v16i1.10
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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